Manufacture of Goat Milk Products
Goat's Milk Hard Cheese
Heat sweet, whole goat's milk in a pan to 86 -88 F. Add one percent starter or good quality buttermilk and stir for two to three minutes. Then add rennet at the rate of twenty-five drops to each gallon of milk. The rennet must be diluted in one-half cupful of clean tap water. Stir the rennet into the milk and allow the milk to set at 86 - 88 F, until a firm curd forms, usually about thirty minutes. The curd is ready to cut when it breaks clean over a finger inserted into the curd at an angle and lifted slowly.
Cut the curd into squares vertically about one inch on a side with a long blade knife. The curd is then cut into cubes, cutting horizontally with stiff bent wire. When cutting is completed, the curd particles should be uniformly cube-shaped about one inch in size.
Slowly raise the temperature of the curd to about 98-100 F within one hour. Stir the curd very slowly at the beginning with a spatula so as not to break up the curd. During the entire heating period, stir the curd frequently enough to maintain an even temperature and to prevent the pieces of curd from sticking together. Cut, with a knife, any pieces of curd that are very large. The curd particles should be kept as uniform in size as possible in order to maintain even heating.
When the curd is firm enough, it has a tendency to stick together. At this time, pour the curd into muslin cloth or bag and form it into a ball. Allow the ball to hang until all free whey has dripped away - about two to three hours. After draining, remove the cloth from the curd ball, and place the ball on a cheese cloth folded over three or four times. Fold a long cloth, about the size of a dish towel, into a bandage about three inches wide and wrap it tightly around the ball of curd. Pin the bandacle in place. Work the cheese at the top of the ball with your hands until it is perfectly smooth with no cracks extending into the center of the cheese.
Lay a piece of wet cloth over the top of the cheese; place a flat plate over the cloth and weight the plate with a flat iron or a brick. you may find that the weight is likely to fall to one side, causing an uneven cheese. If this is so, make a simple cheese press by sandwiching the cheese between two pieces of clean board. The round wheels of cheese should not be more than six inches across, otherwise there will be a tendency for the cheese to become dry. At night turn the cheese over and replace the weight. Allow the cheese to remain in the press undisturbed until the following morning.
The next day, remove the cloths from the cheese and place in a cool place. Turn twice each day for about three days or until such time as a rind forms. After this time rub a tablespoon of salt each day for two successive days. Following salting, rub the cheeses with a small amount of clear mineral oil for two days, then rub the cheese daily until the rind is very firm. After this, it should be necessary to rub the cheese only about twice a week to prevent drying and restrict mold growth. The cheese should be ready to eat in about eight weeks time.
Goat's Milk Soft Cheese
Heat one gallon of fresh sweet goat's milk to 72 F. To this, add two tablespoons of fresh clean flavored buttermilk and two drops of one to two minutes, then allow it to set at 72 F for eighteen to twenty hours. After eighteen to twenty hours setting time, the curd is poured into a muslin bag. The bag is hung up to allow drainage of whey in a cool place. It will require about twelve to twenty-four hours for the whey to drain sufficiently, generally the lower the temperature of the cheese during draining, the shorter is the drainage time. When the weight of the cheese has been reduced to slightly less than one half the original weight of milk, drainage is considered to be complete. At this time the cheese is salted to taste. usually about two teaspoons of salt per pound of cheese is used. The salt is worked into the cheese and the cheese is then held under refrigeration.
This is a fresh milk cheese and should be eaten or used within two weeks after making. Furthermore, it must be kept under refrigeration.
Neufchatel Cream Cheese
Probably the most delectable cheese made from goat's milk is known as Neufchatel cream cheese. It is always eaten fresh. This cheese is best made by adding a tablespoonful of sour milk to a gallon of goat's milk at 72 F. One-half of a junket tablet is dissolved in 1/4 cupful of cold water and stirred thoroughly into the milk. The tablet must always be dissolved in cold water.
It is convenient to set this cheese at night. The following day, after 18 hours, the curd is pured into a bag of muslin or unbleached cotton. For draining, the curd should remain in a cool place for 24 hours. When the curd is firm, salt is added at the rate of 11/2 teaspoonfuls for each pound of cheese. The cheese is then packaged and made ready for distribution.
