10 Masterminds of Dairying https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history 10 Masterminds of Dairying for DRINC en Louis Pasteur https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/louis-pasteur <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Louis Pasteur</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: H.L. Russell A FULL-BEARDED man, grisly gray both as to hair and beard, with a stiff leg that at once made you think of a soldier who carried still the scars of battle, stumped his way among the desks of the young doctors and students of the famous Institute Pasteur. This was my first, vision of the great French scientist, Louis Pasteur that I had, as a student in his laboratory in Paris, nearly forty years ago. The world was then ringing with acclaim for the wonderful results that he had been securing in saving the hundreds of lives of terror-stricken people, from all parts of Europe from the dread scourge of hydrophobia. The great Institute had only been opened two or three years before by a grateful people in recognition of Pasteur&#039;s services for the benefit of mankind. This scientist, whom Sir William Osier, the world-famous English physician, designated as &quot;the most perfect man who has ever entered the kingdom of science,&quot; is known to the mass of mankind mainly for his discoveries as to the cause, of infectious disease. To the scientist, Pasteur&#039;s fame rests quite as much on his earlier brilliant discoveries in the field of fermentation and decomposition as in the realm of disease. Some of his most fundamental work was in chemical research, for he was a chemist before he was a biologist and a bacteriologist. Louis Pasteur was born December 27, 1822. He&quot; was the son of a tanner, in the town of Arbois, who had formerly been a soldier in Napoleons army. His ancestry can be traced back in a direct line another 1.50 years. His great-grandfather, Claude Etienne Pasteur, obtained freedom from serfdom in 1763. Pasteur, early in his life, showed a keen desire for an education and demonstrated his scientific turn of mind. He also proved himself a capable portrait painter, winning many prizes for his accomplishments. His education was obtained &quot;at several different schools in the vicinity of his home and in Paris. He was given the position of preparation master at the Royal College of Besancon before reaching his eighteenth birthday and from then on he was engaged in educational work almost constantly. His first great interest was that of chemistry. The study of crystals occupied his attention and in this science of crvstalloraphv he made some original discoveries while yet a very young man. His rise in the scientific and educational world was rapid. In 1848, at the age of 25, he was appointed professor of physics at Dijon and the following year professor of chemistry at Strasburg. His scientific achievements won for him election to the Legion of Honor in 1853 and in the following year lie was made Professor and Dean of the new Lille Faculty of Science. It was here that, he introduced laboratory work into the instruction of students as a supplement, to the lecture method. His advance continued and in 1857 he was appointed administrator of Ecole Normale and in December, 1862, just. before his fortieth birthday he was elected to the Academic des Sciences. The dairy interests of the world owe much to the inspiring studies of Pasteur. It was his foundation work in the realm of the &quot;infinitely little&quot; that laid the first course in the temple of fact on which the enduring success of modern dairying is built. Milk has been subject to spoilage on contact with the air since man first domesticated the cow and the goat. But why? This no one knew. So common a fact was this that, it needed no explanation. It, was so because it was so. But this explanation that, did not explain did not satisfy the young French chemist. Organic liquids of all kinds inevitably and invariably soured, fermented, spoiled. The juice of fruits generally developed alcohol and carbonic acid gas. Milk, on the other hand, soured, turned rancid, and became unfit, for use. With the aid of the microscope, the laboratory worker had found in fermenting liquids of all kinds, microscopic cells (yeasts and bacteria) that, apparently were able to multiply and grow. Pasteur had been able to detect differences between yeasts and the smaller, more elongated bacteria. By means, of a series of brilliant, experiments, he proved that fermentation was connected with life; that there was no inherent, necessity of decay or fermentative change, unless contamination gained access from outside. The great Liebig, whose renown as a leading chemist was acknowledged the world over, had rejected the idea that life had anything to do with the processes of fermentation. He believed that, ferment was readily alterable- organic substance which easily underwent decomposition, and thus set in motion additional molecules, of fermentative matter. The prestige of the older German scientist, who was then the leader of modern chemical thought, regarding the relation of plant growth to the soil, so dominated the situation that the views of the young Frenchman found few disciples who were willing to accept, them. Pasteur&#039;s contribution to the explanation of the souring of milk conclusively showed that the lactic acid fermentation was due to the acidity of certain specific bacteria. One of his early contributions was entitled, a &quot;Treatise on the Fermentation Known as Lactic.&quot; From this discovery he was led to further study of milk in that often he found other types of fermentation than those connected with normal souring. To show the keenness of his powers of observation, this interesting experience may be worth relating. Examining one day a sample of spoiled milk, lie noted that the minute organisms showed marked powers of motion when examined under the cover-glass of a. microscopy preparation. On the edge of this preparation where the opportunity for absorption of the oxygen of the air was greater, the ability of the living organisms to move seemed to be impaired. This certainly was a peculiar condition of affairs. All life demands oxygen for the continuance of its functional activity. Here, however, was a condition in which air seemed not, only unnecessary, but actually detrimental.  Nobody but a person imbued with the keenest power of observation would have been able to recognize this peculiarity. Pasteur saw at once that- here was something different from normal experience. If the oxygen of the air had this disturbing- effect, he could prove this by introducing a current, of air into the liquid and see what happened. This he did, and to his keen satisfaction the organisms that had been actively in motion lost their power of movement, and the fermentative property ceased. Here was the discovery of an entirely new principle, the fact that some types of bacteria could perform their functions better in an atmosphere devoid of free oxygen than otherwise. To this class. Pasteur gave the new term, anaerobes, organisms that are able to live without air. This peculiar fermentation proved to be the butyric acid type of change that is the cause of the rancidity of butter, an abnormal fermentation that is of much import in the dairy business.  Pasteur&#039;s studies later on the spontaneous generation of matter proved indisputably that life came from pre-existing life: that the processes of fermentation, putrefaction, and decay did not originate in and of themselves but invariably came from pre-existing microscopic forms of life. With our modern equipment and present-day notions, one wonders why such wild-eyed dreams gained credence, but it is much easier to look backward than forward; distance or difficulties do not seem half as hard as we look behind us compared with what they are when we attempt to penetrate the gloom ahead. Pasteur was a natural born doubter and it was to this quality that lie owed much of his success as a discoverer of new ideas. Writing to Pouchet about the subject, of spontaneous generation, he said, &quot;In experimental science it is always a mistake not to doubt when facts do not compel affirmation.&quot; This critical attitude enabled him to test and retest his results so his conclusions were bullet proof before they were given out.  From this field of spontaneous generation he was led to study the so called disease of wine. The vineyard industries of southern France had been imperiled thru &quot;sickness&quot; of wines that destroyed their fine aroma and flavor. &quot;Sick&quot; wine became turbid&#039;, sour, off in flavor, ruined as a beverage. To his beloved France this was a grievous blight-like the plague of Egypt.  It was easy to prevent, this trouble, by boiling the wine; but the high temperature used injured the flavor or bouquet, as it is called. Finally, in the fall of 1864, Pasteur found it, was sufficient, to heat the wine for a few minutes to a temperature of 122 degrees to 140 degrees Fahrenheit. This lower temperature fortunately did not destroy the fine aroma. But it was quite a while before this simple process was accepted by the French exporters; not until a cargo of wine had been shipped for a long journey thru the tropics did prejudice and jealousy yield to scientific progress. Some said this heating process would &quot;mummify&quot; the wine and so prevent its aging. In Austria, where the method was also quickly adopted, the process was called Pasteurization, in honor of the French bacteriologist. It was this same principle that, was later applied to the treatment, of milk to increase its keeping quality. The secret of success in the pasteurization of milk lies in the fact that the major part of the inevitable changes that, accompany souring or other fermentative changes is due to the presence of bacteria that in the rapidly growing stage are readily killed by a scalding temperature. This point, known as the thermal death point of the growing organism, is fortunately just below the temperature at which the cream line in milk is affected. Even disease bacteria, such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, typhoid, and other organisms are not able to endure the temperature of pasteurization. This method was first, applied to the treatment of milk in Europe but it was in America, that the process was commercialized and put on a practical basis. In the earlier days the process was applied primarily to the treatment of milk for infant, feeding and ailing children, but the success in this field soon led to its more general application in the treatment of city milk supplies. America has developed this. phase of the dairy business to an exceptionally high stage of perfection. Without doubt, the very wide use of fluid milk in the United States compared with other countries is due in no small measure to the feeling of security that the public have in the healthfulness of the product, both from the hygienic as well as the nutritive point, of view.  Pasteur was, first of all, a humanitarian. He dearly loved his parents, his brothers and sisters, and his family and his love extended to all his fellow-men. It was this love that prompted him to undertake his researches to relieve their physical sufferings and the hardships caused by constant economic losses. The silkworm disease was studied by him in 1865 which he later solved, and an epidemic of cholera demanded his attention the same year. His love for science was aptly illustrated when Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie, following a demonstration of his wine study, manifested surprise that&quot; he did not turn his discovery to profit. He replied, &quot;In France scientists would consider that they lowered themselves by doing so.&quot; It was Pasteur&#039;s discoveries which led others to improve surgical methods with regard to sanitation. He discovered the cause of puerperal fever in 1878, of chicken cholera in 1880, and of hydrophobia in 1881, and made important studies on yellow fever the same year. His most, famous contribution, the treatment for hydrophobia, was first applied in 1885 and within a year great contributions were received for the establishment of the Institute Pasteur, which was completed late in 1888. More than two and a half million francs, were obtained.  Another contribution which is of direct and inestimable value to the dairy industry was his discovery in 1877 of the cause of anthrax and his development four years later of the method of vaccinating for preventing this costly disease. Pasteur, unlike many early scientists, lived to see his findings accepted and to win the applause and approval of the entire civilized world. He and his work were acclaimed in every scientific group and in 1882 he was elected to the exclusive Academic Franeaise. Pasteur also experienced the pleasure, before his death on September 28, 1895, of seeing his former students and associates, building on his own work, make new discoveries for the benefit of human progress. The dairy industry owes no inconsiderable debt to the fundamental work which the great, Pasteur did to put, scientific accuracy m place of hypothesis and surmise in the development of this important, branch of science. H. L. Russell is dean of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture. He is a native of Wisconsin and hold&#039;s two degrees from the Wisconsin College of Agriculture as well as a doctor&#039;s degree from Johns Hopkins University. He has been on the faculty of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture since 1897 and has been dean since 1907. He enjoys the distinction of having been a student under Pasteur in. France. He probably deserves the credit more than. any other individual for the introduction of pasteurization into the United States. His close contact with Pasteur gives him a keen insight into the personality of this noted scientist. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: H.L. Russell" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>BY: H.L. Russell</em></p> <p><img alt="Louis Pasteur" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="e874985a-c5da-4d25-98ac-5f6263e9c0e7" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/pasteur.PNG" class="align-right" />A FULL-BEARDED man, grisly gray both as to hair and beard, with a stiff leg that at once made you think of a soldier who carried still the scars of battle, stumped his way among the desks of the young doctors and students of the famous Institute Pasteur. This was my first, vision of the great French scientist, Louis Pasteur that I had, as a student in his laboratory in Paris, nearly forty years ago.</p> <p>The world was then ringing with acclaim for the wonderful results that he had been securing in saving the hundreds of lives of terror-stricken people, from all parts of Europe from the dread scourge of hydrophobia. The great Institute had only been opened two or three years before by a grateful people in recognition of Pasteur's services for the benefit of mankind.</p> <p>This scientist, whom Sir William Osier, the world-famous English physician, designated as "the most perfect man who has ever entered the kingdom of science," is known to the mass of mankind mainly for his discoveries as to the cause, of infectious disease. To the scientist, Pasteur's fame rests quite as much on his earlier brilliant discoveries in the field of fermentation and decomposition as in the realm of disease. Some of his most fundamental work was in chemical research, for he was a chemist before he was a biologist and a bacteriologist.<br /> Louis Pasteur was born December 27, 1822. He" was the son of a tanner, in the town of Arbois, who had formerly been a soldier in Napoleons army. His ancestry can be traced back in a direct line another 1.50 years. His great-grandfather, Claude Etienne Pasteur, obtained freedom from serfdom in 1763.<br /> Pasteur, early in his life, showed a keen desire for an education and demonstrated his scientific turn of mind. He also proved himself a capable portrait painter, winning many prizes for his accomplishments. His education was obtained "at several different schools in the vicinity of his home and in Paris. He was given the position of preparation master at the Royal College of Besancon before reaching his eighteenth birthday and from then on he was engaged in educational work almost constantly.</p> <p>His first great interest was that of chemistry. The study of crystals occupied his attention and in this science of crvstalloraphv he made some original discoveries while yet a very young man. His rise in the scientific and educational world was rapid. In 1848, at the age of 25, he was appointed professor of physics at Dijon and the following year professor of chemistry at Strasburg. His scientific achievements won for him election to the Legion of Honor in 1853 and in the following year lie was made Professor and Dean of the new Lille Faculty of Science. It was here that, he introduced laboratory work into the instruction of students as a supplement, to the lecture method. His advance continued and in 1857 he was appointed administrator of Ecole Normale and in December, 1862, just. before his fortieth birthday he was elected to the Academic des Sciences.</p> <p>The dairy interests of the world owe much to the inspiring studies of Pasteur. It was his foundation work in the realm of the "infinitely little" that laid the first course in the temple of fact on which the enduring success of modern dairying is built. Milk has been subject to spoilage on contact with the air since man first domesticated the cow and the goat. But why? This no one knew. So common a fact was this that, it needed no explanation. It, was so because it was so. But this explanation that, did not explain did not satisfy the young French chemist.</p> <p>Organic liquids of all kinds inevitably and invariably soured, fermented, spoiled. The juice of fruits generally developed alcohol and carbonic acid gas. Milk, on the other hand, soured, turned rancid, and became unfit, for use. With the aid of the microscope, the laboratory worker had found in fermenting liquids of all kinds, microscopic cells (yeasts and bacteria) that, apparently were able to multiply and grow. Pasteur had been able to detect differences between yeasts and the smaller, more elongated bacteria. By means, of a series of brilliant, experiments, he proved that fermentation was connected with life; that there was no inherent, necessity of decay or fermentative change, unless contamination gained access from outside.</p> <p>The great Liebig, whose renown as a leading chemist was acknowledged the world over, had rejected the idea that life had anything to do with the processes of fermentation. He believed that, ferment was readily alterable- organic substance which easily underwent decomposition, and thus set in motion additional molecules, of fermentative matter. The prestige of the older German scientist, who was then the leader of modern chemical thought, regarding the relation of plant growth to the soil, so dominated the situation that the views of the young Frenchman found few disciples who were willing to accept, them. Pasteur's contribution to the explanation of the souring of milk conclusively showed that the lactic acid fermentation was due to the acidity of certain specific bacteria. One of his early contributions was entitled, a "Treatise on the Fermentation Known as Lactic." From this discovery he was led to further study of milk in that often he found other types of fermentation than those connected with normal souring.</p> <p>To show the keenness of his powers of observation, this interesting experience may be worth relating. Examining one day a sample of spoiled milk, lie noted that the minute organisms showed marked powers of motion when examined under the cover-glass of a. microscopy preparation. On the edge of this preparation where the opportunity for absorption of the oxygen of the air was greater, the ability of the living organisms to move seemed to be impaired. This certainly was a peculiar condition of affairs. All life demands oxygen for the continuance of its functional activity. Here, however, was a condition in which air seemed not, only unnecessary, but actually detrimental.<span> </span></p> <p>Nobody but a person imbued with the keenest power of observation would have been able to recognize this peculiarity. Pasteur saw at once that- here was something different from normal experience. If the oxygen of the air had this disturbing- effect, he could prove this by introducing a current, of air into the liquid and see what happened. This he did, and to his keen satisfaction the organisms that had been actively in motion lost their power of movement, and the fermentative property ceased. Here was the discovery of an entirely new principle, the fact that some types of bacteria could perform their functions better in an atmosphere devoid of free oxygen than otherwise. To this class. Pasteur gave the new term, anaerobes, organisms that are able to live without air. This peculiar fermentation proved to be the butyric acid type of change that is the cause of the rancidity of butter, an abnormal fermentation that is of much import in the dairy business.<span> </span></p> <p>Pasteur's studies later on the spontaneous generation of matter proved indisputably that life came from pre-existing life: that the processes of fermentation, putrefaction, and decay did not originate in and of themselves but invariably came from pre-existing microscopic forms of life. With our modern equipment and present-day notions, one wonders why such wild-eyed dreams gained credence, but it is much easier to look backward than forward; distance or difficulties do not seem half as hard as we look behind us compared with what they are when we attempt to penetrate the gloom ahead.</p> <p>Pasteur was a natural born doubter and it was to this quality that lie owed much of his success as a discoverer of new ideas. Writing to Pouchet about the subject, of spontaneous generation, he said, "In experimental science it is always a mistake not to doubt when facts do not compel affirmation." This critical attitude enabled him to test and retest his results so his conclusions were bullet proof before they were given out.<span> </span></p> <p>From this field of spontaneous generation he was led to study the so called disease of wine. The vineyard industries of southern France had been imperiled thru "sickness" of wines that destroyed their fine aroma and flavor. "Sick" wine became turbid', sour, off in flavor, ruined as a beverage. To his beloved France this was a grievous blight-like the plague of Egypt.<span> </span></p> <p>It was easy to prevent, this trouble, by boiling the wine; but the high temperature used injured the flavor or bouquet, as it is called. Finally, in the fall of 1864, Pasteur found it, was sufficient, to heat the wine for a few minutes to a temperature of 122 degrees to 140 degrees Fahrenheit. This lower temperature fortunately did not destroy the fine aroma. But it was quite a while before this simple process was accepted by the French exporters; not until a cargo of wine had been shipped for a long journey thru the tropics did prejudice and jealousy yield to scientific progress. Some said this heating process would "mummify" the wine and so prevent its aging.</p> <p>In Austria, where the method was also quickly adopted, the process was called Pasteurization, in honor of the French bacteriologist. It was this same principle that, was later applied to the treatment, of milk to increase its keeping quality. The secret of success in the pasteurization of milk lies in the fact that the major part of the inevitable changes that, accompany souring or other fermentative changes is due to the presence of bacteria that in the rapidly growing stage are readily killed by a scalding temperature. This point, known as the thermal death point of the growing organism, is fortunately just below the temperature at which the cream line in milk is affected. Even disease bacteria, such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, typhoid, and other organisms are not able to endure the temperature of pasteurization.</p> <p>This method was first, applied to the treatment of milk in Europe but it was in America, that the process was commercialized and put on a practical basis. In the earlier days the process was applied primarily to the treatment of milk for infant, feeding and ailing children, but the success in this field soon led to its more general application in the treatment of city milk supplies. America has developed this. phase of the dairy business to an exceptionally high stage of perfection. Without doubt, the very wide use of fluid milk in the United States compared with other countries is due in no small measure to the feeling of security that the public have in the healthfulness of the product, both from the hygienic as well as the nutritive point, of view.<span> </span></p> <p>Pasteur was, first of all, a humanitarian. He dearly loved his parents, his brothers and sisters, and his family and his love extended to all his fellow-men. It was this love that prompted him to undertake his researches to relieve their physical sufferings and the hardships caused by constant economic losses.<br /> The silkworm disease was studied by him in 1865 which he later solved, and an epidemic of cholera demanded his attention the same year. His love for science was aptly illustrated when Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie, following a demonstration of his wine study, manifested surprise that" he did not turn his discovery to profit. He replied, "In France scientists would consider that they lowered themselves by doing so."</p> <p>It was Pasteur's discoveries which led others to improve surgical methods with regard to sanitation. He discovered the cause of puerperal fever in 1878, of chicken cholera in 1880, and of hydrophobia in 1881, and made important studies on yellow fever the same year. His most, famous contribution, the treatment for hydrophobia, was first applied in 1885 and within a year great contributions were received for the establishment of the Institute Pasteur, which was completed late in 1888. More than two and a half million francs, were obtained.<span> </span></p> <p>Another contribution which is of direct and inestimable value to the dairy industry was his discovery in 1877 of the cause of anthrax and his development four years later of the method of vaccinating for preventing this costly disease. Pasteur, unlike many early scientists, lived to see his findings accepted and to win the applause and approval of the entire civilized world. He and his work were acclaimed in every scientific group and in 1882 he was elected to the exclusive Academic Franeaise. Pasteur also experienced the pleasure, before his death on September 28, 1895, of seeing his former students and associates, building on his own work, make new discoveries for the benefit of human progress.</p> <p>The dairy industry owes no inconsiderable debt to the fundamental work which the great, Pasteur did to put, scientific accuracy m place of hypothesis and surmise in the development of this important, branch of science.</p> <p>H. L. Russell is dean of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture. He is a native of Wisconsin and hold's two degrees from the Wisconsin College of Agriculture as well as a doctor's degree from Johns Hopkins University. He has been on the faculty of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture since 1897 and has been dean since 1907. He enjoys the distinction of having been a student under Pasteur in. France. He probably deserves the credit more than. any other individual for the introduction of pasteurization into the United States. His close contact with Pasteur gives him a keen insight into the personality of this noted scientist.