Dairy Processing

Difficult to Manipulate Factors

June 22, 2017
The protein content of milk has become a much more important component of milk in recent years.  This reflects the rise in production of cheese, as well as the perception of consumers that milk fat, and fats in general, are unhealthful while milk protein is healthful.  Regardless of the reasons, dairy producers are paying more attention to the protein production of their dairy cows, both in pounds per day and as a proportion of milk, as both now influence the total value of the milk.

Factors that can be Manipulated

June 22, 2017
The protein content of milk has become a much more important component of milk in recent years. This reflects the rise in production of cheese, as well as the perception of consumers that milk fat, and fats in general, are unhealthful while milk protein is healthful. Regardless of the reasons, dairy producers are paying more attention to the protein production of their dairy cows, both in pounds per day and as a proportion of milk, as both now influence the total value of the milk.

Adulterated or Misbranded Milk or Milk Products

June 22, 2017

No person shall, produce, provide, sell, or offer for sale, or have in possession with intent to sell, offer, or expose any milk or milk product which is adulterated or misbranded. Any adulterated or misbranded milk or milk product may be impounded by the regulatory agency and disposed of in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.

Adulterated food is food that: 

Some HTST Definitions

June 22, 2017

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
-- The force exerted on an area by the column of air above that area. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.7 pounds per square inch.

BALANCE TANK
-- Raw product tank located at the start of a pasteurization system used to maintain a constant supply of product to the pasteurizer.

BOOSTER PUMP
-- A centrifugal pump placed in a pasteurizing system between the balance tank and the raw regenerator and capable of producing positive pressure in the raw regenerator.

Milk Flavors

June 22, 2017

Flavor in one of the most important qualities that determine the acceptability of milk. Even though milk is highly nutritious, people will not drink it if they do not like it. Hence, milk should be produced under conditions that give good flavor initially, and also be handled to protect its flavor at every step from the cow to the consumer.

Federal and State Standards for Milk Products

June 22, 2017

Grade A Raw Milk 
Temperature Cooled to 7 C(45 F) or less within two hours after milking, provided that the blend temperature after the first and subsequent milkings does not exceed 10 C(50 F).

Bacterial Limits
Individual producer milk not to exceed 100,000 per mL ( 50,000) prior to commingling with other producer milk.

Commingled
Not to exceed 300,000 (50,000) per mL as commingled milk prior to pasteurization.

Coliform/Thermoduric
Not to exceed 750/mL (California).

Cleaning and Sanitizing of Containers and Equipment

June 22, 2017

"The product contact surfaces of all multi-use containers, utensils, and equipment used in the transportation, processing, handling, and storage of milk or milk products shall be effectively cleaned and shall be sanitized before each use. Provided, that piping, equipment and containers used to process, conduct or package aseptically processed milk and milk products beyond the final heat treatment process shall be sterilized before any aseptically processed milk or milk product is packaged and shall be re-sterilized whenever any unsterile product has contaminated it."