F. M. Coulommier
F. M. Coulommier is a semi-soft cheese made by setting a gallon of milk at 88 F with 1/2 of a junket tablet dissolved in 1 cupful of cold water. It is desirable to add 1 cupful of sour milk before adding the cup of water containing the dissolved junket tablet.
One hour after setting, the curd is dipped with a large spoon into a regular brick cheese mold obtained from any dairy-supply house. After draining for 1 hour, a follower is placed on the cheese with a two pound weight upon it (a quart Mason jar from 1/2 to 3/4 full of water is suitable). The brick cheese mild should be placed on a piece of high-grade window screen, placed on the table. This gives a desirable print on the under surface of the cheese.
After 24 hours the cheese is removed from the mold and salted by rubbing. It is rubbed again with salt the following day.
The cheeses are suitable for eating after being stored for one week at a temperature below 55 F. If yeasts develop on the cheese surface, these may be prevented or removed by washing the cheese with a weak brine.
The chief drawback to the use of goat's cream for butter is that it practically colorless and therefore the butter is not attractive. This may be overcome by the use of artificial coloring matter; several kinds are on the market. The milk should be drawn and kept under the same conditions of cleanliness that have been described for the production of cow's milk. Great care should be taken to use only clean utensils and to keep standing milk and cream protected from dust and the possibility of absorbing odors.
If a separator is not available to separate the cream from the milk, the shallow-pan method may be employed. To get the best results from the pan system, the milk should be heated to 130 F directly after it is drawn from the goat and the pan set in a room with a temperature well under 60 F, or creaming may be stimulated by keeping the milk in a deep container in a dish of cold water. The cream which has risen may be skimmed off at the end of from 24 to 36 hours.
Cream for churning should be kept cold by refrigerating at 40 F churning each day, the milk should be pasteurized. This prevents bacterial growth and the development of a rancid flavor. Immediate re-cooling is essential.
Rancidity is a bitter flavor which can be prevented only by heat treatment. It is an occasional problem with goat's milk because volumes are not sufficient to churn or make other products on a daily basis.
If starter is used, it is advantageous to pasteurize the cream before the starter is added. This may be done by bringing it to a temperature of 150 F for 30 minutes by standing the container in heated water and stirring often to maintain a uniform temperature. The cream should then be quickly cooled, and the starter added subsequently. From 1 to 3 tablespoons of starter should be enough for each quart of cream.
The soured cream is strained into a churn through cheesecloth to remove curdy particles. If butter color is used, this should be added according to the direction of the manufacturer. Enough should be added to the cream to give the butter the degree of color desired in the market served. Churning should be done at a cream temperature of about 60 F, though this may be varied to balance other conditions. A low temperature means long churning and lumpy butter, together with considerable wastage of fat in the buttermilk. Churning should start slowly and be gradually speeded up to about 40 to 50 revolutions a minute. This should be continued until the cream breaks. At this stage it is advisable to add cold water, about a quarter the volume of the cream used, as the temperature rises during churning. This produces a better grain and texture and reduces the danger of lumping. Churning should be continued slowly until the grain has been formed and rounded off. The grain should be even and about the size of wheat grains.
The churning should now be stopped and the buttermilk drained off. Wash water of about the same volume and temperature as the buttermilk (or slightly colder) is added and the churning is repeated for a few revolutions. The wash water is drained away and the washing repeated. The butter should be removed to a clean bowl, from 1/2 to 1 ounce of salt should be added for each pound of butter, and the whole should be well worked with butter ladles or with paddles. The butter should be stored in a cool place until it is wanted for use.
Goat Milk Ice Cream
(4 qt. Hand or Electric Freezer) Vanilla Flavor
* Ice cream sold to the public cannot contain flour. When making ice cream for sale, use gelatin instead of flour.
Goat Milk Fudge
2 cups sugar
2/3 cup Goat Milk
1/3 cup cocoa
2 tablespoons white Karo Syrup
2 tablespoons butter
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon vanilla
1/3 cup nuts
Cook sugar, cocoa, syrup, butter and milk to soft ball stage - 238 F. Cool slightly, heat until creamy and add vanilla and nuts.