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:58:29 +0000 Anonymous 286 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Stephen Babcock https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/stephen-babcock <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Stephen Babcock</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: Andrew W. Hopkins and Agatha Raisbeck CAN you picture an old-fashioned gray house on an elm shaded street in a little middle western city? Then, can you go inside and find yourself in a. quaint old home into which the sound of a jangling telephone has never entered? Will you imagine your host, a delightfully entertaining elderly man, interested in anything which has to do with dairying? If you can do these things, then you can, in imagination, visit with us the man who has made, it possible for dairy farmer? To lie paid for quality products, and to build up high producing herds. We mean of course, Dr. Stephen Moulton Babcock. Although he was 85 his last birthday, there is not a happier spirit in all Madison. Wisconsin, than this tall man with his snow white hair and merry laugh-and it is probably his cheery laugh that, upon meeting,&#039; you would notice first. Even today he has more zest for living and more interest in things about him than most folks who have lived only a fourth of his years. Visiting with this happy old man, it is hard to realize that he was the author of the test that revolutionized the dairy industry and that he has carried on ever so many other investigations that have made our modern dairying possible. Most of us take so much for granted, in our everyday life, the things that he has made possible that we can hardly appreciate what they have done for us. It, seems almost impossible to believe, in this age of scientific cheese-making, that Doctor Babcock did the first scientific work on the ripening of cheese. He had gone to Cornell University to study chemistry, and, although his scientific work was outstanding, he was not satisfied. Thoroughness in everything that lie does is one of the doctor&#039;s most distinguishing traits, and he was not able to learn all that he wanted to know about, chemistry at Cornell, so he left his experimental work and went to Germany to study for three years with several great German scientists. When he came back, he had a doctor&#039;s degree in chemistry and a burning desire to put, all his learning to practical use. For a time, he worked as an instructor at Cornell, but he was destined for a higher post, and soon became the chief chemist of the New York experiment station at. Geneva. Although much of his work there was done with other scientists interested in better ways of feeding animals, he also picked up again the work in dairy chemistry which later was to make him famous wherever dairying is followed. There, along with his other work, he devised a simple way of analyzing what is in milk and his method was adopted as a standard by official chemists of the. United States. In 1889, Doctor Babcock accepted the same kind of a. position in Wisconsin that he had in New York, chief chemist of the Wisconsin experiment station. The next year was one, of the most, outstanding of all this great man&#039;s career, for it, was at that time that he became assistant director of the Wisconsin station and worked out the butterfat test which bears his name. Can you imagine a. dairy world where it was only possible for scientists to find out the amount of fat in milk and then only by working carefully in their laboratories? Where creameries had no basis for determining the value of the milk received from their different customers? And where milk was paid for only by weight, or by measure? That is just what dairy farmers were putting up with in 1889 before Doctor Babcock helped them out. Then associate or co-operative creameries were comparatively new. At first the dairy farmers had been anxious to patronize these new plants because butter making was irksome and expensive in the average dairy home. It seemed like a fine way out of a lot of work and worry to deliver the milk to the creamery and let the creamery man do the worrying. But, the farmers soon realized that, after weighing, each man&#039;s milk was poured into a common vat and then it was all alike. Of course, under such a plan no distinction could be made between the patrons who delivered milk which contained 3 percent fat and those whose milk contained 5 percent fat, for the creamery man could not conduct the scientist&#039;s elaborate test. The result was that the patrons whose cows gave rich milk began leaving the creameries and going back to skimming the milk on the farm in spite of the extra work it brought on them. It is even said that some went so far as to skim off some of the butterfat before delivering the milk, and others added a water bucket to their dairy equipment. It was these conditions that made Dean Henry, then director of the station, go to his dairy chemist and say, &quot;Doctor Babcock, we must have a simple test for butterfat.&quot; Doctor Babcock probably was astounded. This was not the first time the problem had been discussed. Many other scientists had gone out. on a similar research and come back empty handed. But, after the dean had explained the seriousness of the situation, the doctor reflected a while and then said, &quot;I believe I can modify the Soxhlet ether method so that it can be used by the creameries for measuring the fat of milk.&quot; And, at, once, he took up the problem which had baffled so many others. For months he worked away with his test tubes trying to improve first this man&#039;s methods then that, and gathering suggestions from each of them. One day he thought, he had a test. His new test gave the, same results as the older more complicated ones that the scientists had been using. Time and again he tried it on the milk of the cows in the university herd and each time the new test checked with the old-until lie came to Sylvia. Sylvia was only a grade Shorthorn, but, Sylvia was &quot;different.&quot; Her milk did not test, like the oilier cows&#039;. The readings on the new test did not correspond to the readings on the old.  &quot;Give out the test anyway,&quot; his co-workers urged the doctor.  Sylvia was only one cow in a. herd of 30, and a test that proved correct that often would help the dairymen, they reasoned.  But the doctor could not see their point of view. No test was going out under his name that did not work on all of the cows of the university herd. So, lie went back to his laboratories to work until he had a. test that, was accurate even for Sylvia&#039;s milk. Finally, after working some weeks more, lie walked into Dean Henry&#039;s office, holding one of his test tubes in his hand. &quot;Well, I have it at last,&quot; he said. But even then lie could hardly believe that the test would go unchanged. &quot;I fully expected that the markings on the tubes would be changed,&quot; he told us. But in all the years since he first walked in to his dean&#039;s office with his test, tube, not a single thing has been changed except, the means of applying power with which to turn the centrifuge.  When it was certain that the test was accurate, these two, the inventor and his friend the dean, were face to face with the problem of marketing the tester. Doctor Babcock would have to take out a patent. &quot;But,&quot; the doctor declared, &quot;this patent shall be given to the world for anyone to use without, payment or hindrance of any kind.&quot; And so it was decided. Without hesitation, quibble, or question, he gave up the chance to make millions that the dairy industry might, benefit, from what the public had given him the opportunity to do. Dairymen all over the world soon recognized the value of the test and began using it. New Zealand was the first, country to adopt, it, officially, the doctor told us as he showed the beautifully decorated testimonial of appreciation that the dairymen of this far-off island country sent him. Strangely enough, it was some time before the test was officially adopted in the United States, and even then it was not, without considerable reluctance and bickering. Even at the Columbian exposition in 1893, the Holstein owners withdrew their animals because the officials planned to use the Babcock test, Doctor Babcock recalled in describing those early days when only a few farmers realized the value of his test. The Holstein owners, however, were the first breed to adopt it for advanced registry, the doctor now tells with a whole lot of satisfaction. The other breed associations in turn followed suit until it became recognized as a rock bottom foundation upon which to build a profitable dairy industry. For years, Doctor Babcock has been receiving tokens of appreciation from all over the world. From the dairymen of New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, came an oil painting of a hillside of their dairy country that has a place of honor in the simple homelike living-room in which we visited the doctor; from the Paris and St. Louis world fairs came the &quot;grand prize; &quot;and from the Wisconsin legislature came a bronze medal made by Spinx and Sons, London, which the doctor has since learned is &#039;&#039;probably the largest one ever cast in a single die.&quot; But the doctor is never satisfied to rest on his past achievements. Doing things is so much fun, for him, that he could not, sit idle while others were working. In spite of all his duties as chemist of the experiment, station and as assistant, director, five years after his test was given to the world, he announced a method of separating the casein from milk and devised a mathematical formula for determining the yield of cheese from a given amount of milk. Soon he began working with the younger men who were then coming to the Wisconsin college. Doctor Babcock and H. L. Russell, then a young bacteriologist, now dean of the college, studying to find what it was that caused cheese to &quot;break down,&quot; hit, upon a method of curing cheese that has made it possible to make our finest quality of cheese. This discovery was not thought out, like the butterfat test. It was purely a chance find, but the use they made of it shows the ability of these two men to put their science to practical uses for the benefit of dairying. Until then, cheese had always been cured in a. fairly warm room with no attempt at controlling the temperature except to keep it from becoming overheated in summer. Cheesemakers knew that the cheese would become too strong if it was cured in a very warm room and they thought it would be bitter if the room was too cold. When Doctor Babcock and Professor Russell started on their work, they wanted to know what happened to the cheese to make it become digestible. In the course of their experiments, they put a cheese in a room that was at almost a freezing temperature. Like the cheesemakers, they expected that it would be bitter when the cheese came out, but they were anxious to know it&#039; it would &quot;break down&quot; at that temperature. When, after some months, they took the cheese out of the cold room, it looked most unappetizing, for it wag covered with long, hairy mold. But, when they cut it they both reported, &quot;It is the finest cheese we ever tasted.&quot; From this they figured that possibly American cheese makers could produce a better quality cheese if they cured it at a lower temperature. As one trial was not enough they experimented with several batches of cheese until they found that a temperature of from 50 to 60 degrees was most satisfactory and that dipping the cheese in paraffin was an easy way to prevent, the moldy covering. Again the people of New Zealand were the first, to accept the recommendations of these two scientists for using the new &quot;cold storage method,&quot; and today, New Zealand is dotted with co-operative cold storage plants owned by several cheese factories. Although Doctor Babcock&#039;s contributions to the science of dairying bulk large, what lie has done cannot, be measured only by his scientific gifts. His influence has spread into all parts of his college, for lie has been intensely interested in what those about him were doing, not only the professors and instructors, but students as well. &quot;No professor or instructor ever went to Babcock for help of any kind that he was not welcomed and aided if possible, whether the matter was personal or professional,&quot; writes Dean Henry. &quot;Do you wonder that the whole agricultural faculty now, as always, reveres Doctor Babcock? Do you wonder that I still hold him as my dearest earthly friend?&quot; Today, in spite of his many honors, the doctor is still shy, keeping out of the limelight as much as he can. Nor, at 85, is he willing to concede that his life&#039;s work is done. Daily, he goes back and forth between his laboratory and his home. He claims that lie goes to get his mail but those who work with him say that lie is still experimenting, looking for the answer to a new problem. When he finds it, he will probably announce, as he did when he was sure of his fat test, &quot;Well, I have it,&quot; and so add another to the list of things he has given to the world. A. W. Hopkins is now professor of agricultural journalism at the University of Wisconsin. He was born and reared on a Wisconsin farm and was graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1903. All his life he &#039;has been in close touch with the work and accomplishments of Dr. Babcock and we feel that he is the individual to give us the. close-up picture of this Master Mind of Dairying. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: Andrew W. Hopkins and Agatha Raisbeck CAN you picture an old-fashioned gray house on an elm shaded street in a little middle western city? Then, can you go inside and find yourself in a. quaint old home into which the sound of a jangling telephone has never entered?" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div><em>BY: Andrew W. Hopkins and Agatha Raisbeck</em></div> <p><img alt="Stephen Babock" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d209668c-99d6-4541-b903-196c0b0a922b" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/babock.PNG" class="align-right" />CAN you picture an old-fashioned gray house on an elm shaded street in a little middle western city? Then, can you go inside and find yourself in a. quaint old home into which the sound of a jangling telephone has never entered?</p> <p>Will you imagine your host, a delightfully entertaining elderly man, interested in anything which has to do with dairying?</p> <p>If you can do these things, then you can, in imagination, visit with us the man who has made, it possible for dairy farmer? To lie paid for quality products, and to build up high producing herds.<br /> We mean of course, Dr. Stephen Moulton Babcock.</p> <p>Although he was 85 his last birthday, there is not a happier spirit in all Madison. Wisconsin, than this tall man with his snow white hair and merry laugh-and it is probably his cheery laugh that, upon meeting,' you would notice first. Even today he has more zest for living and more interest in things about him than most folks who have lived only a fourth of his years.</p> <p>Visiting with this happy old man, it is hard to realize that he was the author of the test that revolutionized the dairy industry and that he has carried on ever so many other investigations that have made our modern dairying possible.</p> <p>Most of us take so much for granted, in our everyday life, the things that he has made possible that we can hardly appreciate what they have done for us. It, seems almost impossible to believe, in this age of scientific cheese-making, that Doctor Babcock did the first scientific work on the ripening of cheese. He had gone to Cornell University to study chemistry, and, although his scientific work was outstanding, he was not satisfied.</p> <p>Thoroughness in everything that lie does is one of the doctor's most distinguishing traits, and he was not able to learn all that he wanted to know about, chemistry at Cornell, so he left his experimental work and went to Germany to study for three years with several great German scientists. When he came back, he had a doctor's degree in chemistry and a burning desire to put, all his learning to practical use.</p> <p>For a time, he worked as an instructor at Cornell, but he was destined for a higher post, and soon became the chief chemist of the New York experiment station at. Geneva. Although much of his work there was done with other scientists interested in better ways of feeding animals, he also picked up again the work in dairy chemistry which later was to make him famous wherever dairying is followed. There, along with his other work, he devised a simple way of analyzing what is in milk and his method was adopted as a standard by official chemists of the. United States.</p> <p>In 1889, Doctor Babcock accepted the same kind of a. position in Wisconsin that he had in New York, chief chemist of the Wisconsin experiment station. The next year was one, of the most, outstanding of all this great man's career, for it, was at that time that he became assistant director of the Wisconsin station and worked out the butterfat test which bears his name. Can you imagine a. dairy world where it was only possible for scientists to find out the amount of fat in milk and then only by working carefully in their laboratories? Where creameries had no basis for determining the value of the milk received from their different customers? And where milk was paid for only by weight, or by measure? That is just what dairy farmers were putting up with in 1889 before Doctor Babcock helped them out.</p> <p>Then associate or co-operative creameries were comparatively new. At first the dairy farmers had been anxious to patronize these new plants because butter making was irksome and expensive in the average dairy home. It seemed like a fine way out of a lot of work and worry to deliver the milk to the creamery and let the creamery man do the worrying.</p> <p>But, the farmers soon realized that, after weighing, each man's milk was poured into a common vat and then it was all alike. Of course, under such a plan no distinction could be made between the patrons who delivered milk which contained 3 percent fat and those whose milk contained 5 percent fat, for the creamery man could not conduct the scientist's elaborate test. The result was that the patrons whose cows gave rich milk began leaving the creameries and going back to skimming the milk on the farm in spite of the extra work it brought on them. It is even said that some went so far as to skim off some of the butterfat before delivering the milk, and others added a water bucket to their dairy equipment.</p> <p>It was these conditions that made Dean Henry, then director of the station, go to his dairy chemist and say, "Doctor Babcock, we must have a simple test for butterfat."</p> <p>Doctor Babcock probably was astounded. This was not the first time the problem had been discussed. Many other scientists had gone out. on a similar research and come back empty handed. But, after the dean had explained the seriousness of the situation, the doctor reflected a while and then said, "I believe I can modify the Soxhlet ether method so that it can be used by the creameries for measuring the fat of milk." And, at, once, he took up the problem which had baffled so many others.</p> <p>For months he worked away with his test tubes trying to improve first this man's methods then that, and gathering suggestions from each of them.</p> <p>One day he thought, he had a test. His new test gave the, same results as the older more complicated ones that the scientists had been using. Time and again he tried it on the milk of the cows in the university herd and each time the new test checked with the old-until lie came to Sylvia.</p> <p>Sylvia was only a grade Shorthorn, but, Sylvia was "different." Her milk did not test, like the oilier cows'. The readings on the new test did not correspond to the readings on the old.<span> </span><br /> "Give out the test anyway," his co-workers urged the doctor.<span> </span></p> <p>Sylvia was only one cow in a. herd of 30, and a test that proved correct that often would help the dairymen, they reasoned.<span> </span></p> <p>But the doctor could not see their point of view. No test was going out under his name that did not work on all of the cows of the university herd. So, lie went back to his laboratories to work until he had a. test that, was accurate even for Sylvia's milk. Finally, after working some weeks more, lie walked into Dean Henry's office, holding one of his test tubes in his hand.</p> <p>"Well, I have it at last," he said.</p> <p>But even then lie could hardly believe that the test would go unchanged.</p> <p>"I fully expected that the markings on the tubes would be changed," he told us. But in all the years since he first walked in to his dean's office with his test, tube, not a single thing has been changed except, the means of applying power with which to turn the centrifuge.<span> </span><br /> When it was certain that the test was accurate, these two, the inventor and his friend the dean, were face to face with the problem of marketing the tester. Doctor Babcock would have to take out a patent.</p> <p>"But," the doctor declared, "this patent shall be given to the world for anyone to use without, payment or hindrance of any kind." And so it was decided. Without hesitation, quibble, or question, he gave up the chance to make millions that the dairy industry might, benefit, from what the public had given him the opportunity to do.</p> <p>Dairymen all over the world soon recognized the value of the test and began using it. New Zealand was the first, country to adopt, it, officially, the doctor told us as he showed the beautifully decorated testimonial of appreciation that the dairymen of this far-off island country sent him.</p> <p>Strangely enough, it was some time before the test was officially adopted in the United States, and even then it was not, without considerable reluctance and bickering. Even at the Columbian exposition in 1893, the Holstein owners withdrew their animals because the officials planned to use the Babcock test, Doctor Babcock recalled in describing those early days when only a few farmers realized the value of his test. The Holstein owners, however, were the first breed to adopt it for advanced registry, the doctor now tells with a whole lot of satisfaction. The other breed associations in turn followed suit until it became recognized as a rock bottom foundation upon which to build a profitable dairy industry.</p> <p>For years, Doctor Babcock has been receiving tokens of appreciation from all over the world. From the dairymen of New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, came an oil painting of a hillside of their dairy country that has a place of honor in the simple homelike living-room in which we visited the doctor; from the Paris and St. Louis world fairs came the "grand prize; "and from the Wisconsin legislature came a bronze medal made by Spinx and Sons, London, which the doctor has since learned is ''probably the largest one ever cast in a single die."</p> <p>But the doctor is never satisfied to rest on his past achievements. Doing things is so much fun, for him, that he could not, sit idle while others were working. In spite of all his duties as chemist of the experiment, station and as assistant, director, five years after his test was given to the world, he announced a method of separating the casein from milk and devised a mathematical formula for determining the yield of cheese from a given amount of milk.</p> <p>Soon he began working with the younger men who were then coming to the Wisconsin college. Doctor Babcock and H. L. Russell, then a young bacteriologist, now dean of the college, studying to find what it was that caused cheese to "break down," hit, upon a method of curing cheese that has made it possible to make our finest quality of cheese.</p> <p>This discovery was not thought out, like the butterfat test. It was purely a chance find, but the use they made of it shows the ability of these two men to put their science to practical uses for the benefit of dairying.</p> <p>Until then, cheese had always been cured in a. fairly warm room with no attempt at controlling the temperature except to keep it from becoming overheated in summer. Cheesemakers knew that the cheese would become too strong if it was cured in a very warm room and they thought it would be bitter if the room was too cold.</p> <p>When Doctor Babcock and Professor Russell started on their work, they wanted to know what happened to the cheese to make it become digestible. In the course of their experiments, they put a cheese in a room that was at almost a freezing temperature. Like the cheesemakers, they expected that it would be bitter when the cheese came out, but they were anxious to know it' it would "break down" at that temperature.</p> <p>When, after some months, they took the cheese out of the cold room, it looked most unappetizing, for it wag covered with long, hairy mold. But, when they cut it they both reported, "It is the finest cheese we ever tasted." From this they figured that possibly American cheese makers could produce a better quality cheese if they cured it at a lower temperature. As one trial was not enough they experimented with several batches of cheese until they found that a temperature of from 50 to 60 degrees was most satisfactory and that dipping the cheese in paraffin was an easy way to prevent, the moldy covering. Again the people of New Zealand were the first, to accept the recommendations of these two scientists for using the new "cold storage method," and today, New Zealand is dotted with co-operative cold storage plants owned by several cheese factories.</p> <p>Although Doctor Babcock's contributions to the science of dairying bulk large, what lie has done cannot, be measured only by his scientific gifts. His influence has spread into all parts of his college, for lie has been intensely interested in what those about him were doing, not only the professors and instructors, but students as well.</p> <p>"No professor or instructor ever went to Babcock for help of any kind that he was not welcomed and aided if possible, whether the matter was personal or professional," writes Dean Henry. "Do you wonder that the whole agricultural faculty now, as always, reveres Doctor Babcock? Do you wonder that I still hold him as my dearest earthly friend?"</p> <p>Today, in spite of his many honors, the doctor is still shy, keeping out of the limelight as much as he can. Nor, at 85, is he willing to concede that his life's work is done. Daily, he goes back and forth between his laboratory and his home. He claims that lie goes to get his mail but those who work with him say that lie is still experimenting, looking for the answer to a new problem. When he finds it, he will probably announce, as he did when he was sure of his fat test, "Well, I have it," and so add another to the list of things he has given to the world.</p> <p>A. W. Hopkins is now professor of agricultural journalism at the University of Wisconsin. He was born and reared on a Wisconsin farm and was graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1903. All his life he 'has been in close touch with the work and accomplishments of Dr. Babcock and we feel that he is the individual to give us the. close-up picture of this Master Mind of Dairying.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:56:29 +0000 Anonymous 281 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Gail Borden https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/gail-borden <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Gail Borden</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description=" By: 0. E: ReedSTRIVE to do all the good possible for mankind.&quot; Thus advised one whose name is widely known in connection with various forms of concentrated food-Gail Borden. And the spirit which prompted these words caused him to become interested in the inventions which made him famous. Particularly is this true in his relation to the dairy industry. Although he did his work nearly a century ago his name is at present almost a household word. Born of New England parentage in 1801 at Norwich, New York, he was the eldest of a family of seven children. It fell to his lot at an early age to become his father&#039;s helper on the farm, and although his father was very anxious that he get as much education as possible, these privileges were very limited. In 1814 the family moved to Cincinnati, in or near which place they remained during the following year. In the spring of 1816 they followed the popular tide of immigration, moving westward to Indiana on the Ohio River, where Gail lived until he was 21 years of age. In the meantime his health became so poor that physicians despaired of his recovery, but, he determined to try a southern climate. Following this plan he went as supercargo of a flatboat to New Orleans and having disposed of his cargo he went into the piney woods of Mississippi where, combining outdoor life with careful and temperate living, he regained his health. While living here he was first appointed county surveyor, then deputy United States surveyor. After his marriage in 1829, he moved to Texas, his father and father-in-law having preceded him to this new and primitive country. His first, employment in this country was farming and stock raising. Although this work kept him busy he found time for civic affairs as well and was elected delegate from La Vace district to the convention held in 1833 at San Felipe, to outline the position of the colonies and to petition the Mexican government for separation from the state of Coahuila. Having been appointed by General Austin to superintend the official surveys, he complied the first topographical map of the colonies and up to the time of the Mexican invasion had charge of the land office at San Felipe. When the Mexican War broke out Mr. Borden with two others, procured a printing press and materials and published the only newspaper issued in Texas during the war. He held the chief management of the paper and used it as an agent, toward resisting the establishment of the Central government by Santa Anna. When the Republic of Texas was finally established Mr. Borden was appointed by President Houston as first revenue collector of the port, of Galveston, a city which had been surveyed and laid out by Mr. Borden in 1837. The 12 years of his life beginning in 1839 were spent as agent, of the Galveston City Company, a corporation holding several thousand acres on which the city was built. During this period gold was discovered in California and the rush of the &#039;&#039;forty-niners&quot; came. Most, of these people were from the East, traveling in their big covered &quot;prairie schooners&#039;&#039; across the mountain passes, canyons, and deserts. The greatest problem on these long, tiresome, and hazardous trips was the necessity for a suitable food, and this was called to the attention of Mr. Borden. He, ever alert and sympathetic to the needs of his fellowman, determined to try to make a food that would be portable and easily kept from fermentation. With this in mind he began experiments which resulted in the production of a meat biscuit, the merits of which were immediately recognized. Then confident, of the success of his project, he invested all his savings in the extensive manufacture of his new food product. But just, as it seemed that success was his, clever and scheming individuals who were furnishing the army with bulky supplies saw their business was being undermined by the introduction of this new concentrated product and adopted practices that caused Mr. Borden such financial losses that he came out, of this adventure penniless. This experience doubtless was very discouraging, and a person with less perseverance would probably have let, it end his ambition along this line. But Mr. Borden did not give up; instead he used this as a stepping stone for what followed. He immediately returned to New England and began experimenting with one of the most important of all foods-milk. He knew milk to be the most perfect single article of food-the only one, in fact, which when fed alone, will sustain life, and yet the most perishable and the most difficult, to get to the large cities in its original purity and freshness. If he could in some way solve this problem how many thousands of infants in the large cities could be saved and what a help to the sailor, the invalid, and the soldier at camp! So with these things in mind he set about his problem. He knew nothing of the &quot;germ theory&quot; at, that time but had learned from his experience with the meat biscuit, that if he could prevent the beginning of any decomposition he would have little trouble. He had perceived that medicines were made by boiling away the water from the plant juices and that sugar was made by condensing the juice from sugar cane. So at, the very outset his imaginative mind conceived the idea of preserving milk by the simple removal of water, accompanied by the prevention of the entrance of any foreign matter into the milk from the time it was drawn from the cow until the completion of the process. He probably reasoned the thing out after considering the direct method of the nursing young animal. Milk is nature&#039;s own and best food and when the young nurses its mother there is no exposure whatever of the food to the air and, therefore, no entrance of dirt from this source. Mr. Borden was aware of the fact, that. up to this time, many attempts had been made to solidify milk, also to find a suitable substitute for it, hut he considered them all failures to a certain degree-at least, they did not approach the excellence he believed possible. Many of his scientific friends tried to discourage him in attempting to solidify milk which contained its original amount of butterfat. They said he should first remove part of the cream, then proceed. Borden would not be discouraged, however, and continued experimenting with whole milk until his original object, was attained and he had produced condensed whole milk. But the public is ever skeptical and ready to follow the advice of the philosopher who said, &quot;Be not the first by which the new is tried nor yet, the last to lay the old aside.&quot; So it, was difficult and tedious work for Mr. Borden to get, the public interested in his product and not until 1861, at the beginning of the Civil War, did condensed milk become so widely used that. the demand rapidly increased and soon far exceeded the supply. In an early day many denied Mr. Borden&#039;s claim for the original discovery of the only process for condensing milk but facts will prove that there were no grounds for these denials. After many tests and experiments and careful observance of results Mr. Borden became more and more convinced that the protection from harmful atmospheric influences during the process of evaporation was highly essential. But he found many difficulties in his way when trying to carry out this method, a most troublesome one being the adhesion of the albumin of the milk to the sides of the vacuum pan. A very homely incident caused him to discover a means by which he could eliminate this trouble. While visiting at the home of a farmer friend he noticed that, the housewife greased the pot preparatory to making &quot;minute pudding.&quot; He used the same principle, on his vacuum pan. Another difficulty he encountered was the foaming of the milk and the possibility of loss of milk by boiling over. Finally Mr. Borden overcame these obstacles to such an extent that, he felt he was justified in applying for a patent. His first application was made in 1853. In this he declared the chief feature of the process to he evaporation in vacuo. He asserted very clearly the-importance of protecting the milk from the action of the atmosphere in order to prevent incipient decomposition and this was achieved by use of the vacuum. This application was refused because it was said to lie; neither new nor useful. He was told that the vacuum process was used both in the making of sugar and the preparation of extracts. Of this fact he was already aware but, he also knew that it was used for an entirely different purpose, namely, to avoid burning and discoloration. Several cases were produced to prove that this process had been patented before, but. Mr. Borden&#039;s attorney in London proved beyond all doubt that no one had ever used a vacuum pan for evaporating milk under a patent. This settled the dispute over the question of its novelty. Then only remained the problem of persuading the commissioner that the vacuum was important. The commissioner wrote Mr. Borden that, milk condensed with the care and skill which he had used would give as successful results without a vacuum as with it. He informed Mr. Borden, however, that if he could prove to him the necessity of the closed or vacuum process he would grant the patent. Immediately upon the receipt of this information Mr. Borden proceeded to obtain statements in the form of affidavits from several noted scientific men who, after trying out both the open kettle and the vacuum, concluded that, the condensation in vacuum was by far the superior method. Thus its usefulness was proved. On August 19, 1856, more than three years after his first application, he was granted his patent. About the same time he was also granted a patent in England. Now he was ready to begin the manufacture of condensed milk. Here again he met with reverses and discouragements. Finally, however, Borden&#039;s Condensed Milk was placed on the market, in a small way. But he had been to so much expense in procuring his patent that he had very little funds left with which to finance the manufacture of his product. Not until February, 1858, when he had interested Jeremiah Milbank, a wealthy man of Wall Street fame, who furnished him financial aid, did he have adequate means to develop his invention. At this time the New York Condensed Milk Company was formed but progressed very slowly. Of the many companies organized at different times to work -under Borden&#039;s patent, the most successful was the &quot;Gail Borden Eagle Brand.&quot; In June, 1861, just after the outbreak of the Civil War, with the aid of Milbank, he opened a factory at Wassaic, New York, 84 miles from New York on the Harlem railroad. Had it not been for the war it would have taken much longer for condensed milk to become extensively used but it was found to be both nourishing and easily carried, thus making it, especially useful for the soldier in action. In 1862 a factory was opened in Elgin, Illinois. In 1863 two others were opened at, Brewster, New York. A great deal of the credit, for the beginning of sanitary production and handling of milk belongs to Mr. Borden. Very early in his experimentations he discovered the difference between trying to condense milk which had been handled in a sanitary manner and that which had not. Those who knew of him and his works spoke lightly of this as the &quot;absurdly fastidious neatness&quot; of Mr. Borden. In an address delivered by X. A. Willard in January, 1872, on &quot;Condensed Milk Manufacture, &quot;Mr. Borden is quoted as saying: &quot;The success of the milk manufactured at our three factories known as the &#039;Gail Borden Eagle Brand,&#039; is due to the attention which we give to the personal inspection of every department of the dairies on the farms, which is assigned to one person at each factory; the constant, examination of even- man&#039;s milk by samples taken and subjected to tests as to cream, sweetness and the time it, will keep after being brought from the dairies. In short, there is nothing manufactured requiring so much care and everlasting vigilance and attention as that of milk. From the time it. is drawn from the cow, until hermetically sealed in cans, it, requires that everything should be done with the utmost, integrity.&quot; For the education of the producers who furnished milk to his factories he compiled and very rigidly enforced a set of 15 rules, several of the most, important of which are given below. They will illustrate his understanding of the importance of details to be observed in sanitary production of milk: &quot;I. The milk shall lie drawn from the cow in the most cleanly manner and strained thru wire-cloth strainers. &quot;II. The milk must be thoroughly cooled immediately after it is drawn from the cow, by placing the can in which it is contained m a tub or vat. of cold water deep enough to come up to height of the milk in the can, containing at least, three times as much water as there is milk to be cooled; the milk to be occasionally stirred until the animal heat. is expelled. &quot;XI. The Company shall clean and steam the cans at the factory, free of charge, but customers, shall keep the outside clean. The pails and strainers employed shall be by the seller thoroughly cleaned, scalded in boiling water, and dried morning and night. &quot;XIV. The cows are not to be fed on turnips or other food which would impart a disagreeable flavor to the milk, nor upon any food which will not produce milk of standard richness.&quot; Mr. Borden has rendered a great service to thousands of people both in the past and at the present time; soldiers at camp and in hospitals during all the wars from the. Civil War to the World War, citizens both well and ill, and most of all, to the city-born baby. Before condensed milk was known, city babies and older children had been in many instances fed on milk which was not only greatly diluted but which had come from diseased cows and cows fed on distillery slops and sold as &quot;pure country milk.&quot; Gail Borden lived to enjoy a fortune made from condensed milk but did not live to see unsweetened condensed milk put up in sealed cans. This was not accomplished until 10 or 12 years after his death. In the early days no way had been discovered for sterilizing the unsweetened condensed milk so the fat would not separate in the can. This difficulty was later overcome by adjusting the temperature of sterilization and a homogenizer. Although most of his fame came thru his work with milk, Mr.Borden accomplished a great deal with other foods. His meat biscuit already mentioned was shown at the first World&#039;s Exhibition at London in 1851 and won the Great Council Medal, the highest award attainable. At this time he was elected honorary member of the London Society of Arts. When Dr. Kane needed a concentrated food for his polar expedition Mr. Borden made pemmican, a food prepared from beef and fat and flavored with berries. Along with this food were preparations of tea, coffee, and cocoa requiring only the addition of hot water to produce the favorite beverage. Mr. Borden died at the age of 73 in the little town in Texas which bears his name. He was a man with a hearty, frank, agreeable manner, a ready conversationalist with a fund of information and anecdote. Those who knew him best spoke of him as the model pattern of a kind-hearted and Christian gentleman, one who hated sham or deception. He gave away large sums of money for charity and no needy person asked in vain for financial aid. The vision and imagination of Gail Borden laid the foundation for one of the greatest branches of dairying and it is fitting that his name be enrolled among the great leaders of the industry. 0. E. Reed is chief of the Bureau of Dairying of the United States Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. Previous to this he served as head of the Dairy Departments in the Agricultural Colleges of Kansas, Indiana, and Michigan, and before that was a member of the Dairy Department of the Missouri College, of Agriculture. He &#039;is a past president of the American Dairy Science Association, was a delegate to the world&#039;s dairy congress in. London in 1938 and has made other trips to Europe to study dairying there. He is in ideal position, to summarize the effects of the invention, of the condensed milk. process and the life of Gail Borden upon the dairy industry. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: " By: 0. E: Reed" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div> <p><em>By: 0. E: Reed</em><br /><img alt="Gail Borden" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="77945ca4-482e-434b-a204-ad00bd07446f" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/borden.PNG" class="align-right" />STRIVE to do all the good possible for mankind." Thus advised one whose name is widely known in connection with various forms of concentrated food-Gail Borden. And the spirit which prompted these words caused him to become interested in the inventions which made him famous. Particularly is this true in his relation to the dairy industry. Although he did his work nearly a century ago his name is at present almost a household word.</p> <p>Born of New England parentage in 1801 at Norwich, New York, he was the eldest of a family of seven children. It fell to his lot at an early age to become his father's helper on the farm, and although his father was very anxious that he get as much education as possible, these privileges were very limited.</p> <p>In 1814 the family moved to Cincinnati, in or near which place they remained during the following year. In the spring of 1816 they followed the popular tide of immigration, moving westward to Indiana on the Ohio River, where Gail lived until he was 21 years of age. In the meantime his health became so poor that physicians despaired of his recovery, but, he determined to try a southern climate. Following this plan he went as supercargo of a flatboat to New Orleans and having disposed of his cargo he went into the piney woods of Mississippi where, combining outdoor life with careful and temperate living, he regained his health. While living here he was first appointed county surveyor, then deputy United States surveyor. After his marriage in 1829, he moved to Texas, his father and father-in-law having preceded him to this new and primitive country.</p> <p>His first, employment in this country was farming and stock raising. Although this work kept him busy he found time for civic affairs as well and was elected delegate from La Vace district to the convention held in 1833 at San Felipe, to outline the position of the colonies and to petition the Mexican government for separation from the state of Coahuila. Having been appointed by General Austin to superintend the official surveys, he complied the first topographical map of the colonies and up to the time of the Mexican invasion had charge of the land office at San Felipe. When the Mexican War broke out Mr. Borden with two others, procured a printing press and materials and published the only newspaper issued in Texas during the war. He held the chief management of the paper and used it as an agent, toward resisting the establishment of the Central government by Santa Anna.</p> <p>When the Republic of Texas was finally established Mr. Borden was appointed by President Houston as first revenue collector of the port, of Galveston, a city which had been surveyed and laid out by Mr. Borden in 1837. The 12 years of his life beginning in 1839 were spent as agent, of the Galveston City Company, a corporation holding several thousand acres on which the city was built.</p> <p>During this period gold was discovered in California and the rush of the ''forty-niners" came. Most, of these people were from the East, traveling in their big covered "prairie schooners'' across the mountain passes, canyons, and deserts. The greatest problem on these long, tiresome, and hazardous trips was the necessity for a suitable food, and this was called to the attention of Mr. Borden. He, ever alert and sympathetic to the needs of his fellowman, determined to try to make a food that would be portable and easily kept from fermentation. With this in mind he began experiments which resulted in the production of a meat biscuit, the merits of which were immediately recognized. Then confident, of the success of his project, he invested all his savings in the extensive manufacture of his new food product. But just, as it seemed that success was his, clever and scheming individuals who were furnishing the army with bulky supplies saw their business was being undermined by the introduction of this new concentrated product and adopted practices that caused Mr. Borden such financial losses that he came out, of this adventure penniless.</p> <p>This experience doubtless was very discouraging, and a person with less perseverance would probably have let, it end his ambition along this line. But Mr. Borden did not give up; instead he used this as a stepping stone for what followed. He immediately returned to New England and began experimenting with one of the most important of all foods-milk. He knew milk to be the most perfect single article of food-the only one, in fact, which when fed alone, will sustain life, and yet the most perishable and the most difficult, to get to the large cities in its original purity and freshness. If he could in some way solve this problem how many thousands of infants in the large cities could be saved and what a help to the sailor, the invalid, and the soldier at camp! So with these things in mind he set about his problem.</p> <p>He knew nothing of the "germ theory" at, that time but had learned from his experience with the meat biscuit, that if he could prevent the beginning of any decomposition he would have little trouble. He had perceived that medicines were made by boiling away the water from the plant juices and that sugar was made by condensing the juice from sugar cane. So at, the very outset his imaginative mind conceived the idea of preserving milk by the simple removal of water, accompanied by the prevention of the entrance of any foreign matter into the milk from the time it was drawn from the cow until the completion of the process. He probably reasoned the thing out after considering the direct method of the nursing young animal. Milk is nature's own and best food and when the young nurses its mother there is no exposure whatever of the food to the air and, therefore, no entrance of dirt from this source.</p> <p>Mr. Borden was aware of the fact, that. up to this time, many attempts had been made to solidify milk, also to find a suitable substitute for it, hut he considered them all failures to a certain degree-at least, they did not approach the excellence he believed possible.</p> <p>Many of his scientific friends tried to discourage him in attempting to solidify milk which contained its original amount of butterfat. They said he should first remove part of the cream, then proceed. Borden would not be discouraged, however, and continued experimenting with whole milk until his original object, was attained and he had produced condensed whole milk.</p> <p>But the public is ever skeptical and ready to follow the advice of the philosopher who said, "Be not the first by which the new is tried nor yet, the last to lay the old aside." So it, was difficult and tedious work for Mr. Borden to get, the public interested in his product and not until 1861, at the beginning of the Civil War, did condensed milk become so widely used that. the demand rapidly increased and soon far exceeded the supply.</p> <p>In an early day many denied Mr. Borden's claim for the original discovery of the only process for condensing milk but facts will prove that there were no grounds for these denials.<br /> After many tests and experiments and careful observance of results Mr. Borden became more and more convinced that the protection from harmful atmospheric influences during the process of evaporation was highly essential. But he found many difficulties in his way when trying to carry out this method, a most troublesome one being the adhesion of the albumin of the milk to the sides of the vacuum pan. A very homely incident caused him to discover a means by which he could eliminate this trouble. While visiting at the home of a farmer friend he noticed that, the housewife greased the pot preparatory to making "minute pudding." He used the same principle, on his vacuum pan. Another difficulty he encountered was the foaming of the milk and the possibility of loss of milk by boiling over. Finally Mr. Borden overcame these obstacles to such an extent that, he felt he was justified in applying for a patent.</p> <p>His first application was made in 1853. In this he declared the chief feature of the process to he evaporation in vacuo. He asserted very clearly the-importance of protecting the milk from the action of the atmosphere in order to prevent incipient decomposition and this was achieved by use of the vacuum. This application was refused because it was said to lie; neither new nor useful. He was told that the vacuum process was used both in the making of sugar and the preparation of extracts. Of this fact he was already aware but, he also knew that it was used for an entirely different purpose, namely, to avoid burning and discoloration. Several cases were produced to prove that this process had been patented before, but. Mr. Borden's attorney in London proved beyond all doubt that no one had ever used a vacuum pan for evaporating milk under a patent. This settled the dispute over the question of its novelty. Then only remained the problem of persuading the commissioner that the vacuum was important. The commissioner wrote Mr. Borden that, milk condensed with the care and skill which he had used would give as successful results without a vacuum as with it. He informed Mr. Borden, however, that if he could prove to him the necessity of the closed or vacuum process he would grant the patent.<br /> Immediately upon the receipt of this information Mr. Borden proceeded to obtain statements in the form of affidavits from several noted scientific men who, after trying out both the open kettle and the vacuum, concluded that, the condensation in vacuum was by far the superior method. Thus its usefulness was proved.</p> <p>On August 19, 1856, more than three years after his first application, he was granted his patent. About the same time he was also granted a patent in England.</p> <p>Now he was ready to begin the manufacture of condensed milk. Here again he met with reverses and discouragements. Finally, however, Borden's Condensed Milk was placed on the market, in a small way. But he had been to so much expense in procuring his patent that he had very little funds left with which to finance the manufacture of his product. Not until February, 1858, when he had interested Jeremiah Milbank, a wealthy man of Wall Street fame, who furnished him financial aid, did he have adequate means to develop his invention. At this time the New York Condensed Milk Company was formed but progressed very slowly. Of the many companies organized at different times to work -under Borden's patent, the most successful was the "Gail Borden Eagle Brand."<br /> In June, 1861, just after the outbreak of the Civil War, with the aid of Milbank, he opened a factory at Wassaic, New York, 84 miles from New York on the Harlem railroad. Had it not been for the war it would have taken much longer for condensed milk to become extensively used but it was found to be both nourishing and easily carried, thus making it, especially useful for the soldier in action.<br /> In 1862 a factory was opened in Elgin, Illinois. In 1863 two others were opened at, Brewster, New York. A great deal of the credit, for the beginning of sanitary production and handling of milk belongs to Mr. Borden. Very early in his experimentations he discovered the difference between trying to condense milk which had been handled in a sanitary manner and that which had not. Those who knew of him and his works spoke lightly of this as the "absurdly fastidious neatness" of Mr. Borden. In an address delivered by X. A. Willard in January, 1872, on "Condensed Milk Manufacture, "Mr. Borden is quoted as saying:<br /> "The success of the milk manufactured at our three factories known as the 'Gail Borden Eagle Brand,' is due to the attention which we give to the personal inspection of every department of the dairies on the farms, which is assigned to one person at each factory; the constant, examination of even- man's milk by samples taken and subjected to tests as to cream, sweetness and the time it, will keep after being brought from the dairies. In short, there is nothing manufactured requiring so much care and everlasting vigilance and attention as that of milk. From the time it. is drawn from the cow, until hermetically sealed in cans, it, requires that everything should be done with the utmost, integrity."<br /> For the education of the producers who furnished milk to his factories he compiled and very rigidly enforced a set of 15 rules, several of the most, important of which are given below. They will illustrate his understanding of the importance of details to be observed in sanitary production of milk:<br /> "I. The milk shall lie drawn from the cow in the most cleanly manner and strained thru wire-cloth strainers.<br /> "II. The milk must be thoroughly cooled immediately after it is drawn from the cow, by placing the can in which it is contained m a tub or vat. of cold water deep enough to come up to height of the milk in the can, containing at least, three times as much water as there is milk to be cooled; the milk to be occasionally stirred until the animal heat. is expelled.<br /> "XI. The Company shall clean and steam the cans at the factory, free of charge, but customers, shall keep the outside clean. The pails and strainers employed shall be by the seller thoroughly cleaned, scalded in boiling water, and dried morning and night.<br /> "XIV. The cows are not to be fed on turnips or other food which would impart a disagreeable flavor to the milk, nor upon any food which will not produce milk of standard richness."<br /> Mr. Borden has rendered a great service to thousands of people both in the past and at the present time; soldiers at camp and in hospitals during all the wars from the. Civil War to the World War, citizens both well and ill, and most of all, to the city-born baby. Before condensed milk was known, city babies and older children had been in many instances fed on milk which was not only greatly diluted but which had come from diseased cows and cows fed on distillery slops and sold as "pure country milk."<br /> Gail Borden lived to enjoy a fortune made from condensed milk but did not live to see unsweetened condensed milk put up in sealed cans. This was not accomplished until 10 or 12 years after his death. In the early days no way had been discovered for sterilizing the unsweetened condensed milk so the fat would not separate in the can. This difficulty was later overcome by adjusting the temperature of sterilization and a homogenizer.<br /> Although most of his fame came thru his work with milk, Mr.Borden accomplished a great deal with other foods. His meat biscuit already mentioned was shown at the first World's Exhibition at London in 1851 and won the Great Council Medal, the highest award attainable. At this time he was elected honorary member of the London Society of Arts. When Dr. Kane needed a concentrated food for his polar expedition Mr. Borden made pemmican, a food prepared from beef and fat and flavored with berries. Along with this food were preparations of tea, coffee, and cocoa requiring only the addition of hot water to produce the favorite beverage.<br /> Mr. Borden died at the age of 73 in the little town in Texas which bears his name. He was a man with a hearty, frank, agreeable manner, a ready conversationalist with a fund of information and anecdote. Those who knew him best spoke of him as the model pattern of a kind-hearted and Christian gentleman, one who hated sham or deception. He gave away large sums of money for charity and no needy person asked in vain for financial aid. The vision and imagination of Gail Borden laid the foundation for one of the greatest branches of dairying and it is fitting that his name be enrolled among the great leaders of the industry.</p> </div> <p>0. E. Reed is chief of the Bureau of Dairying of the United States Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. Previous to this he served as head of the Dairy Departments in the Agricultural Colleges of Kansas, Indiana, and Michigan, and before that was a member of the Dairy Department of the Missouri College, of Agriculture. He 'is a past president of the American Dairy Science Association, was a delegate to the world's dairy congress in. London in 1938 and has made other trips to Europe to study dairying there. He is in ideal position, to summarize the effects of the invention, of the condensed milk. process and the life of Gail Borden upon the dairy industry.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:54:25 +0000 Anonymous 276 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Carl De Laval https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/carl-de-laval <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Carl De Laval</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: J.C. McDowell IT IS TRUE that this country has a long list of inventions to its credit, but the cream separator is not. one of them. It was invented by Carl Gustaf De Laval in Sweden in 1878,a little more than 50 years ago. Gustaf De Laval was born in Sweden May 9, 1845. The name De Laval is of French origin. One of his ancestors came from France and settled in Sweden in 1622. This ancestor seems to have come of a warrior family, as he is reported to have thought with Gustavus Adolphus in at least one of the campaigns carried on by that great Swedish general. Unlike his warrior ancestor, Gustaf De Laval was not interested in a military career. He was a thorough student and acquired a liberal as well as a technical education. In 1863 he became a student in the Upsala. University and was graduated from that institution in 1866 at the age of 21. In 1887 he is said to have received a doctor&#039;s degree from the same institution. While in college, he specialized in engineering; but not being able to obtain work at once in his chosen field, he clerked for a time in a store. Though he was a thoroughly trained engineer, with a diploma from a first-class university, he spent his time weighing out. supplies to the miners in the neighborhood in order to earn a living. Later he was engaged in various occupations, but his interest centered in a. study of machinery and he finally became one of the greatest, inventors in an age of invention. His discoveries and inventions in the field of dairying were so numerous and so valuable that he has sometimes been called -the Edison of Dairying.&quot; Previous to 1878, butter was made entirely from cream that was separated by means of the gravity method. The process was slow, the cream was usually sour, and the separation was so incomplete that considerable cream was left in the skimmilk. The gravity system is still used on many farms in this country, but it&quot; has been displaced generally by the machine known as the centrifugal cream separator, for which De Laval is responsible. The idea of separating the cream from whole milk by whirling the milk did not originate; with De Laval, but he. was the first to devise a machine that would accomplish that purpose in a practical way. The separation of liquids by means of centrifugal force is said to have been first used by the Chinese, but so far as known they never applied this knowledge to the separation of milk. As early as 1859 a German brewer applied centrifugal force to the separation of milk by rotating a barrel containing milk. After a time, the barrel was stopped and the cream was skimmed off De Laval heard of the work of the German brewer and offered to co-operate with him. As the German took little interest, in the invention, De Laval went ahead alone with his experiments.  His first, machine consisted of cups, or buckets, which being filled with milk were whirled rapidly. As the buckets were whirled they took a horizontal position. The cream, being lighter than the other parts of the milk, gradually came towards the center; that is, toward the tops of the. buckets. After the buckets were whirled for some time, the machine was stopped and the cream was skimmed off. The machine, was very slow. as it, separated only six gallons of milk at a time. De Laval was demonstrating the work of this machine to some of his friends one day, when one of those present remarked that as an experiment it, was very interesting. Then turning to De Laval he asked, &quot;How many of those machines do you think would be needed on a. farm where 100 cows are kept?&quot; Within a, few weeks after making his first separator, De Laval had so improved his machine that it, would separate 35 gallons of milk .at a, time, but it was not until he made a machine thru which the milk flow was continuous that the invention was really a success. This machine, invented in 1S78, was called the &quot;Continuous Centrifugal Cream Separator.&quot; It, was a power driven machine with a capacity of about, 300 pounds of milk per hour. De Laval also invented the first hand separator. Thru the continuous flow separator the milk flowed in a small continuous stream and was whirled and separated as it, passed along. The cream flowed out constantly thru one spout and the skimmilk thru another. The principle was identical with that of the cream separators of today, though the first machines were much less efficient in quantity of work done, and they did not remove the butterfat so completely as is done by the modern separators. The continuous centrifugal cream separator was a great success from the start. Within a. few years from the time it was invented, it had almost completely revolutionized the dairy business. The great superstructure of modern dairying has for its foundation the cream separator and the Babcock test for milk and cream. If these two foundation pillars were removed from modern dairying, the superstructure would fall almost as quickly, and certainly as completely, as the great Philistine theater is reported to have fallen when the two center posts gave way in the hands of Samson. De Laval demonstrated his cream separator in England in 1879. While there he was presented with a silver medal by the Royal Agricultural Society of England. As time passed he received many honors. The King of Sweden presented him with the Cross of the Order of Wasa and made him a Knight of the Order of the North Star. In 1886 he became a member of the Academy of Science, and that society awarded him a gold medal in 1892. He was made an honorary member of the Agricultural Academy of Sweden in 1896. In 1904 he was presented with a medal by the Engineers&#039; Society of Germany in recognition of his work on the steam turbine. After the invention of the cream separator in 1878, he spent most of his time perfecting that machine and working out other inventions. He built, a large factory in Stockholm for the manufacture of cream separators. In 1883 he invented the steam turbine, which probably added as much to his fame as did the cream separator. Though De Laval was a great inventor in other fields as well as dairying and a tireless worker in his chosen field of engineering, it is said that he was a poor business man and throughout his whole life was never in good financial circumstances. He was, however, perfectly honest and upright in all his financial dealings. To further his inventions De Laval sometimes found it necessary to borrow money. Occasionally he borrowed small amounts from his cousin. It is related that on one such occasion he offered to give his cousin a note covering the amount of the loan. His cousin replied, &quot;Oh, never mind, it isn&#039;t worth while; for you will never be able to pay it anyhow.&quot; The first continuous flow cream separators were power-driven machines with a capacity of about 300 pounds of milk per hour. The first separators used in this country were shipped here, from Sweden. These were power-driven machines with a capacity of about 700 pounds of milk per hour. The price at which these machines were sold in this country was $250. The first, hand separators in this country were shipped here in 1885. Though these machines were expensive, hard to operate, and much less efficient than the hand machines of today, they soon became very popular. Well do I remember the excitement, caused by the first cream separator shipped into my home county in central Wisconsin. Nobody in our neighborhood had yet seen one and there was much speculation as to how it, worked. We were all acquainted with the mechanism of the grain separator that separated the wheat from the straw/and we were familiar with the fanning mill that separated oats and weed seeds from the wheat; but we could not even imagine how a machine could separate cream from the milk. Finally one of our neighbors saw this separator at work, and he explained its principles to us. He said that the separator was not made with seives as was the case when oats and wheat were separated in the fanning mill. He explained that the cream and skimmilk were separated by means of whirling: that the. whole milk was whirled very rapidly and the skimmilk being heavier than the cream passed to the outside of the circle, where it was removed by a, spout, and that the cream being lighter collected at the center where it was removed by another spout. His explanation satisfied us and for a brief explanation in simple language, I think it was very good. Though De Laval&#039;s invention separated the cream from the milk, the dairy industry was still confronted with two pressing problems: how rich in butterfat. was the cream, and how much butterfat was still left in the skimmilk? It, was just about this time that Dr. S. M. Babcock of the Wisconsin University made his great contribution to the dairy industry by discovering a simple test that determined with great accuracy the percentage of butterfat in whole milk, in cream, and in skimmilk. Almost immediately creameries, cheese factories, skimming stations, condenseries, and other establishments sprang into being and dairying took its place: among the great, industries. Thus the invention of the cream separator soon brought untold wealth to the great dairy districts of the. world. The cream separator helps every individual dairy farmer that uses it. As a rule, the old shallow pan system left more than 10 percent of the cream in the skimmilk. Therefore, if a cow produced 300 pounds of butterfat a year, the shallow pan system would leave 30 pounds of this production in the skimmilk. At 50 cents a pound this 30 pounds of butterfat would have a value of $15. Therefore, with a herd of 20 cows whose average butterfat production was 300 pounds the dairyman would suffer an annual loss of $300. It has been estimated that if all the cream that is used annually in the making of butter in the United States had to be separated by the deep-setting system, the yearly loss in butterfat, at farm. prices for the product, would be more than $35,000,000. The butterfat left in the skimmilk by the cream separator is negligible, so this saving of $35,000,000 may be credited to De Laval&#039;s great invention. When we remember that, this saving is not for one year only, but that it will extend over all the years to come, we get some idea. of the great value of this. invention to the people of the United States. As the cream separator is now used in all the great dairy districts of the world, the total value of this invention to the world&#039;s dairy industry each year must be several times $35,000,000. Though De Laval&#039;s two great, inventions were the cream separator and the steam turbine, he had many lesser inventions to his credit. In order to determine the percentage of butterfat in milk he invented the lactocrite which was practical but which was soon superseded by the more simple test discovered by Dr. Babcock. De Laval built a. factory in Stockholm in which to manufacture incandescent, and arc electric lamps. He invented the centrifugal emulsifier and patented a mechanical milker in 1894. He planned to build machinery to utilize the water power which is so abundant, in Sweden but gave this up when he found that the government claimed all the water rights. While De Laval devoted most of his time and all of his resources to inventions, he was also interested in public affairs. For eight years he served in the Swedish Parliament, two years in the Lower House and six years in the Upper House. &#039; Not caring to remain longer in politics he declined reelection and spent the remainder of his life in Ins chosen field, that of invention.  The year 1928 marked the Fiftieth, or Golden Anniversary of the invention of the cream separator. At, that time many articles regarding the great, inventor appeared in the agricultural papers all over the United States, and the De. &quot;Laval Separator Company published a. book made up of letters received at that time from the leading dairy specialists in this country. All those letters highly praised Dr. De Laval and his great inventions. De Laval lived until 1913. Though he never became rich, he left the world richer because of his many contributions to practical mechanics. To prove that he was truly great, we need only say that his entire life was a life of intelligent service to his fellowmen. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: J.C. McDowell IT IS TRUE that this country has a long list of inventions to its credit, but the cream separator is not. one of them. It was invented by Carl Gustaf De Laval in Sweden in 1878,a little more than 50 years ago." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div><em>BY: J.C. McDowell</em></div> <p>IT IS TRUE that this country has a long list of inventions to its credit, but the cream separator is not. one of them. It was invented by Carl Gustaf De Laval in Sweden in 1878,a little more than 50 years ago.</p> <p>Gustaf De Laval was born in Sweden May 9, 1845. The name De Laval is of French origin. One of his ancestors came from France and settled in Sweden in 1622. This ancestor seems to have come of a warrior family, as he is reported to have thought with Gustavus Adolphus in at least one of the campaigns carried on by that great Swedish general.</p> <p>Unlike his warrior ancestor, Gustaf De Laval was not interested in a military career. He was a thorough student and acquired a liberal as well as a technical education. In 1863 he became a student in the Upsala. University and was graduated from that institution in 1866 at the age of 21. In 1887 he is said to have received a doctor's degree from the same institution.</p> <p>While in college, he specialized in engineering; but not being able to obtain work at once in his chosen field, he clerked for a time in a store. Though he was a thoroughly trained engineer, with a diploma from a first-class university, he spent his time weighing out. supplies to the miners in the neighborhood in order to earn a living. Later he was engaged in various occupations, but his interest centered in a. study of machinery and he finally became one of the greatest, inventors in an age of invention. His discoveries and inventions in the field of dairying were so numerous and so valuable that he has sometimes been called -the Edison of Dairying."</p> <p>Previous to 1878, butter was made entirely from cream that was separated by means of the gravity method. The process was slow, the cream was usually sour, and the separation was so incomplete that considerable cream was left in the skimmilk. The gravity system is still used on many farms in this country, but it" has been displaced generally by the machine known as the centrifugal cream separator, for which De Laval is responsible. The idea of separating the cream from whole milk by whirling the milk did not originate; with De Laval, but he. was the first to devise a machine that would accomplish that purpose in a practical way. The separation of liquids by means of centrifugal force is said to have been first used by the Chinese, but so far as known they never applied this knowledge to the separation of milk.</p> <p>As early as 1859 a German brewer applied centrifugal force to the separation of milk by rotating a barrel containing milk. After a time, the barrel was stopped and the cream was skimmed off De Laval heard of the work of the German brewer and offered to co-operate with him. As the German took little interest, in the invention, De Laval went ahead alone with his experiments.<span> </span></p> <p>His first, machine consisted of cups, or buckets, which being filled with milk were whirled rapidly. As the buckets were whirled they took a horizontal position. The cream, being lighter than the other parts of the milk, gradually came towards the center; that is, toward the tops of the. buckets. After the buckets were whirled for some time, the machine was stopped and the cream was skimmed off.</p> <p>The machine, was very slow. as it, separated only six gallons of milk at a time. De Laval was demonstrating the work of this machine to some of his friends one day, when one of those present remarked that as an experiment it, was very interesting. Then turning to De Laval he asked, "How many of those machines do you think would be needed on a. farm where 100 cows are kept?"</p> <p>Within a, few weeks after making his first separator, De Laval had so improved his machine that it, would separate 35 gallons of milk .at a, time, but it was not until he made a machine thru which the milk flow was continuous that the invention was really a success. This machine, invented in 1S78, was called the "Continuous Centrifugal Cream Separator." It, was a power driven machine with a capacity of about, 300 pounds of milk per hour. De Laval also invented the first hand separator.</p> <p>Thru the continuous flow separator the milk flowed in a small continuous stream and was whirled and separated as it, passed along. The cream flowed out constantly thru one spout and the skimmilk thru another. The principle was identical with that of the cream separators of today, though the first machines were much less efficient in quantity of work done, and they did not remove the butterfat so completely as is done by the modern separators.</p> <p>The continuous centrifugal cream separator was a great success from the start. Within a. few years from the time it was invented, it had almost completely revolutionized the dairy business. The great superstructure of modern dairying has for its foundation the cream separator and the Babcock test for milk and cream. If these two foundation pillars were removed from modern dairying, the superstructure would fall almost as quickly, and certainly as completely, as the great Philistine theater is reported to have fallen when the two center posts gave way in the hands of Samson.</p> <p>De Laval demonstrated his cream separator in England in 1879. While there he was presented with a silver medal by the Royal Agricultural Society of England. As time passed he received many honors. The King of Sweden presented him with the Cross of the Order of Wasa and made him a Knight of the Order of the North Star. In 1886 he became a member of the Academy of Science, and that society awarded him a gold medal in 1892. He was made an honorary member of the Agricultural Academy of Sweden in 1896. In 1904 he was presented with a medal by the Engineers' Society of Germany in recognition of his work on the steam turbine.</p> <p>After the invention of the cream separator in 1878, he spent most of his time perfecting that machine and working out other inventions. He built, a large factory in Stockholm for the manufacture of cream separators. In 1883 he invented the steam turbine, which probably added as much to his fame as did the cream separator.</p> <p>Though De Laval was a great inventor in other fields as well as dairying and a tireless worker in his chosen field of engineering, it is said that he was a poor business man and throughout his whole life was never in good financial circumstances. He was, however, perfectly honest and upright in all his financial dealings. To further his inventions De Laval sometimes found it necessary to borrow money. Occasionally he borrowed small amounts from his cousin. It is related that on one such occasion he offered to give his cousin a note covering the amount of the loan. His cousin replied, "Oh, never mind, it isn't worth while; for you will never be able to pay it anyhow."<br /> The first continuous flow cream separators were power-driven machines with a capacity of about 300 pounds of milk per hour. The first separators used in this country were shipped here, from Sweden. These were power-driven machines with a capacity of about 700 pounds of milk per hour. The price at which these machines were sold in this country was $250. The first, hand separators in this country were shipped here in 1885. Though these machines were expensive, hard to operate, and much less efficient than the hand machines of today, they soon became very popular.</p> <p>Well do I remember the excitement, caused by the first cream separator shipped into my home county in central Wisconsin. Nobody in our neighborhood had yet seen one and there was much speculation as to how it, worked. We were all acquainted with the mechanism of the grain separator that separated the wheat from the straw/and we were familiar with the fanning mill that separated oats and weed seeds from the wheat; but we could not even imagine how a machine could separate cream from the milk. Finally one of our neighbors saw this separator at work, and he explained its principles to us. He said that the separator was not made with seives as was the case when oats and wheat were separated in the fanning mill. He explained that the cream and skimmilk were separated by means of whirling: that the. whole milk was whirled very rapidly and the skimmilk being heavier than the cream passed to the outside of the circle, where it was removed by a, spout, and that the cream being lighter collected at the center where it was removed by another spout. His explanation satisfied us and for a brief explanation in simple language, I think it was very good.</p> <p>Though De Laval's invention separated the cream from the milk, the dairy industry was still confronted with two pressing problems: how rich in butterfat. was the cream, and how much butterfat was still left in the skimmilk? It, was just about this time that Dr. S. M. Babcock of the Wisconsin University made his great contribution to the dairy industry by discovering a simple test that determined with great accuracy the percentage of butterfat in whole milk, in cream, and in skimmilk.</p> <p>Almost immediately creameries, cheese factories, skimming stations, condenseries, and other establishments sprang into being and dairying took its place: among the great, industries. Thus the invention of the cream separator soon brought untold wealth to the great dairy districts of the. world. The cream separator helps every individual dairy farmer that uses it. As a rule, the old shallow pan system left more than 10 percent of the cream in the skimmilk. Therefore, if a cow produced 300 pounds of butterfat a year, the shallow pan system would leave 30 pounds of this production in the skimmilk. At 50 cents a pound this 30 pounds of butterfat would have a value of $15. Therefore, with a herd of 20 cows whose average butterfat production was 300 pounds the dairyman would suffer an annual loss of $300.</p> <p>It has been estimated that if all the cream that is used annually in the making of butter in the United States had to be separated by the deep-setting system, the yearly loss in butterfat, at farm. prices for the product, would be more than $35,000,000. The butterfat left in the skimmilk by the cream separator is negligible, so this saving of $35,000,000 may be credited to De Laval's great invention.</p> <p>When we remember that, this saving is not for one year only, but that it will extend over all the years to come, we get some idea. of the great value of this. invention to the people of the United States. As the cream separator is now used in all the great dairy districts of the world, the total value of this invention to the world's dairy industry each year must be several times $35,000,000.<br /> Though De Laval's two great, inventions were the cream separator and the steam turbine, he had many lesser inventions to his credit. In order to determine the percentage of butterfat in milk he invented the lactocrite which was practical but which was soon superseded by the more simple test discovered by Dr. Babcock. De Laval built a. factory in Stockholm in which to manufacture incandescent, and arc electric lamps. He invented the centrifugal emulsifier and patented a mechanical milker in 1894. He planned to build machinery to utilize the water power which is so abundant, in Sweden but gave this up when he found that the government claimed all the water rights. While De Laval devoted most of his time and all of his resources to inventions, he was also interested in public affairs.</p> <p>For eight years he served in the Swedish Parliament, two years in the Lower House and six years in the Upper House. ' Not caring to remain longer in politics he declined reelection and spent the remainder of his life in Ins chosen field, that of invention.<span> </span></p> <p>The year 1928 marked the Fiftieth, or Golden Anniversary of the invention of the cream separator. At, that time many articles regarding the great, inventor appeared in the agricultural papers all over the United States, and the De. "Laval Separator Company published a. book made up of letters received at that time from the leading dairy specialists in this country. All those letters highly praised Dr. De Laval and his great inventions.</p> <p>De Laval lived until 1913. Though he never became rich, he left the world richer because of his many contributions to practical mechanics. To prove that he was truly great, we need only say that his entire life was a life of intelligent service to his fellowmen.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:53:44 +0000 Anonymous 271 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Clarence Eckles https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/clarence-eckles <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Clarence Eckles</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: E.M. Harmon NEVER quit a. job till you have won. And be reasonably sure you can master any situation you tackle.&quot; It is a good many years since these words or their substance came across the desk of G. H. Eckles to a raw country boy who was just, completing his college course. The question was whether to accept, a, menial job offering small pay but valuable experience or to take a position which offered a much greater salary but gave less assurance of depend-ability. In his quiet, sincere way and with his ever-reassuring friendship the &quot;Chief,&quot; as he is fondly known by hundreds of former students, was giving advice that, is having a lifelong influence upon the individual whose future was in the balance&#039;. But we do not mention this as an isolated case. It, is one of hundreds. Some have followed his advice. Others have not. But in practically every case the ones who have heeded the quiet, unassuming suggestions of this modest man have found that lie pointed the way to success and satisfaction. And herein lies one of the important reasons why that world calls him great and why his former students as a unit pay such tributes to the &quot;Chief.&quot; It can be saidwithout fear of challenge that no other individual has started so many men toward the top rungs of the ladder in the dairy industry. To complete the proof of his greatness as a &quot;maker of men&quot; we need only to call attention to the universal tributes paid him individually and collectively by his great group of former students.  The influence of C. H. Eckles on the dairy industry today is immeasurable. Among all the state colleges of agriculture in the United States the dairy departments of 14 of them are headed by Eckles&#039; trained men. In 11 others Eckles&#039; trained men hold positions of major responsibility. In the Dairy Bureau of the United States Department, of Agriculture a large percentage of the men in positions of responsibility are Eckles trained. Two of the national dairy cattle, breed association secretaries fondly call him &quot;Chief.&quot; Two editors of prominent, farm papers, one publisher, and a number of other successful men in other phases of farm and dairy publication work owe their start, in the dairy world to him. A large number of county agents in all sections of the United States, are proud to give him credit for their early dairy training. And the number of his former students who are outstandingly successful breeders, dairy farm managers, creamery and milk plant operators and managers of co-operative dairy organizations is rapidly growing.  It was in 1916 at the National Dairy Show at Springfield, Massachusetts, that a little group of Eckles&#039; trained men started a movement that is probably without parallel in the dairy industry. The Eckles Club has grown to a place above that of almost any other organization in the minds of most of its members. It includes only those men who have taken advanced degrees under Doctor Eckles or those who, after completing undergraduate work have achieved satisfactory recognition in the dairy industry. This group now includes nearly 200 men in most of that states and many foreign countries. But the path to this position has not been easy. Born on a Marshall County, Iowa, farm on April 14, 1875 he experienced many of the hardships which were all too common in the early days on the plains. His father, Charles, came from England and, after serving as a. captain in the federal army, settled what is still the home, farm. At the age of 89 he is still living but the farm is now being operated by another son, Herbert, who is also a graduate of Iowa State College. In 1922 the senior Eckles was one of the first Iowa farmers to be given honorary recognition by his state college at, Ames. His mother Elvira who died three years ago at the age of S3 came from a prominent old New England family. At the age of 16 young Eckles entered Iowa State College. A portion of his expenses were paid by work around the dairy barn for the munificent sum of 10 cents an hour. Four years later in 1895 he was graduated and received the appointment as assistant in &#039;dairying. By the end of another two years he had earned the degree of Master of Science. During the years from 1896 to 1901 a leave of absence from the Iowa State College made possible a period of study as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin. On another leave he served one winter as instructor at the Massachusetts Agricultural College.  In 1898 he married Alice Smith of Ida Grove, Iowa. There is no question but that her sympathetic encouragement has had much to do with his success. They have three children all of whom are now married. Charles is marketing specialist in dairy and poultry in the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at Washington. Doris and her husband are living in Minnesota, while the youngest, Ruth, and her family are in Connecticut. In 1901 he, went from Iowa State College to the University of Missouri to organize the dairy department there. It was a job that would have baffled many men. Started to work in an old shed which was later used as a slaughter house and with a hand churn and farm separator for equipment it was his job to solve the dairy problems of a state which within a quarter of a century would boast of a $100,000.000 yearly dairy revenue. Many men much more than 26 years old would have been stumped. His first few years were devoted to getting acquainted with the job he had undertaken. He built a herd and systematized the record systems which became so valuable to him in his later work. He was studying. The first year he attended farmers&#039; meetings in 8O counties of the state. To use the common expression, &quot;he had his feet. on that ground,&quot; and if there is any one trait that is more characteristic of Eckles than any other it is that one. He first finds out what the problem is beyond any reasonable doubt and then strikes straight for the solution. Then followed a year abroad. First he studied at the University of Gottingen, Germany, under Fleischman and later at Berne in Switzerland under vein Frudenreich, another noted bacteriologist. As a result of this work he published three scientific papers of an outstanding nature. Furthermore, he came back with a. new vision for the organization and conduct of a research program. Since then his rise in the dairy industry has been nothing short of phenomenal. He secured what was then a very adequate building and equipment for research work and gradually began to surround himself with a small but capable group of workers.  Then was started a research career which brought him a constantly increasing recognition. His outstanding work had to do with studies of growth and nutritional problems with dairy cattle. To enumerate the work done by him and his associates is to a great extent to narrate the progress of experimental work along dairy cattle lines. In other words Eckles has been an important contributor to most of the important dairy research since that time. Not long ago the head of the dairy husbandry department of one of our important state colleges, and a man who has never been associated with Eckles in any way, made the statement to me that. almost every problem he or his associates would undertake would lead straight to some work that Eckles has done.  Anything like a complete list of problems which Eckles has solved and given to that world would be impossible in an article of this nature. They include a very complete study of the difference in feed requirements between high and low-producing animals, influence of age upon milk and fat composition, influence of the plane of nutrition of the cow upon the composition of &#039;milk and fat, nutrients required to develop the foetus, silo capacities, moisture content of silage, silage molds, and a host of others. As much as fifteen years ago Eckles was carrying on very extensive studies on raising calves on milk substitutes. This problem is attracting much attention in whole-milk sections today and is a vital economic problem to the dairyman. It can safely be said that most, of the information on this problem that has been brought, to light, during the past few years was proven first, by Eckles 10 to 12 years ago. It is his studies and contributions to the knowledge of growth and nutrition in its many different phases that. Eckles is outstanding. All together he is the author or co-author of 88 different, bulletins and scientific papers dealing with as many different scientific problems that he has studied. This is in addition to a vast number of papers of lesser importance and popular articles. By 1908 Eckles was receiving invitations to talk before dairy organizations in other states. A record still on file at, the University of Missouri shows that by the time another ten years had rolled around he was in almost constant demand. This. List shows he spoke at state meetings in 22 states.  In 1909 he declined an offer to become chief of the dairy division in the United States Department of Agriculture. He has had a number of other offers to head the dairy departments of some of the leading agricultural colleges in the United States. Numerous chances to capitalize on his work in a commercial way have come to him but he has always seen fit to follow his own advice to others: that is, to master the problem he has set out for himself. Neither will he tell you of these opportunities in private conversation. Modest, almost: to the point of timidity, it is the research problems before the industry or &quot;his boys&quot; out in the industry that he most likes to talk about. In 1911 he published the book, &quot;Dairy Cattle and Milk Production.&quot; which is probably used as a textbook in dairy schools in more than half of the more enlightened countries of the world. Five years later in co-operation with Dr. Warren he published the book, &quot;Dairy Farming,&quot; designed for secondary schools.  It was in 1918 that the University of Minnesota induced him to accept the place of chief of the dairy department there, and the next year he made the change. Here again his soundness showed itself. Minnesota had heard great things of Eckles and they expected him to accomplish much of the work he has since completed. Just as he approached the problem at Missouri his first years were spent in studying the situation in that state. The result is that, he has given Minnesota a definite research program. He has brought, the levels of graduate work there to such a plane that there are now a large number of men coming to this institution for doctor&#039;s degrees from all parts of the country and abroad. That Minnesota, appreciates Eckles is&quot; probably best shown by the wholehearted support, in securing the splendid new dairy building on the campus known as Haecker Hall. The dairy industry of the state as a whole backed this important move to give to him the facilities and equipment needed to solve its dairy problems. And Minnesota has been repaid. The phosphorous deficiency problem which was almost ruining the livestock industry in considerable areas of the state has been studied and mastered. Altogether, 63,000 dairymen in the state have asked for his circular, &quot;Feeding the Dairy Cow.&quot; His work has had an immeasurable effect, upon feeding methods, not, only in Minnesota and Missouri but, throughout the nation.  In fairness to Eckles, we must mention also that his research work has led him into many lines other than feeding. He has contributed much to that study of bacteriological and breeding problems. It is the work of his department that has enabled the creameries of that section to master their butter mold problems and to save hundreds of thousands of dollars. Honors have come in great numbers. In 1915 his name was in &quot;Who&#039;s Who in America,&#039;&#039; one of the first to gain such distinction thru work in the dairy field. In 1916 he was awarded the degree of doctor of science by Iowa State College. He was one of the organizers of the American Dairy Science Association and has served two 2-year terms, as president of that organization. He sponsored its organization in its present successful form. He is a Fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of Alpha Zeta, a, scholastic fraternity, and is national president, of Gamma Sigma Delta, another scholastic fraternity. He is a member of Sigma Xi and the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, and was recently elected an alumni member of Phi Kappa, Phi, another scholastic organization. Other similar honors might, be mentioned, and they continue to come to him year after year. Still just in the prime of life, there is no question that the list of important research problems which lie has solved for that industry will be greatly enlarged upon. Also it, is reasonable to suppose, that the long list of leaders which he has given to dairying will increase rapidly. But. thru it lie will always be that same quiet, almost, timid, yet studious and thoroughly beloved &quot;Master Mind of Dairying.&quot; E. M. Harmon was for four years a student of Dr. C. H. Eckles at the University of Missouri and is a graduate of that institution: Later on he spent eight years in charge of dairy extension work- in that state. During that time lie served for seven, years as secretary of the State Dairy Association and for two years as chairman of the National Association of Dairy Extension Workers. He is now associate editor of Successful Farming. His close contacts with Dr. Eckles make possible this interesting story. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: E.M. Harmon NEVER quit a. job till you have won. And be reasonably sure you can master any situation you tackle.&quot; It is a good many years since these words or their substance came across the desk of G. H. Eckles to a raw country boy who was just, completing his college course." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div><em>BY: E.M. Harmon</em></div> <p><img alt="Clarence Eckles" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="8384d530-95c8-4462-8286-41cad1423457" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/eckles.PNG" class="align-right" />NEVER quit a. job till you have won. And be reasonably sure you can master any situation you tackle." It is a good many years since these words or their substance came across the desk of G. H. Eckles to a raw country boy who was just, completing his college course.</p> <p>The question was whether to accept, a, menial job offering small pay but valuable experience or to take a position which offered a much greater salary but gave less assurance of depend-ability. In his quiet, sincere way and with his ever-reassuring friendship the "Chief," as he is fondly known by hundreds of former students, was giving advice that, is having a lifelong influence upon the individual whose future was in the balance'. But we do not mention this as an isolated case. It, is one of hundreds. Some have followed his advice. Others have not. But in practically every case the ones who have heeded the quiet, unassuming suggestions of this modest man have found that lie pointed the way to success and satisfaction.</p> <p>And herein lies one of the important reasons why that world calls him great and why his former students as a unit pay such tributes to the "Chief." It can be saidwithout fear of challenge that no other individual has started so many men toward the top rungs of the ladder in the dairy industry. To complete the proof of his greatness as a "maker of men" we need only to call attention to the universal tributes paid him individually and collectively by his great group of former students.<span> </span></p> <p>The influence of C. H. Eckles on the dairy industry today is immeasurable. Among all the state colleges of agriculture in the United States the dairy departments of 14 of them are headed by Eckles' trained men. In 11 others Eckles' trained men hold positions of major responsibility. In the Dairy Bureau of the United States Department, of Agriculture a large percentage of the men in positions of responsibility are Eckles trained. Two of the national dairy cattle, breed association secretaries fondly call him "Chief."</p> <p>Two editors of prominent, farm papers, one publisher, and a number of other successful men in other phases of farm and dairy publication work owe their start, in the dairy world to him. A large number of county agents in all sections of the United States, are proud to give him credit for their early dairy training. And the number of his former students who are outstandingly successful breeders, dairy farm managers, creamery and milk plant operators and managers of co-operative dairy organizations is rapidly growing.<span> </span></p> <p>It was in 1916 at the National Dairy Show at Springfield, Massachusetts, that a little group of Eckles' trained men started a movement that is probably without parallel in the dairy industry. The Eckles Club has grown to a place above that of almost any other organization in the minds of most of its members. It includes only those men who have taken advanced degrees under Doctor Eckles or those who, after completing undergraduate work have achieved satisfactory recognition in the dairy industry. This group now includes nearly 200 men in most of that states and many foreign countries.</p> <p>But the path to this position has not been easy. Born on a Marshall County, Iowa, farm on April 14, 1875 he experienced many of the hardships which were all too common in the early days on the plains. His father, Charles, came from England and, after serving as a. captain in the federal army, settled what is still the home, farm. At the age of 89 he is still living but the farm is now being operated by another son, Herbert, who is also a graduate of Iowa State College. In 1922 the senior Eckles was one of the first Iowa farmers to be given honorary recognition by his state college at, Ames. His mother Elvira who died three years ago at the age of S3 came from a prominent old New England family.</p> <p>At the age of 16 young Eckles entered Iowa State College. A portion of his expenses were paid by work around the dairy barn for the munificent sum of 10 cents an hour. Four years later in 1895 he was graduated and received the appointment as assistant in 'dairying. By the end of another two years he had earned the degree of Master of Science. During the years from 1896 to 1901 a leave of absence from the Iowa State College made possible a period of study as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin. On another leave he served one winter as instructor at the Massachusetts Agricultural College.<span> </span></p> <p>In 1898 he married Alice Smith of Ida Grove, Iowa. There is no question but that her sympathetic encouragement has had much to do with his success. They have three children all of whom are now married. Charles is marketing specialist in dairy and poultry in the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at Washington. Doris and her husband are living in Minnesota, while the youngest, Ruth, and her family are in Connecticut.</p> <p>In 1901 he, went from Iowa State College to the University of Missouri to organize the dairy department there. It was a job that would have baffled many men. Started to work in an old shed which was later used as a slaughter house and with a hand churn and farm separator for equipment it was his job to solve the dairy problems of a state which within a quarter of a century would boast of a $100,000.000 yearly dairy revenue. Many men much more than 26 years old would have been stumped.</p> <p>His first few years were devoted to getting acquainted with the job he had undertaken. He built a herd and systematized the record systems which became so valuable to him in his later work. He was studying. The first year he attended farmers' meetings in 8O counties of the state. To use the common expression, "he had his feet. on that ground," and if there is any one trait that is more characteristic of Eckles than any other it is that one. He first finds out what the problem is beyond any reasonable doubt and then strikes straight for the solution.</p> <p>Then followed a year abroad. First he studied at the University of Gottingen, Germany, under Fleischman and later at Berne in Switzerland under vein Frudenreich, another noted bacteriologist. As a result of this work he published three scientific papers of an outstanding nature. Furthermore, he came back with a. new vision for the organization and conduct of a research program.</p> <p>Since then his rise in the dairy industry has been nothing short of phenomenal. He secured what was then a very adequate building and equipment for research work and gradually began to surround himself with a small but capable group of workers.<span> </span></p> <p>Then was started a research career which brought him a constantly increasing recognition. His outstanding work had to do with studies of growth and nutritional problems with dairy cattle. To enumerate the work done by him and his associates is to a great extent to narrate the progress of experimental work along dairy cattle lines. In other words Eckles has been an important contributor to most of the important dairy research since that time. Not long ago the head of the dairy husbandry department of one of our important state colleges, and a man who has never been associated with Eckles in any way, made the statement to me that. almost every problem he or his associates would undertake would lead straight to some work that Eckles has done.<span> </span><br /> Anything like a complete list of problems which Eckles has solved and given to that world would be impossible in an article of this nature. They include a very complete study of the difference in feed requirements between high and low-producing animals, influence of age upon milk and fat composition, influence of the plane of nutrition of the cow upon the composition of 'milk and fat, nutrients required to develop the foetus, silo capacities, moisture content of silage, silage molds, and a host of others. As much as fifteen years ago Eckles was carrying on very extensive studies on raising calves on milk substitutes. This problem is attracting much attention in whole-milk sections today and is a vital economic problem to the dairyman. It can safely be said that most, of the information on this problem that has been brought, to light, during the past few years was proven first, by Eckles 10 to 12 years ago. It is his studies and contributions to the knowledge of growth and nutrition in its many different phases that. Eckles is outstanding. All together he is the author or co-author of 88 different, bulletins and scientific papers dealing with as many different scientific problems that he has studied. This is in addition to a vast number of papers of lesser importance and popular articles.</p> <p>By 1908 Eckles was receiving invitations to talk before dairy organizations in other states. A record still on file at, the University of Missouri shows that by the time another ten years had rolled around he was in almost constant demand. This. List shows he spoke at state meetings in 22 states.<span> </span></p> <p>In 1909 he declined an offer to become chief of the dairy division in the United States Department of Agriculture. He has had a number of other offers to head the dairy departments of some of the leading agricultural colleges in the United States. Numerous chances to capitalize on his work in a commercial way have come to him but he has always seen fit to follow his own advice to others: that is, to master the problem he has set out for himself. Neither will he tell you of these opportunities in private conversation. Modest, almost: to the point of timidity, it is the research problems before the industry or "his boys" out in the industry that he most likes to talk about.<br /> In 1911 he published the book, "Dairy Cattle and Milk Production." which is probably used as a textbook in dairy schools in more than half of the more enlightened countries of the world. Five years later in co-operation with Dr. Warren he published the book, "Dairy Farming," designed for secondary schools.<span> </span></p> <p>It was in 1918 that the University of Minnesota induced him to accept the place of chief of the dairy department there, and the next year he made the change. Here again his soundness showed itself. Minnesota had heard great things of Eckles and they expected him to accomplish much of the work he has since completed. Just as he approached the problem at Missouri his first years were spent in studying the situation in that state.</p> <p>The result is that, he has given Minnesota a definite research program. He has brought, the levels of graduate work there to such a plane that there are now a large number of men coming to this institution for doctor's degrees from all parts of the country and abroad. That Minnesota, appreciates Eckles is" probably best shown by the wholehearted support, in securing the splendid new dairy building on the campus known as Haecker Hall. The dairy industry of the state as a whole backed this important move to give to him the facilities and equipment needed to solve its dairy problems. And Minnesota has been repaid. The phosphorous deficiency problem which was almost ruining the livestock industry in considerable areas of the state has been studied and mastered. Altogether, 63,000 dairymen in the state have asked for his circular, "Feeding the Dairy Cow." His work has had an immeasurable effect, upon feeding methods, not, only in Minnesota and Missouri but, throughout the nation.<span> </span></p> <p>In fairness to Eckles, we must mention also that his research work has led him into many lines other than feeding. He has contributed much to that study of bacteriological and breeding problems. It is the work of his department that has enabled the creameries of that section to master their butter mold problems and to save hundreds of thousands of dollars.</p> <p>Honors have come in great numbers. In 1915 his name was in "Who's Who in America,'' one of the first to gain such distinction thru work in the dairy field. In 1916 he was awarded the degree of doctor of science by Iowa State College. He was one of the organizers of the American Dairy Science Association and has served two 2-year terms, as president of that organization. He sponsored its organization in its present successful form. He is a Fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of Alpha Zeta, a, scholastic fraternity, and is national president, of Gamma Sigma Delta, another scholastic fraternity. He is a member of Sigma Xi and the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, and was recently elected an alumni member of Phi Kappa, Phi, another scholastic organization.</p> <p>Other similar honors might, be mentioned, and they continue to come to him year after year. Still just in the prime of life, there is no question that the list of important research problems which lie has solved for that industry will be greatly enlarged upon. Also it, is reasonable to suppose, that the long list of leaders which he has given to dairying will increase rapidly. But. thru it lie will always be that same quiet, almost, timid, yet studious and thoroughly beloved "Master Mind of Dairying."</p> <p>E. M. Harmon was for four years a student of Dr. C. H. Eckles at the University of Missouri and is a graduate of that institution: Later on he spent eight years in charge of dairy extension work- in that state. During that time lie served for seven, years as secretary of the State Dairy Association and for two years as chairman of the National Association of Dairy Extension Workers. He is now associate editor of Successful Farming. His close contacts with Dr. Eckles make possible this interesting story.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:52:45 +0000 Anonymous 266 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Theophilus Haecker https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/theophilus-haecker <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Theophilus Haecker</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: W. A. Gordon A MERRY, little man, whose twinkling bright eyes belie the accuracy of his estimate that he is &quot;physically sound but mentally bankrupt,&#039;&#039; is Theophilus Levi Haecker. Deep furrows line his face, but they are joyous wrinkles-the wrinkles of a man who has laughed much, even while arduous labor of mind and body was leaving its impress. They call him the &quot;Father of Dairying&quot; in Minnesota, where 664 nourishing co-operative creameries now pour a golden stream of butter into the consuming centers of America, and a golden stream of dollars into almost, every farming community in the state. Those co-operative creameries stand as testimonials to an indomitable will for this man Haecker was a stubborn individual who would not let discouraging conditions swerve him from his determination to see a prosperous creamery in even- locality where farmers could be prevailed .upon to milk cows. He must have been somewhat of a fanatic, too, for who but, a fanatic heedless of self would have traveled on foot enduring hardships and insults, without personal reward, when others less equipped with intellect and training were prospering from the development of a new industry in a new country? But if fanaticism it was, it was the kind of fanaticism which brought happiness, not pain. America is still young enough to look upon its pioneers as the products of log cabins, and Mr. Haecker is not disappointing in this respect. The fourth child of a family of 12, he entered the world in a little log cabin in Medina County, Ohio, on May 4, 1846. He was 7 years old when his family moved to Wisconsin to settle on a farm at Cottage Grove. Typical of the times, his first schooling was received in a. deserted log cabin. It was in 1860, when the clouds of a war which was to rend the country in half were hovering over the land, that his father sold the farm and rented another on the east shore of Lake Monona, four miles from Madison. Back in a German border town, years before, the grandfather of young Haecker had resolved to leave the homeland and seek a country where the curse of militarism did not hang like a cloud over every farm and hamlet. It was primarily this thought that impelled his migration to the United States with his family. Yet it did not deter the grandson from offering his services to his country during the great Civil War. No call to arms at the bidding of an ambitious monarch this, but a war which involved the very existence of the Union. It need only be said that young Theophilus served his country well, for history is too much a chronicle of wars and, after all, it was in pursuits of peace that Mr. Haecker made his greatest contributions. It was at Cottage Grove that he had his introduction to dairying, and his mother was his teacher. However, it was not until some years later, when hack at Cottage. Grove he commenced farming on his own account, that the dairy cow began to receive the earnest attention of the man who was to contribute generously toward her elevation to the, top rank of America&#039;s agricultural industry. In the meantime, following his return from the war, lie worked for a short time among his old neighbors in Wisconsin before joining his family in Franklin County, Iowa, where it had moved while he was in the army. He went back to Wisconsin to attend the state university in March, 1867, and divided his time between teaching and being taught, until 1871, when he entered newspaper work for two years. Following this, he farmed for a while at. Cottage Grove, but on May 11, 1874, entered the office of W. R. Taylor, governor of Wisconsin, as private secretary, a position which he retained for 17 years, although each succeeding governor, before election, intended another person for that; position. Meanwhile he continued developing his farming enterprise, and later returned when his connection with the state capitol was severed. He had already acquired fame as a dairyman, and had been entrusted by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin with the task of selecting the purebred stock for the university farm. By agreement, with the regents he purchased some for his own farm at the same time and later, when he returned to Cottage Grove, started the first of his co-operative activities in the organization of a. farmers&#039; creamery and a co-operative fire insurance, company. These co-operative activities were later to make him famous; so were the feeding studies which had their birth upon the Cottage Grove farm. But seldom mentioned is Mr. Haecker&#039;s contribution to agricultural education made at this time. Nevertheless, it was because of his constant preaching of the need of practical agricultural education and the pressure he brought to bear upon the regents of the university, that. a short course was offered in agriculture at Madison. Farmers who boasted that they were &quot;practical&quot; showed the same discouraging attitude then that the farmers of Minnesota were to demonstrate later, but then, as later, Haecker&#039;s eyes twinkled and his lips smiled and his jaw set, firmly as he alternately cajoled, and pleaded-and accomplished his purpose. Contrary to the generally existing belief in agricultural circles, Mr. Haecker was not a young man when he joined the staff of the Minnesota College of Agriculture, which marked the beginning of his memorable career in dairy investigation. It was in 1891, when he was 45 that he went to Minnesota, and at least a year later before he was actively launched in the studies which brought fame to him, and fortune to Minnesota. But if his work prior to joining the staff of Minnesota had brought him only local fame, it was the groundwork which enabled him to make such rapid strides in his new position. Starting with the purchase of a college herd, his work carried him thru almost the entire gamut of dairy subjects.  The field for investigational work was almost unlimited. There was so much to learn, so many problems to solve. Production, manufacturing, marketing-this trio necessary to the dairy farmer&#039;s prosperity represented a fertile field for his analytical mind. It is difficult to estimate in which of the three his greatest contribution was made. Perhaps the manufacturing phase of the work received less of his personal attention, or perhaps because it received more attention from others, his contributions to our knowledge of dairy manufacturing earned less lasting fame than those dealing with the production and marketing angles. Certainly nothing he has done in manufacturing can compare with his work in formulating feeding standards, nor with his accomplishments in marketing which the co-operative creameries of his adopted state represent. His works dealing with the care, feeding, and management of dairy cows are classics. Basic principles evolved thru those years of painful study influence many a later work today. The famous Haecker feeding standards, the first devised in America, recognized one factor never before considered in formulating such standards. Haecker recognized that more feed is required to produce a given amount of rich milk than the same amount of lower testing milk. So his feeding standard for dairy cows took into consideration the size of animal, the amount, of milk, and its content of butterfat. His keen observation and study with the university dairy herd also showed him that the old Wolff-Lehmann and the Kellner standards, both developed in Germany, required too much protein, Haecker&#039;s feeding standards, are substantially the same as other standards now being used. Perhaps because there has been no other who has worked with equal success in that field, Ins organization of co-operative creameries stands as his greatest contribution to the dairy industry. He had visioned the value of the farmer-owned factory as a young man, but few in Minnesota shared that vision. At Clarks, Grove he encountered a successful creamery of this type and occasionally he would find one in his travels in the southern part of the state. Usually, though, not only did he fail to find co-operative creameries but, harder to combat, no co-operative sentiment. Where farmers were interested in cows at all, they had been stung by promoters and were not anxious for any more experiences which would cost them money. But Haecker stuck to his guns. Aided by a few creamery supply houses which were interested in seeing creameries organized on a fairly sound foundation, and were willing to extend credit to make this possible, Professor Haecker went, about the state preaching the gospel of co-operative creameries. Whenever lie could find an audience he would mount a soap box and, often in the face of a hostile reception, would tell the, farmers that it was thru this type of organization they must work out their financial salvation. Often he was forced to walk long distances between towns because the funds available for such work would permit the. use of no other kind of transportation. But to him it was his mission on earth, and neither indifference nor weariness could swerve him from his purpose. Eventually his sincerity and his common sense won farmers to his cause, and one new co-operative creamery after another was organized. It was his sound pioneering in the co-operative field and his work of making Minnesota dairymen appreciative of the possibilities of working together that made the Land o&#039;Lakes creameries a possibility. This immense co-operative selling organization is handling the product of most of Minnesota&#039;s co-operatively owned creameries and is building a reputation for butter of high quality. In 1928 it did a business of $47,000,000, marketing more than 86,000,000 pounds of butter. Today Mr. Haecker is Professor Emeritus of the University of Minnesota, and has the leisure to visit, his widely scattered family or to go over the scenes of his achievements. Upon thousands of farms the principles of feeding which he evolved years ago form the basis of good dairy practices. Each day sees those thousands of farmers; served not, only by the 664 co-operative creameries which are the fruit of his early work, but by 226 other corporate or proprietary factories owned, for the most part, by men who have learned Haecker&#039;s doctrine that a successful creamery must serve the farmer well. Those 226 total creameries which last year manufactured approximately 275,000,000 pounds of butter that brought, to the farmers of Minnesota more than $125,000,000.  Other farmers in other states have also profited by the life and work of the gentle old man who smiles as he reads the name &quot;Haecker Hall&quot; upon the dairy building of a great university-the same modest smile with which he reads the announcement of every new honor heaped upon him. W. A. Gordon is editor of The Dairy Record of St. Paul, Minnesota. For years his work has placed him in close touch with the development of the co-operative movement in the Northwest of which T. L. Haecker is well styled the &quot;Father:&#039; These contacts have placed Mr. Gordon in an. ideal position to sum up the results of this pioneer in co-operation. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: W. A. Gordon A MERRY, little man, whose twinkling bright eyes belie the accuracy of his estimate that he is &quot;physically sound but mentally bankrupt,&#039;&#039; is Theophilus Levi Haecker. Deep furrows line his face, but they are joyous wrinkles-the wrinkles of a man who has laughed much, even while arduous labor of mind and body was leaving its impress." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>BY: W. A. Gordon</em><br /> A MERRY, little man, whose twinkling bright eyes belie the accuracy of his estimate that he is "physically sound but mentally bankrupt,'' is Theophilus Levi Haecker. Deep furrows line his face, but they are joyous wrinkles-the wrinkles of a man who has laughed much, even while arduous labor of mind and body was leaving its impress.</p> <p>They call him the "Father of Dairying" in Minnesota, where 664 nourishing co-operative creameries now pour a golden stream of butter into the consuming centers of America, and a golden stream of dollars into almost, every farming community in the state. Those co-operative creameries stand as testimonials to an indomitable will for this man Haecker was a stubborn individual who would not let discouraging conditions swerve him from his determination to see a prosperous creamery in even- locality where farmers could be prevailed .upon to milk cows. He must have been somewhat of a fanatic, too, for who but, a fanatic heedless of self would have traveled on foot enduring hardships and insults, without personal reward, when others less equipped with intellect and training were prospering from the development of a new industry in a new country? But if fanaticism it was, it was the kind of fanaticism which brought happiness, not pain.</p> <p>America is still young enough to look upon its pioneers as the products of log cabins, and Mr. Haecker is not disappointing in this respect. The fourth child of a family of 12, he entered the world in a little log cabin in Medina County, Ohio, on May 4, 1846. He was 7 years old when his family moved to Wisconsin to settle on a farm at Cottage Grove. Typical of the times, his first schooling was received in a. deserted log cabin. It was in 1860, when the clouds of a war which was to rend the country in half were hovering over the land, that his father sold the farm and rented another on the east shore of Lake Monona, four miles from Madison.</p> <p>Back in a German border town, years before, the grandfather of young Haecker had resolved to leave the homeland and seek a country where the curse of militarism did not hang like a cloud over every farm and hamlet. It was primarily this thought that impelled his migration to the United States with his family. Yet it did not deter the grandson from offering his services to his country during the great Civil War. No call to arms at the bidding of an ambitious monarch this, but a war which involved the very existence of the Union. It need only be said that young Theophilus served his country well, for history is too much a chronicle of wars and, after all, it was in pursuits of peace that Mr. Haecker made his greatest contributions.</p> <p>It was at Cottage Grove that he had his introduction to dairying, and his mother was his teacher. However, it was not until some years later, when hack at Cottage. Grove he commenced farming on his own account, that the dairy cow began to receive the earnest attention of the man who was to contribute generously toward her elevation to the, top rank of America's agricultural industry. In the meantime, following his return from the war, lie worked for a short time among his old neighbors in Wisconsin before joining his family in Franklin County, Iowa, where it had moved while he was in the army. He went back to Wisconsin to attend the state university in March, 1867, and divided his time between teaching and being taught, until 1871, when he entered newspaper work for two years.</p> <p>Following this, he farmed for a while at. Cottage Grove, but on May 11, 1874, entered the office of W. R. Taylor, governor of Wisconsin, as private secretary, a position which he retained for 17 years, although each succeeding governor, before election, intended another person for that; position. Meanwhile he continued developing his farming enterprise, and later returned when his connection with the state capitol was severed. He had already acquired fame as a dairyman, and had been entrusted by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin with the task of selecting the purebred stock for the university farm. By agreement, with the regents he purchased some for his own farm at the same time and later, when he returned to Cottage Grove, started the first of his co-operative activities in the organization of a. farmers' creamery and a co-operative fire insurance, company.</p> <p>These co-operative activities were later to make him famous; so were the feeding studies which had their birth upon the Cottage Grove farm. But seldom mentioned is Mr. Haecker's contribution to agricultural education made at this time. Nevertheless, it was because of his constant preaching of the need of practical agricultural education and the pressure he brought to bear upon the regents of the university, that. a short course was offered in agriculture at Madison. Farmers who boasted that they were "practical" showed the same discouraging attitude then that the farmers of Minnesota were to demonstrate later, but then, as later, Haecker's eyes twinkled and his lips smiled and his jaw set, firmly as he alternately cajoled, and pleaded-and accomplished his purpose.</p> <p>Contrary to the generally existing belief in agricultural circles, Mr. Haecker was not a young man when he joined the staff of the Minnesota College of Agriculture, which marked the beginning of his memorable career in dairy investigation. It was in 1891, when he was 45 that he went to Minnesota, and at least a year later before he was actively launched in the studies which brought fame to him, and fortune to Minnesota.</p> <p>But if his work prior to joining the staff of Minnesota had brought him only local fame, it was the groundwork which enabled him to make such rapid strides in his new position. Starting with the purchase of a college herd, his work carried him thru almost the entire gamut of dairy subjects.<span> </span><br /> The field for investigational work was almost unlimited. There was so much to learn, so many problems to solve. Production, manufacturing, marketing-this trio necessary to the dairy farmer's prosperity represented a fertile field for his analytical mind. It is difficult to estimate in which of the three his greatest contribution was made. Perhaps the manufacturing phase of the work received less of his personal attention, or perhaps because it received more attention from others, his contributions to our knowledge of dairy manufacturing earned less lasting fame than those dealing with the production and marketing angles.</p> <p>Certainly nothing he has done in manufacturing can compare with his work in formulating feeding standards, nor with his accomplishments in marketing which the co-operative creameries of his adopted state represent. His works dealing with the care, feeding, and management of dairy cows are classics. Basic principles evolved thru those years of painful study influence many a later work today.</p> <p>The famous Haecker feeding standards, the first devised in America, recognized one factor never before considered in formulating such standards. Haecker recognized that more feed is required to produce a given amount of rich milk than the same amount of lower testing milk. So his feeding standard for dairy cows took into consideration the size of animal, the amount, of milk, and its content of butterfat. His keen observation and study with the university dairy herd also showed him that the old Wolff-Lehmann and the Kellner standards, both developed in Germany, required too much protein, Haecker's feeding standards, are substantially the same as other standards now being used.</p> <p>Perhaps because there has been no other who has worked with equal success in that field, Ins organization of co-operative creameries stands as his greatest contribution to the dairy industry. He had visioned the value of the farmer-owned factory as a young man, but few in Minnesota shared that vision. At Clarks, Grove he encountered a successful creamery of this type and occasionally he would find one in his travels in the southern part of the state. Usually, though, not only did he fail to find co-operative creameries but, harder to combat, no co-operative sentiment. Where farmers were interested in cows at all, they had been stung by promoters and were not anxious for any more experiences which would cost them money.</p> <p>But Haecker stuck to his guns. Aided by a few creamery supply houses which were interested in seeing creameries organized on a fairly sound foundation, and were willing to extend credit to make this possible, Professor Haecker went, about the state preaching the gospel of co-operative creameries. Whenever lie could find an audience he would mount a soap box and, often in the face of a hostile reception, would tell the, farmers that it was thru this type of organization they must work out their financial salvation. Often he was forced to walk long distances between towns because the funds available for such work would permit the. use of no other kind of transportation. But to him it was his mission on earth, and neither indifference nor weariness could swerve him from his purpose. Eventually his sincerity and his common sense won farmers to his cause, and one new co-operative creamery after another was organized.</p> <p>It was his sound pioneering in the co-operative field and his work of making Minnesota dairymen appreciative of the possibilities of working together that made the Land o'Lakes creameries a possibility. This immense co-operative selling organization is handling the product of most of Minnesota's co-operatively owned creameries and is building a reputation for butter of high quality. In 1928 it did a business of $47,000,000, marketing more than 86,000,000 pounds of butter.</p> <p>Today Mr. Haecker is Professor Emeritus of the University of Minnesota, and has the leisure to visit, his widely scattered family or to go over the scenes of his achievements. Upon thousands of farms the principles of feeding which he evolved years ago form the basis of good dairy practices.<br /> Each day sees those thousands of farmers; served not, only by the 664 co-operative creameries which are the fruit of his early work, but by 226 other corporate or proprietary factories owned, for the most part, by men who have learned Haecker's doctrine that a successful creamery must serve the farmer well. Those 226 total creameries which last year manufactured approximately 275,000,000 pounds of butter that brought, to the farmers of Minnesota more than $125,000,000.<span> </span><br /> Other farmers in other states have also profited by the life and work of the gentle old man who smiles as he reads the name "Haecker Hall" upon the dairy building of a great university-the same modest smile with which he reads the announcement of every new honor heaped upon him.<br /> W. A. Gordon is editor of The Dairy Record of St. Paul, Minnesota. For years his work has placed him in close touch with the development of the co-operative movement in the Northwest of which T. L. Haecker is well styled the "Father:' These contacts have placed Mr. Gordon in an. ideal position to sum up the results of this pioneer in co-operation.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:51:30 +0000 Anonymous 261 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu William Henry https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/william-henry <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">William Henry</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: F.B. Morrison A MOST any pleasant day in Balboa Park, San Diego. California, one may see inspecting the botanical and zoological treasures, a tall, white-haired man with the sensitive face of an idealist, but, with the high-bridged nose and firm mouth of the doer. Strangers often ask his name for William Arnon Henry is still a courtly and arresting figure as he nears his eightieth birthday. Often &#039;-Dean Henry,&quot; as he is still known, will be leading a small group of absorbed visitors about the park. If you join the group, you will be richly repaid, for he knows all the interesting facts concerning the plants and animals in the great park. Your leader will delight in unfolding to you some of the mysteries of life, with a clearness and enthusiasm that, will make you realize he was a speaker who could fire the imagination of his audience. You will be surprised at his remarkably keen power of observation. He will see many details that you will likely overlook. If you sit down for a quiet, chat with Henry, you will find he is keenly interested in people and their opinions. While he never displays idle curiosity, he is such a good listener that before long, he will know who you are and also have your opinions on many important questions. When you part, even though you may not be interested in agriculture and may have never heard of Dean Henry, you will realize that you have been talking with one who has been an outstanding leader of men. The life story of Dean Henry is one to inspire the youth of our land-it is so typically American. Born on a farm near Norwalk, Ohio, on the sixteenth of June, 1S50, his impression-able boyhood days were lived during the strenuous and stirring times of the Civil War. He was still in his early teens when his father was called into the Union army. Heavy responsibilities then fell upon the boy, which undoubtedly aided much in developing the great, capacity for work for which Henry was later noted. &#039;From his boyhood experiences he learned the worth of perseverance, industry and initiative.&#039;&#039; All who knew the beloved dean in the years of his prime were impressed with his enthusiastic industry.&#039; He liked to work, and particularly to do a task just as well as it was possible to perform it. Moreover, for him to set his mind on a goal meant that sooner or later that goal was reached. Uncontrollable events and circumstances, the indifference and misunderstanding of others, lack of money and unforeseen responsibilities - such obstacles as these might impede him. But he usually reached his objective in the end. It has been said of him that. Impatient in small things, in large affairs his patience amounted to genius. Henry was what we Americans love to call &#039;&#039;a self-made man.&quot; His parents endowed him with a heritage of good ancestry, trained him well in the fundamentals of character and high ideals, and instilled in him a, desire for a thorough education. Since the family resources were not sufficient, to meet the expenses of a college education, it was necessary for him to work his way thru college. After a period of study in Ohio Wesleyan University he had to interrupt his course to earn money, and served as principal of high schools in Indiana and Colorado for five years. He tells with a smile how lie and two or three of his older students in Colorado &quot;batched it&quot; in order to cut their expenses to the minimum. In 1876 he entered Cornell University and completed the course in agriculture four years later, receiving the degree of bachelor of agriculture. Henry&#039;s life should be an especial inspiration to lads who see before them no easy road to a college education. Undaunted by difficulties, he began his course at Cornell when already 26, several years older than most men are on graduation. Yet when he retired at 57, he had gained an international reputation. At Cornell he supplemented the funds lie had saved while teaching by doing jobs of various kinds, including tending furnaces and running a student club. His ability was soon recognized in the department in which lie was specializing, and during the latter part of his course, he served as student, instructor in botany. Even then it, was necessary for him to economize to the utmost, so for more than a semester lie slept on the floor in a corner of the laboratory. During the last summer of his college course he gained valuable experience as an assistant to Professor C. V. Riley on the United States Entomological Commission at Washington, D. C. It was at this time that. Henry first, came into contact, with Dr. Babcock, beginning a friendship that later brought this great agricultural chemist to Wisconsin. Henry desired to have a chemical analysis made of some secretion of silkworms, so sent it to the professor of agricultural chemistry at Cornell. He in turn gave it to young Babcock to see what he could do with it. This led to their becoming good friends when Henry returned to the campus the next autumn. Just at, the time of Henry&#039;s graduation from Cornell, the regents of the University of Wisconsin were looking for a man to take the position of professor of botany and agriculture. The late Judge E. W. Keyes, president of the board of regents and also leader of the majority party in the state, had the following to say regarding his first meeting with Henry: &#039;&#039;We wanted a young man who possessed the attributes of success: who would not only do his duty well in his special calling, but would also be a competent helper to the board of regents in the new movement to revolutionize this branch of the university and make it meet the demands of the advanced farmers of the state. &quot;We also desired a person who would combine the qualifications of a teacher and the business tact to manage the University Farm. Up to this time, the farm had been managed in a very slatternly manner and was badly run down at the heel. &quot;The president finally reported to me that his correspondence had resulted in finding a young man from Cornell, who might fill the bill, and that he was in the city ready to be sized up. Soon Henry was appointed to take the combined position of &quot;professor of botany and agriculture&quot; at Wisconsin.  It is a treat to hear Henry tell about his early years at Wisconsin. The &#039;&#039;and agriculture&quot; part of his title meant little, because there was no experiment station, no agricultural college-not even so much as a department of agriculture in the university. It. was understood by both the regents and by Henry that he was to develop the work in this new field. How- ever, neither knew quite how to go about the task and at, first the new professor busied himself largely with teaching botany and getting acquainted with Wisconsin conditions. Henry&#039;s career furnishes an outstanding example of a man whose farsighted vision and keen judgment led him to make the radical change from his first specialty. Though trained as a botanist and horticulturist, when he became acquainted with Wisconsin conditions he came to the conclusion that, except in a few favored localities, horticulture could not, be the dominant industry on account of the climate. He saw that for years grain, particularly wheat, had been the leading cash crop, but that. due to the depletion of fertility, and the ravages of the chinch bug, the yield of wheat, had declined below the point of profit. He came to the conclusion that the future for the agriculture of the state lay chiefly in the development, of livestock farming, particularly dairying, for it was evident that the climate and soil of Wisconsin was particularly adapted to an extensive development of this industry.  Therefore he threw his great, energy into the development of dairying and other phases of the livestock industry, instead of his &quot;first love,&quot; horticulture.  At the time Henry took up his work in Wisconsin, the preservation of green forage by ensiling it was just beginning to attract attention. Henry believed that such&#039; preservation of green, succulent feed offered great possibilities in livestock farming. Professor I. P. Roberts of Cornell University, his former teacher, came to the same conclusion almost simultaneously. In 1881 these two men built at their respective institutions the first silos used for experimental purposes in America. The pioneer investigations of Henry on the value of silage for live- stock, together with the studies of Professor King,&#039; whom lie later brought to Wisconsin, on the construction of silos and the ensiling of fodders, were of inestimable, value in convincing farmers that they could increase their net returns by the use of corn silage, one of the cheapest of feeds. At first, the majority of farmers scoffed at the idea of ensiling corn fodder. Statements were widespread that silage would eat away the teeth of cows, would upset their digestion, and could not but lead to disaster. Henry patiently told them of the excellent results he was securing with silage, giving facts and figures to prove his statements. He continued to talk silos and silage at every opportunity, and without, question his wise leadership in those early days is the primary reason why Wisconsin now has over 112,000 silos, more than are found m any other state in the Union. At first Henry had practically no funds for his investigations and indeed all facilities were most meager. When he began his career at Wisconsin, a table, two chairs, a little stationery, an ink stand, and some record hooks made up the office equipment of the agricultural department. The only office was on the second floor of the dwelling house at the university farm. The cheap pine table which served as his first desk is now on display in the agricultural library of the university. Realizing the need of funds for investigations, Henry took up the matter with friends in the legislature and a bill was introduced to appropriate the modest sum of $3,000 for investigations of the ensiling of fodders and the manufacture of cane sugar from sorghum. This was the first attempt to secure an appropriation for research in the university, and naturally it met, with much opposition. Henry delights&#039; in telling how &#039;one of the legislative leaders leaned across the aisle and remarked to his boon companion, &quot;Let&#039;s kill this pup before it gets to be a dog.&quot; Undoubtedly the &quot;pup&quot; would have been killed, and thoroughly killed, had it not been for Henry&#039;s inspirational zeal and enthusiasm. He convinced the hard-headed legislators that it was good business for the state to support agricultural investigations, and the appropriation was granted. By 1883, Henry had thoroughly gained the respect of the agricultural leaders of the state. Governor Jeremiah Rusk, himself a prominent agriculturist, in his annual message recommended the establishment of an agricultural experiment station at the university, calling specific attention to the value of the work done by the agricultural department, of the university, and mentioning Professor Henry by name. This station was established the same year by the university board of regents, and Henry&#039;s title was changed to &quot;professor of agriculture.&quot; Though Henry gained, almost at, the outset, the firm support of the agricultural leaders of the state, including such men as Rusk and W. D. Hoard, the rank and file of farmers were less ready to listen to the apostle of scientific farming. Many disheartening moments came to the teacher of the new gospel. Fortunately, he had the gift of a silver tongue, and also possessed a great genius for making friends. So Henry &quot;stumped the state,&quot; preaching scientific agriculture, on every possible occasion. Though farmers often came to scoff, they were usually won by the magnetic personality and enthusiasm of the speaker. Even within the university itself there were numerous skeptics who laughed at, the idea of scientific agriculture and particularly at higher education for farmers. It was true that at, this time there were practically no students in agriculture. Henry never admitted, however, that agriculture would not. soon take rank with the other professions, and stoutly maintained that farmers would in time see the value of &quot;book farming.&quot; His saving sense of humor often aided him over the rough going. Since it appeared impossible at that time to induce many farm boys to take a regular university course in agriculture, the idea came to certain of the regents that the university should provide a brief non-degree course for farm boys. Henry&#039;s colleagues in other departments of the university laughed at this idea and even his associates in the agricultural department predicted it would be a failure. However, he at once saw the great possibilities, and declared it must be made a success. As a result in 1885 the first agricultural short course in America was established under his direction with 19 students. This new development in agricultural education met with ridicule and scorn on the part, of the educators in some of the other states. However, it proved to be such a. potent agency for agricultural improvement that practically every state in the Union finally adopted a somewhat similar plan. The first short course students went home and told their friends about the practical instruction they had received, and Henry in his trips about the state urged fathers to send their sons down to Madison for the winter. As a result, the enrollment grew steadily. It would be difficult today to measure the benefit that this work has been to the state and nation. In Wisconsin more than 7,000 students have received this valuable instruction, and nearly all of them have gone back to put into actual practice the scientific facts they have learned. Now, in any section of the state, you will find that the great, majority of the agricultural leaders have been students at the agricultural college at some time or other. In 1887 the Hatch Act which granted $15.000 annually to each state for the agricultural experiment, station, was passed by congress. This provided for the first time fairly adequate funds for the investigations Henry desired to carry forward. Naturally, he was appointed the first director of the experiment station. Later, with the growth of the agricultural department under his energetic leadership, the college of agriculture was established in 1891, and Henry was made its first dean. In 1888 one of the most important steps in the development of dairying was taken, when Henry went to New York to persuade his friend, Dr. Babcock, to come to Wisconsin as agricultural chemist, to fill the position left vacant by the resignation of Dr. Armsby to become director of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. The association of these two men meant much in the development of agriculture. In temperament they were admirable supplements to each other-Henry, forceful and aggressive, and Babcock, shy and retiring. While Henry enjoyed getting out into the state to meet the fanners and become intimately acquainted with their problems, Babcock dreaded a public address, and preferred the seclusion of his laboratory. Not long after Babcock came to Wisconsin, Henry, on returning from a farmers&#039; meeting, went. into the chemical laboratory and told Babcock that he must work out a simple test for butterfat. He emphasized that without such test, dairying was on an insecure basis, and the widespread development of creamery buttermaking would be doomed to failure.  As a result of the keen vision of the one and the research genius of the other, the Babcock test, which was of such momentous value to the dairy industry, was developed. Undoubtedly, it was Henry who first &quot;sold&quot; the agricultural college-and possibly the university as well-to the people of the state. Until he arrived with his conviction that the college and the farmer would be mutually helpful, the university had little relation to the state at large. Henry focused attention on the possibilities of the, university as a service agency for the whole citizenry. To attain this result he used every means at his command-lectures, bulletins, letters, press articles, interviews-he knew the worth of each. But he was not satisfied to rest when all the usual channels had been tried, for he was a constant seeker After new ideas. Not only did he start the first agricultural abort course for farm boys, but soon after the Babcock test was invented, in 1S90. the first dairy course in America was begun along similar lines. In 1904, three years before he retired, Dean Henry was instrumental in starting the first Wisconsin farmers&#039; course. When Henry transferred his main interests from botany and horticulture to animal husbandry, it was no half-hearted transfer. He threw his whole soul into the new field. He delighted in digesting and compiling all the data available on any question. This led him early to begin the building up of an agricultural library at the university, which under his care grew until it was without an equal in the West. Appreciating thoroughly the necessity of being familiar with scientific work in foreign countries, he saw to it that the library had complete files of the important scientific journals published in foreign lands. Burdened with such numerous and exacting administrative duties as fell to his. lot, most men would have concluded they had no time for research themselves; not so with Henry. His keen mind found many practical problems in animal husbandry on which there was no information. Some of these he set out to solve, and soon gained a firm reputation as a careful investigator. He was among the earliest to study such problems as the effect of protein, carbohydrates, and minerals on the growing pig, the relative value of whole corn and cornmeal for feeding swine, the value of cooked and uncooked feed, and the value of skimmilk and many other important feeds in stock feeding. In his writings and addresses Henry continually emphasized the importance of efficiency in farming, and particularly in animal husbandry. Standing out as the first great popular teacher of scientific stock feeding, it was but natural that many calls came from other states for him to tell in his interesting manner some of the newer facts farmers were ready to hear.  In particular, emphasis was placed, time and time again, on the fundamentals necessary for profit in dairying-the right kind of cows, the proper feeds, and good care. By fact and figure, it was shown so all could understand, that the poor producing cow was a robber, not paying for her keep, but, eating up the profits earned by her more efficient, stable, mates.  The merits of the new Babcock test were explained to farmers and buttermakers. Farmers were urged to weigh the milk from their cows, test it, and know, instead of guess, at. the production of each cow. Buttermakers were exhorted to make their payments to farmers on the only fair basis, the amount of butterfat actually delivered, as proved by the simple fat test. Not only was Henry a champion of efficient production, but he was also a firm believer in co-operative effort among farmers. He delighted to tell his audiences about the great strides Denmark was making in co-operation, exhorting them to follow the example of their fellow dairymen across the water. The heads of the agricultural colleges in other states before long came to recognize one of Henry&#039;s outstanding abilities. He was a rare judge of men, and could recognize and bring out latent ability in younger and untried scientists. He is, therefore, famous in college annals for the men he &quot;picked&quot; and induced to come to Wisconsin as his associates. On account of his administrative abilities and the manner in which be built up the Wisconsin College of Agriculture, Henry finally came to be spoken of as &quot;The Dean of Deans.&quot; As an author, the dean&#039;s lasting fame rests on &quot;Feeds and Feeding,&quot; first published in 189S, and now in its nineteenth edition. It. is still used as a textbook in practically every agricultural college in the United States When one of the national farm papers a few years ago wished to determine what books had proved most helpful to American farmers, inquiries were sent to more than a thousand farm people in various districts of the country. In the ballot, &quot;Feeds and Feeding&quot; received more than three times as many votes as any other book. Energetic to the extreme, Henry never spared himself, but gave every ounce of his strength to the up building of the agriculture of his state. Due primarily to this, his health at fast broke under the strain, and in 1907, he retired from his university duties, being succeeded by his colleague, H. L. Russell, whom he had recommended to the regents of the university for the post. For some years after his retirement, Henry spent much time at Blue Hills Farm, near Wallingford, Connecticut, which he and his son developed as an extensive fruit farm. Here in the out-of-doors he loved so well, he regained his health to a great degree.&quot; Few persons who find the present parcel post a great convenience realize that Henry was to a considerable extent responsible for the passage of the parcel post, bill in 1912. Convinced of the value of parcel post to farmers, Henry went to Washington several times at his own expense to &quot;lobby&quot; for the bill. Appreciating thoroughly the force of concerted action, he wrote to every farm publication of note in the United States to request that they further the cause. He asked them to announce to their subscribers a &quot;Parcel Post Day,&quot; to be held March 1 1912 Each person interested in the parcel post development, was urged to write letters to their congressmen on this day, expressing their desire for the legislation. As a result of this clever plan, the lawmakers at Washington were fairly deluged with a mountain of mail from all the rural districts of the country. They soon saw that there was nothing for them to do but to vote for the bill, and parcel post, became an established thing in America. It was but natural that honors came to Dean Henry as a result of his accomplishments. In 1904 he received honorary doctor&#039;s degrees from the University of Illinois and the University of Vermont, and in 1907 the Michigan State College conferred on him the same distinction. Finally, the regents of the University of Wisconsin named the main entrance to the campus of the College of Agriculture in his honor-The Henry Quadrangle. At the entrance to the quadrangle a massive boulder bears a bronze tablet with the following inscription:  &quot;THE HENRY QUADRANGLE-In Recognition of the Pioneer Services of Dean William Arnon Henry to the Science and Practice of Agriculture in This University, the State and the Nation From 188O to 1907, This Approach to the College of Agriculture Has Been Designated By the Regents The Henry Quadrangle.&quot;  Like a good novel, Dean Henry&#039;s life is closing with &quot;a happy ending.&quot; In a pleasant bungalow in California amid a garden blooming the year around with the flowers he loves-he has gone back to the botany study of his youth-Wisconsin&#039;s beloved first dean lives in memory the days of his mighty past. F. B. Morrison is chief of the Animal Husbandry Depart merit of Cornell University at Ithaca, New York. Previous to that he was director of the Experiment Station at Geneva, New York, and before that vice-director of the Wisconsin Experiment Station. It was here that he came into close association with W. A. Henry. Later, when Dean Henry retired Professor Morrison carried on his work in the nutritional field. The combined success of the work of these two men is probably best told by the simple statement that the book Henry and Morrison &quot;Feeds and Feeding&#039;&#039; is recognized as a standard, authority the world, over. Certainly no one is better qualified to give -us the story of W. A. Henry. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: F.B. Morrison" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>BY: F.B. Morrison</em></p> <p><img alt="William Henry" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="0c07cff2-adb6-44a8-b567-6fde1f589db6" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/henry.PNG" class="align-right" />A MOST any pleasant day in Balboa Park, San Diego. California, one may see inspecting the botanical and zoological treasures, a tall, white-haired man with the sensitive face of an idealist, but, with the high-bridged nose and firm mouth of the doer. Strangers often ask his name for William Arnon Henry is still a courtly and arresting figure as he nears his eightieth birthday.</p> <p>Often '-Dean Henry," as he is still known, will be leading a small group of absorbed visitors about the park. If you join the group, you will be richly repaid, for he knows all the interesting facts concerning the plants and animals in the great park. Your leader will delight in unfolding to you some of the mysteries of life, with a clearness and enthusiasm that, will make you realize he was a speaker who could fire the imagination of his audience. You will be surprised at his remarkably keen power of observation. He will see many details that you will likely overlook.</p> <p>If you sit down for a quiet, chat with Henry, you will find he is keenly interested in people and their opinions. While he never displays idle curiosity, he is such a good listener that before long, he will know who you are and also have your opinions on many important questions. When you part, even though you may not be interested in agriculture and may have never heard of Dean Henry, you will realize that you have been talking with one who has been an outstanding leader of men.</p> <p>The life story of Dean Henry is one to inspire the youth of our land-it is so typically American. Born on a farm near Norwalk, Ohio, on the sixteenth of June, 1S50, his impression-able boyhood days were lived during the strenuous and stirring times of the Civil War.</p> <p>He was still in his early teens when his father was called into the Union army. Heavy responsibilities then fell upon the boy, which undoubtedly aided much in developing the great, capacity for work for which Henry was later noted. 'From his boyhood experiences he learned the worth of perseverance, industry and initiative.''</p> <p>All who knew the beloved dean in the years of his prime were impressed with his enthusiastic industry.' He liked to work, and particularly to do a task just as well as it was possible to perform it. Moreover, for him to set his mind on a goal meant that sooner or later that goal was reached. Uncontrollable events and circumstances, the indifference and misunderstanding of others, lack of money and unforeseen responsibilities - such obstacles as these might impede him. But he usually reached his objective in the end. It has been said of him that. Impatient in small things, in large affairs his patience amounted to genius.</p> <p>Henry was what we Americans love to call ''a self-made man." His parents endowed him with a heritage of good ancestry, trained him well in the fundamentals of character and high ideals, and instilled in him a, desire for a thorough education. Since the family resources were not sufficient, to meet the expenses of a college education, it was necessary for him to work his way thru college.</p> <p>After a period of study in Ohio Wesleyan University he had to interrupt his course to earn money, and served as principal of high schools in Indiana and Colorado for five years. He tells with a smile how lie and two or three of his older students in Colorado "batched it" in order to cut their expenses to the minimum.</p> <p>In 1876 he entered Cornell University and completed the course in agriculture four years later, receiving the degree of bachelor of agriculture. Henry's life should be an especial inspiration to lads who see before them no easy road to a college education. Undaunted by difficulties, he began his course at Cornell when already 26, several years older than most men are on graduation. Yet when he retired at 57, he had gained an international reputation.</p> <p>At Cornell he supplemented the funds lie had saved while teaching by doing jobs of various kinds, including tending furnaces and running a student club. His ability was soon recognized in the department in which lie was specializing, and during the latter part of his course, he served as student, instructor in botany. Even then it, was necessary for him to economize to the utmost, so for more than a semester lie slept on the floor in a corner of the laboratory.</p> <p>During the last summer of his college course he gained valuable experience as an assistant to Professor C. V. Riley on the United States Entomological Commission at Washington, D. C. It was at this time that. Henry first, came into contact, with Dr. Babcock, beginning a friendship that later brought this great agricultural chemist to Wisconsin.<br /> Henry desired to have a chemical analysis made of some secretion of silkworms, so sent it to the professor of agricultural chemistry at Cornell. He in turn gave it to young Babcock to see what he could do with it. This led to their becoming good friends when Henry returned to the campus the next autumn.</p> <p>Just at, the time of Henry's graduation from Cornell, the regents of the University of Wisconsin were looking for a man to take the position of professor of botany and agriculture. The late Judge E. W. Keyes, president of the board of regents and also leader of the majority party in the state, had the following to say regarding his first meeting with Henry:<br /> ''We wanted a young man who possessed the attributes of success: who would not only do his duty well in his special calling, but would also be a competent helper to the board of regents in the new movement to revolutionize this branch of the university and make it meet the demands of the advanced farmers of the state.</p> <p>"We also desired a person who would combine the qualifications of a teacher and the business tact to manage the University Farm. Up to this time, the farm had been managed in a very slatternly manner and was badly run down at the heel.</p> <p>"The president finally reported to me that his correspondence had resulted in finding a young man from Cornell, who might fill the bill, and that he was in the city ready to be sized up. Soon Henry was appointed to take the combined position of "professor of botany and agriculture" at Wisconsin.<span> </span></p> <p>It is a treat to hear Henry tell about his early years at Wisconsin. The ''and agriculture" part of his title meant little, because there was no experiment station, no agricultural college-not even so much as a department of agriculture in the university. It. was understood by both the regents and by Henry that he was to develop the work in this new field. How- ever, neither knew quite how to go about the task and at, first the new professor busied himself largely with teaching botany and getting acquainted with Wisconsin conditions.</p> <p>Henry's career furnishes an outstanding example of a man whose farsighted vision and keen judgment led him to make the radical change from his first specialty. Though trained as a botanist and horticulturist, when he became acquainted with Wisconsin conditions he came to the conclusion that, except in a few favored localities, horticulture could not, be the dominant industry on account of the climate.</p> <p>He saw that for years grain, particularly wheat, had been the leading cash crop, but that. due to the depletion of fertility, and the ravages of the chinch bug, the yield of wheat, had declined below the point of profit. He came to the conclusion that the future for the agriculture of the state lay chiefly in the development, of livestock farming, particularly dairying, for it was evident that the climate and soil of Wisconsin was particularly adapted to an extensive development of this industry.<span> </span></p> <p>Therefore he threw his great, energy into the development of dairying and other phases of the livestock industry, instead of his "first love," horticulture.<span> </span></p> <p>At the time Henry took up his work in Wisconsin, the preservation of green forage by ensiling it was just beginning to attract attention. Henry believed that such' preservation of green, succulent feed offered great possibilities in livestock farming. Professor I. P. Roberts of Cornell University, his former teacher, came to the same conclusion almost simultaneously.</p> <p>In 1881 these two men built at their respective institutions the first silos used for experimental purposes in America. The pioneer investigations of Henry on the value of silage for live- stock, together with the studies of Professor King,' whom lie later brought to Wisconsin, on the construction of silos and the ensiling of fodders, were of inestimable, value in convincing farmers that they could increase their net returns by the use of corn silage, one of the cheapest of feeds.<br /> At first, the majority of farmers scoffed at the idea of ensiling corn fodder. Statements were widespread that silage would eat away the teeth of cows, would upset their digestion, and could not but lead to disaster. Henry patiently told them of the excellent results he was securing with silage, giving facts and figures to prove his statements. He continued to talk silos and silage at every opportunity, and without, question his wise leadership in those early days is the primary reason why Wisconsin now has over 112,000 silos, more than are found m any other state in the Union.</p> <p>At first Henry had practically no funds for his investigations and indeed all facilities were most meager. When he began his career at Wisconsin, a table, two chairs, a little stationery, an ink stand, and some record hooks made up the office equipment of the agricultural department. The only office was on the second floor of the dwelling house at the university farm. The cheap pine table which served as his first desk is now on display in the agricultural library of the university.</p> <p>Realizing the need of funds for investigations, Henry took up the matter with friends in the legislature and a bill was introduced to appropriate the modest sum of $3,000 for investigations of the ensiling of fodders and the manufacture of cane sugar from sorghum. This was the first attempt to secure an appropriation for research in the university, and naturally it met, with much opposition. Henry delights' in telling how 'one of the legislative leaders leaned across the aisle and remarked to his boon companion, "Let's kill this pup before it gets to be a dog."</p> <p>Undoubtedly the "pup" would have been killed, and thoroughly killed, had it not been for Henry's inspirational zeal and enthusiasm. He convinced the hard-headed legislators that it was good business for the state to support agricultural investigations, and the appropriation was granted.</p> <p>By 1883, Henry had thoroughly gained the respect of the agricultural leaders of the state. Governor Jeremiah Rusk, himself a prominent agriculturist, in his annual message recommended the establishment of an agricultural experiment station at the university, calling specific attention to the value of the work done by the agricultural department, of the university, and mentioning Professor Henry by name. This station was established the same year by the university board of regents, and Henry's title was changed to "professor of agriculture."</p> <p>Though Henry gained, almost at, the outset, the firm support of the agricultural leaders of the state, including such men as Rusk and W. D. Hoard, the rank and file of farmers were less ready to listen to the apostle of scientific farming. Many disheartening moments came to the teacher of the new gospel.</p> <p>Fortunately, he had the gift of a silver tongue, and also possessed a great genius for making friends. So Henry "stumped the state," preaching scientific agriculture, on every possible occasion. Though farmers often came to scoff, they were usually won by the magnetic personality and enthusiasm of the speaker.</p> <p>Even within the university itself there were numerous skeptics who laughed at, the idea of scientific agriculture and particularly at higher education for farmers. It was true that at, this time there were practically no students in agriculture. Henry never admitted, however, that agriculture would not. soon take rank with the other professions, and stoutly maintained that farmers would in time see the value of "book farming." His saving sense of humor often aided him over the rough going.</p> <p>Since it appeared impossible at that time to induce many farm boys to take a regular university course in agriculture, the idea came to certain of the regents that the university should provide a brief non-degree course for farm boys. Henry's colleagues in other departments of the university laughed at this idea and even his associates in the agricultural department predicted it would be a failure. However, he at once saw the great possibilities, and declared it must be made a success.</p> <p>As a result in 1885 the first agricultural short course in America was established under his direction with 19 students. This new development in agricultural education met with ridicule and scorn on the part, of the educators in some of the other states. However, it proved to be such a. potent agency for agricultural improvement that practically every state in the Union finally adopted a somewhat similar plan.</p> <p>The first short course students went home and told their friends about the practical instruction they had received, and Henry in his trips about the state urged fathers to send their sons down to Madison for the winter. As a result, the enrollment grew steadily. It would be difficult today to measure the benefit that this work has been to the state and nation. In Wisconsin more than 7,000 students have received this valuable instruction, and nearly all of them have gone back to put into actual practice the scientific facts they have learned. Now, in any section of the state, you will find that the great, majority of the agricultural leaders have been students at the agricultural college at some time or other.<br /> In 1887 the Hatch Act which granted $15.000 annually to each state for the agricultural experiment, station, was passed by congress. This provided for the first time fairly adequate funds for the investigations Henry desired to carry forward. Naturally, he was appointed the first director of the experiment station. Later, with the growth of the agricultural department under his energetic leadership, the college of agriculture was established in 1891, and Henry was made its first dean.</p> <p>In 1888 one of the most important steps in the development of dairying was taken, when Henry went to New York to persuade his friend, Dr. Babcock, to come to Wisconsin as agricultural chemist, to fill the position left vacant by the resignation of Dr. Armsby to become director of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station.<br /> The association of these two men meant much in the development of agriculture. In temperament they were admirable supplements to each other-Henry, forceful and aggressive, and Babcock, shy and retiring. While Henry enjoyed getting out into the state to meet the fanners and become intimately acquainted with their problems, Babcock dreaded a public address, and preferred the seclusion of his laboratory.</p> <p>Not long after Babcock came to Wisconsin, Henry, on returning from a farmers' meeting, went. into the chemical laboratory and told Babcock that he must work out a simple test for butterfat. He emphasized that without such test, dairying was on an insecure basis, and the widespread development of creamery buttermaking would be doomed to failure.<span> </span></p> <p>As a result of the keen vision of the one and the research genius of the other, the Babcock test, which was of such momentous value to the dairy industry, was developed. Undoubtedly, it was Henry who first "sold" the agricultural college-and possibly the university as well-to the people of the state. Until he arrived with his conviction that the college and the farmer would be mutually helpful, the university had little relation to the state at large. Henry focused attention on the possibilities of the, university as a service agency for the whole citizenry.</p> <p>To attain this result he used every means at his command-lectures, bulletins, letters, press articles, interviews-he knew the worth of each. But he was not satisfied to rest when all the usual channels had been tried, for he was a constant seeker After new ideas. Not only did he start the first agricultural abort course for farm boys, but soon after the Babcock test was invented, in 1S90. the first dairy course in America was begun along similar lines. In 1904, three years before he retired, Dean Henry was instrumental in starting the first Wisconsin farmers' course.</p> <p>When Henry transferred his main interests from botany and horticulture to animal husbandry, it was no half-hearted transfer. He threw his whole soul into the new field. He delighted in digesting and compiling all the data available on any question.</p> <p>This led him early to begin the building up of an agricultural library at the university, which under his care grew until it was without an equal in the West. Appreciating thoroughly the necessity of being familiar with scientific work in foreign countries, he saw to it that the library had complete files of the important scientific journals published in foreign lands.<br /> Burdened with such numerous and exacting administrative duties as fell to his. lot, most men would have concluded they had no time for research themselves; not so with Henry. His keen mind found many practical problems in animal husbandry on which there was no information. Some of these he set out to solve, and soon gained a firm reputation as a careful investigator. He was among the earliest to study such problems as the effect of protein, carbohydrates, and minerals on the growing pig, the relative value of whole corn and cornmeal for feeding swine, the value of cooked and uncooked feed, and the value of skimmilk and many other important feeds in stock feeding.</p> <p>In his writings and addresses Henry continually emphasized the importance of efficiency in farming, and particularly in animal husbandry. Standing out as the first great popular teacher of scientific stock feeding, it was but natural that many calls came from other states for him to tell in his interesting manner some of the newer facts farmers were ready to hear.<span> </span></p> <p>In particular, emphasis was placed, time and time again, on the fundamentals necessary for profit in dairying-the right kind of cows, the proper feeds, and good care. By fact and figure, it was shown so all could understand, that the poor producing cow was a robber, not paying for her keep, but, eating up the profits earned by her more efficient, stable, mates.<span> </span></p> <p>The merits of the new Babcock test were explained to farmers and buttermakers. Farmers were urged to weigh the milk from their cows, test it, and know, instead of guess, at. the production of each cow. Buttermakers were exhorted to make their payments to farmers on the only fair basis, the amount of butterfat actually delivered, as proved by the simple fat test.</p> <p>Not only was Henry a champion of efficient production, but he was also a firm believer in co-operative effort among farmers. He delighted to tell his audiences about the great strides Denmark was making in co-operation, exhorting them to follow the example of their fellow dairymen across the water.</p> <p>The heads of the agricultural colleges in other states before long came to recognize one of Henry's outstanding abilities. He was a rare judge of men, and could recognize and bring out latent ability in younger and untried scientists. He is, therefore, famous in college annals for the men he "picked" and induced to come to Wisconsin as his associates. On account of his administrative abilities and the manner in which be built up the Wisconsin College of Agriculture, Henry finally came to be spoken of as "The Dean of Deans."</p> <p>As an author, the dean's lasting fame rests on "Feeds and Feeding," first published in 189S, and now in its nineteenth edition. It. is still used as a textbook in practically every agricultural college in the United States When one of the national farm papers a few years ago wished to determine what books had proved most helpful to American farmers, inquiries were sent to more than a thousand farm people in various districts of the country. In the ballot, "Feeds and Feeding" received more than three times as many votes as any other book. Energetic to the extreme, Henry never spared himself, but gave every ounce of his strength to the up building of the agriculture of his state. Due primarily to this, his health at fast broke under the strain, and in 1907, he retired from his university duties, being succeeded by his colleague, H. L. Russell, whom he had recommended to the regents of the university for the post.<br /> For some years after his retirement, Henry spent much time at Blue Hills Farm, near Wallingford, Connecticut, which he and his son developed as an extensive fruit farm. Here in the out-of-doors he loved so well, he regained his health to a great degree."</p> <p>Few persons who find the present parcel post a great convenience realize that Henry was to a considerable extent responsible for the passage of the parcel post, bill in 1912. Convinced of the value of parcel post to farmers, Henry went to Washington several times at his own expense to "lobby" for the bill.</p> <p>Appreciating thoroughly the force of concerted action, he wrote to every farm publication of note in the United States to request that they further the cause. He asked them to announce to their subscribers a "Parcel Post Day," to be held March 1 1912 Each person interested in the parcel post development, was urged to write letters to their congressmen on this day, expressing their desire for the legislation.</p> <p>As a result of this clever plan, the lawmakers at Washington were fairly deluged with a mountain of mail from all the rural districts of the country. They soon saw that there was nothing for them to do but to vote for the bill, and parcel post, became an established thing in America.</p> <p>It was but natural that honors came to Dean Henry as a result of his accomplishments. In 1904 he received honorary doctor's degrees from the University of Illinois and the University of Vermont, and in 1907 the Michigan State College conferred on him the same distinction. Finally, the regents of the University of Wisconsin named the main entrance to the campus of the College of Agriculture in his honor-The Henry Quadrangle. At the entrance to the quadrangle a massive boulder bears a bronze tablet with the following inscription:<span> </span></p> <p>"THE HENRY QUADRANGLE-In Recognition of the Pioneer Services of Dean William Arnon Henry to the Science and Practice of Agriculture in This University, the State and the Nation From 188O to 1907, This Approach to the College of Agriculture Has Been Designated By the Regents The Henry Quadrangle."<span> </span></p> <p>Like a good novel, Dean Henry's life is closing with "a happy ending." In a pleasant bungalow in California amid a garden blooming the year around with the flowers he loves-he has gone back to the botany study of his youth-Wisconsin's beloved first dean lives in memory the days of his mighty past.</p> <p>F. B. Morrison is chief of the Animal Husbandry Depart merit of Cornell University at Ithaca, New York. Previous to that he was director of the Experiment Station at Geneva, New York, and before that vice-director of the Wisconsin Experiment Station. It was here that he came into close association with W. A. Henry. Later, when Dean Henry retired Professor Morrison carried on his work in the nutritional field. The combined success of the work of these two men is probably best told by the simple statement that the book Henry and Morrison "Feeds and Feeding'' is recognized as a standard, authority the world, over. Certainly no one is better qualified to give -us the story of W. A. Henry.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:49:58 +0000 Anonymous 256 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu William Hoard https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/william-hoard <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">William Hoard</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: Howard E. Johnson THE dairy industry owes a great debt to William Dempster Hoard. An early champion of the specialized dairy cow and a crusader for sound and businesslike, dairy practices, his influence upon the industry is immeasurable. Hoard was born in Munnsville. Madison county, New York, on October 10, 1836, and he died at his home at, Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, on November 22, 1918. It was largely thru the influence of his paternal grandfather, Enos Hoard, and of a boyhood neighbor, Waterman Simons, that he obtained his keen insight on dairy problems and the needs of dairymen. Enos Hoard was one of the most progressive and best informed farmers in that section of the state and was a keen judge of dairy cows. Hoard spent, many of his boyhood days at his &quot;grandfather&#039;s farm while his father was away carrying on the duties of circuit, rider. Mr. Simons, for whom Hoard worked several summers, was also one of New York&#039;s most successful dairymen. It was in October, 1857, that, Hoard moved to Wisconsin but his dairy activities did not manifest themselves for another 11 years. His first, attempt at organizing dairymen was made in 1871 when the Jefferson County Dairymen&#039;s Association was started. Its field was limited and the following winter he succeeded in interesting several of the state&#039;s most, influential dairymen in the establishment, of a state-wide organization which would have enough power and influence to get results. Accordingly, on February 15, 1872, the Wisconsin Dairymen&#039;s Association was organized with &#039;William D. Hoard as secretary. This association has been a most, potent factor in building up the dairying of the state. It, originated many practical and progressive movements and sponsored every dairy activity that was sound. Thru its efforts the Farmers&#039; Institutes were started. Largely thru the demand created by it the Wisconsin College of Agriculture and the Wisconsin Dairy School, the first, in America, were started. It sponsored, fought, for, and pushed dairy legislation, notably the filled cheese and oleomargarine laws. Back of every movement was W. D. Hoard. He foresaw the need for these institutions and laws years ahead of most contemporaries. His energy, his enthusiasm, and his sound judgment, and irrefutable logic carried them to achievement. It was thru his activities as a publisher that, William Dempster Hoard is best, known to the dairy industry. His first, venture was started in Lake Mills, Wisconsin, on March 17, 1870. It was a four-page weekly newspaper and named the Jefferson County Union, a name it still carries although its home was moved to Fort Atkinson in 1873. Finances were scarce and its start was made possible largely thru the confidence of the people in its founder and publisher. His contact, with farming and dairying as a youth and his observations of the effects of one-crop farming in Wisconsin convinced him that dairying would mean the salvation of Wisconsin agriculture. Beginning with the first copy of the Jefferson County Union a department was carried where he could voice his opinions on this important subject. Later an insert devoted only to dairy and farm problems was added. But the scope and influence of a community newspaper is naturally limited and so with the encouragement of friends and fellow-workers and with many misgivings, lie embarked upon an uncharted publishing sea, that of a specialized dairy paper. At the, suggestion of friends, the new publication was named Hoard&#039;s Dairy-man., and its first issue as a separate publication appeared January 23, 1885. Most great men demonstrate their wisdom thru their selection of associates and counselors. Hoard was no exception. He was in great demand as a speaker at farmers&#039; institutes and dairymen&#039;s meetings in Wisconsin, in other parts of the country, and &quot;in Canada. This necessitated help in his editorial duties, and Joseph Smith, a brother of Hiram Smith, Wisconsin&#039;s leading dairyman and a close friend, was selected as associate editor. Other associates during these years were General George W. Burchard, an early secretary of the Wisconsin Dairymen&#039;s Association, which position is now held by his son, Paul, who is one of the present editors of Hoard&#039;s Dairyman; Chester Hazen; D. W. Curtis; George McKerrow; C. F. Goodrich; W. A. Henry, first dean of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture; and Dr. S. M. Babcock, inventor of the test which bears his name. The business end of Hoard&#039;s activities was largely conducted by his son, Frank. The two publications which Hoard started are still controlled and managed by him. In addition, his son, Arthur, operated the Hoard Creamery for many years and this creamery shares with the creamery of the late H. B. Gurler the distinction of being the first, to use the Babcock test as the basis of payment, for milk and cream. Hoard&#039;s education was obtained largely thru his own efforts. He attended the little log school, built by his grandfather, until he was 14. In addition he received inspiration to read and study from his mother. After migrating to Wisconsin he studied theology and received permission to preach, but, because of differences with the presiding elder on certain church policies and attitudes, he burned his license and took up manual labor. The ensuing years were spent at, many different tasks. Among them was that of singing schoolmaster over a circuit of towns. He was a salesman, at different, times, of pumps, washing machines, and musical instruments. He was also a Union soldier in the Civil war. All these experiences helped develop Hoard&#039;s keen under- standing of human nature which was demonstrated many times in his public life of later years. He spoke on dairying in practically every dairy section of the country and in addition made several trips across the United States borders. His kindly humor and his homely but effective illustrations added to the forcefulness of his. addresses and combined to drive home his message of dairying and sound dairy farm practices. A lifelong admirer of Abraham Lincoln, Hoard exhibited many of the fine traits of the great, emancipator. He was a champion of the common people and of the right as he saw it. Class distinction and special privilege were attacked by him at every turn. He fought, for and secured lower rates on cheese shipments originating in Chicago, which gave great impetus to the development of dairying in the Midwest. His efforts brought the first refrigerator car to Wisconsin in 1873 for shipping cheese. He, while governor of Wisconsin during 1889-90, established the Dairy and Food Commission, the first important, task of which was to attack the &#039;&#039;filled cheese&quot; industry. This was the practice of skimming the milk, substituting coconut oil for the butterfat and then making the cheese, which was naturally a decidedly inferior product, but the difference could not be detected until the cheese was partially cured. The struggle for an honest, product lasted for many years and only thru the winning of the fight, was Wisconsin&#039;s cheese industry saved. Some years later the oleomargarine industry, thru many questionable trade practices, threatened the very foundation of the dairy industry. Here, again, Hoard fought fearlessly. He attacked the practice from the platform, thru his publication, and in private interviews with politicians who were largely in control of legislation. He solicited help from even- angle and he was a leader in the battle to enact the legislation which is the foundation of our present, laws for the protection of the dairy industry.  Other activities of the, governor, though less spectacular and of less general interest, were equally important because they were fundamental to a sound agriculture. Notable was the manner in which he boosted alfalfa even against the advice of the experiment stations. He said that it would grow in Wisconsin, that it was fundamental for an economical dairy ration, and he demonstrated the truth of his assertions on Hoard&#039;s Dairyman Farm. He also was well aware of the differences in cows. Always a champion of the specialized dairy cow, he created intense, though friendly, rivalries with several contemporary editors. He also instituted a cow census covering sections of several states to determine the economic relations of the dairyman to his business. The first survey, carried on in a New York township in 1889 and covering more than 5,500 cows, showed an average yearly loss of $4.52 per cow. Something was wrong and the thinking farmers, when they learned this, blamed it on the unsuspected presence in their herds of what are now known as &quot;boarder&quot; cows. Other surveys were continued until 1908. These surveys were of great influence in the developing and popularizing of herd improvement, associations. The tuberculin test was ardently advocated by the former governor and he did much to pave the way for the introduction of the test which is now widely practiced on the comprehensive area. test plan and which is greatly reducing the prevalence of the disease. The silo, better barns, soil and farm management, lime for alfalfa, the better care of products, were all championed by him, and his efforts thru the press and on the platform helped these causes which are now accepted as sound and practical wherever the dairy cow is of importance. Hoard was in politics or in contact with political movements throughout his active life. His political career is marked by his straightforward attitude and his alignment on all questions on the side of public good regardless of party expediency. In the spring of 1888 his name was suggested for the governorship and the idea spread rapidly, finally resulting in his election. Outstanding in his achievements as governor was the enactment of the Bennett law which provided that all children between the ages of 7 and 14 should receive their instruction in the English language for a period of not less than twelve weeks during each year. These four words, &quot;in the English language,&#039;&#039; brought mountains of criticism upon him and resulted in his defeat at the next election. Schools, especially parochial schools, in many sections of the state were conducted in German or other languages with the result that many native born Americans could neither read nor speak the tongue of their nation. Despite his defeat due to the organized opposition to this point of the law, it was only a few years later that the same groups saw their mistake and publicly apologized to him. This law and his firm attitude concerning it serves as an excellent example of his ideas on Americanism to which many tributes were paid from every corner of the nation at his death. The World War, just closed at that time, had impressed the entire country with the soundness of his ideas advanced 20 years earlier. Tributes to the man at his death attest to his greatness and the esteem in which lie was held by his contemporaries throughout the nation. But another tribute, given before his death, is even more significant. A feature of the Panama-Pacific Exposition held at San Francisco in 1915 was the conferring of honors on the most distinguished citizen of each western and middle-western state. Governor E. L. Phillip was asked to appoint a commission to make the selection for Wisconsin. Seven prominent, men from widely varied walks of life were appointed and the unanimous decision, reached in one short meeting, was that William Dempster Hoard was best qualified for that honor. Previous to this, in October, 1914, his portrait, was presented to the Saddle and Sirloin Club of Chicago, where it, hangs in the club&#039;s gallery with the portraits of other great agricultural leaders. Agricultural organizations of national scope, worked together in the collection of funds for the erection of a memorial monument for the former governor. This was quickly accomplished, and Gutzon Borglum was selected to prepare the likeness in bronze. The statue was dedicated on February 3, 1922, and it, now stands in front of the agricultural hall on the campus of the University of Wisconsin. Other activities of Hoard which attest to his varied abilities, the soundness of his ideas, and the esteem in which he was held by his contemporaries include the office of Commander of the Wisconsin Grand Army of the Republic, president of the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin, organizer and for many years executive head of the Northwestern Dairymen&#039;s Association, president of the Farmers&#039; National Congress for two years, and first president of the National Dairy Union. Hoard was a pioneer, not in the establishment of farming areas in the primeval forest, but. in the formulation of new and sound ideas on dairy farming which still serve as landmarks of dairy thought and knowledge. Howard E. Jam-won -was born and reared on one- of Wisconsin&#039;s oldest Guernsey farm. He is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin and served &#039;for three years as a dairy extension, specialist at the University of Illinois, and for two years as associate editor of The Dairy Fanner. He is veil qualified to give us this interesting picture of the life of Governor Hoard. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: Howard E. Johnson THE dairy industry owes a great debt to William Dempster Hoard. An early champion of the specialized dairy cow and a crusader for sound and businesslike, dairy practices, his influence upon the industry is immeasurable." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div><em>BY: Howard E. Johnson</em></div> <p><img alt="William Hoard" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="0d293421-059b-44b9-873f-be2e6557e208" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/hoard.PNG" class="align-right" />THE dairy industry owes a great debt to William Dempster Hoard. An early champion of the specialized dairy cow and a crusader for sound and businesslike, dairy practices, his influence upon the industry is immeasurable.</p> <p>Hoard was born in Munnsville. Madison county, New York, on October 10, 1836, and he died at his home at, Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, on November 22, 1918. It was largely thru the influence of his paternal grandfather, Enos Hoard, and of a boyhood neighbor, Waterman Simons, that he obtained his keen insight on dairy problems and the needs of dairymen.</p> <p>Enos Hoard was one of the most progressive and best informed farmers in that section of the state and was a keen judge of dairy cows. Hoard spent, many of his boyhood days at his "grandfather's farm while his father was away carrying on the duties of circuit, rider. Mr. Simons, for whom Hoard worked several summers, was also one of New York's most successful dairymen.</p> <p>It was in October, 1857, that, Hoard moved to Wisconsin but his dairy activities did not manifest themselves for another 11 years. His first, attempt at organizing dairymen was made in 1871 when the Jefferson County Dairymen's Association was started. Its field was limited and the following winter he succeeded in interesting several of the state's most, influential dairymen in the establishment, of a state-wide organization which would have enough power and influence to get results. Accordingly, on February 15, 1872, the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association was organized with 'William D. Hoard as secretary.</p> <p>This association has been a most, potent factor in building up the dairying of the state. It, originated many practical and progressive movements and sponsored every dairy activity that was sound. Thru its efforts the Farmers' Institutes were started. Largely thru the demand created by it the Wisconsin College of Agriculture and the Wisconsin Dairy School, the first, in America, were started. It sponsored, fought, for, and pushed dairy legislation, notably the filled cheese and oleomargarine laws. Back of every movement was W. D. Hoard. He foresaw the need for these institutions and laws years ahead of most contemporaries. His energy, his enthusiasm, and his sound judgment, and irrefutable logic carried them to achievement.</p> <p>It was thru his activities as a publisher that, William Dempster Hoard is best, known to the dairy industry. His first, venture was started in Lake Mills, Wisconsin, on March 17, 1870. It was a four-page weekly newspaper and named the Jefferson County Union, a name it still carries although its home was moved to Fort Atkinson in 1873. Finances were scarce and its start was made possible largely thru the confidence of the people in its founder and publisher.</p> <p>His contact, with farming and dairying as a youth and his observations of the effects of one-crop farming in Wisconsin convinced him that dairying would mean the salvation of Wisconsin agriculture. Beginning with the first copy of the Jefferson County Union a department was carried where he could voice his opinions on this important subject. Later an insert devoted only to dairy and farm problems was added. But the scope and influence of a community newspaper is naturally limited and so with the encouragement of friends and fellow-workers and with many misgivings, lie embarked upon an uncharted publishing sea, that of a specialized dairy paper. At the, suggestion of friends, the new publication was named Hoard's Dairy-man., and its first issue as a separate publication appeared January 23, 1885.</p> <p>Most great men demonstrate their wisdom thru their selection of associates and counselors. Hoard was no exception. He was in great demand as a speaker at farmers' institutes and dairymen's meetings in Wisconsin, in other parts of the country, and "in Canada. This necessitated help in his editorial duties, and Joseph Smith, a brother of Hiram Smith, Wisconsin's leading dairyman and a close friend, was selected as associate editor. Other associates during these years were General George W. Burchard, an early secretary of the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association, which position is now held by his son, Paul, who is one of the present editors of Hoard's Dairyman; Chester Hazen; D. W. Curtis; George McKerrow; C. F. Goodrich; W. A. Henry, first dean of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture; and Dr. S. M. Babcock, inventor of the test which bears his name.</p> <p>The business end of Hoard's activities was largely conducted by his son, Frank. The two publications which Hoard started are still controlled and managed by him. In addition, his son, Arthur, operated the Hoard Creamery for many years and this creamery shares with the creamery of the late H. B. Gurler the distinction of being the first, to use the Babcock test as the basis of payment, for milk and cream.</p> <p>Hoard's education was obtained largely thru his own efforts. He attended the little log school, built by his grandfather, until he was 14. In addition he received inspiration to read and study from his mother. After migrating to Wisconsin he studied theology and received permission to preach, but, because of differences with the presiding elder on certain church policies and attitudes, he burned his license and took up manual labor. The ensuing years were spent at, many different tasks. Among them was that of singing schoolmaster over a circuit of towns. He was a salesman, at different, times, of pumps, washing machines, and musical instruments. He was also a Union soldier in the Civil war.<br /> All these experiences helped develop Hoard's keen under- standing of human nature which was demonstrated many times in his public life of later years. He spoke on dairying in practically every dairy section of the country and in addition made several trips across the United States borders. His kindly humor and his homely but effective illustrations added to the forcefulness of his. addresses and combined to drive home his message of dairying and sound dairy farm practices.</p> <p>A lifelong admirer of Abraham Lincoln, Hoard exhibited many of the fine traits of the great, emancipator. He was a champion of the common people and of the right as he saw it. Class distinction and special privilege were attacked by him at every turn. He fought, for and secured lower rates on cheese shipments originating in Chicago, which gave great impetus to the development of dairying in the Midwest. His efforts brought the first refrigerator car to Wisconsin in 1873 for shipping cheese.</p> <p>He, while governor of Wisconsin during 1889-90, established the Dairy and Food Commission, the first important, task of which was to attack the ''filled cheese" industry. This was the practice of skimming the milk, substituting coconut oil for the butterfat and then making the cheese, which was naturally a decidedly inferior product, but the difference could not be detected until the cheese was partially cured. The struggle for an honest, product lasted for many years and only thru the winning of the fight, was Wisconsin's cheese industry saved.<br /> Some years later the oleomargarine industry, thru many questionable trade practices, threatened the very foundation of the dairy industry. Here, again, Hoard fought fearlessly. He attacked the practice from the platform, thru his publication, and in private interviews with politicians who were largely in control of legislation. He solicited help from even- angle and he was a leader in the battle to enact the legislation which is the foundation of our present, laws for the protection of the dairy industry.<span> </span></p> <p>Other activities of the, governor, though less spectacular and of less general interest, were equally important because they were fundamental to a sound agriculture. Notable was the manner in which he boosted alfalfa even against the advice of the experiment stations. He said that it would grow in Wisconsin, that it was fundamental for an economical dairy ration, and he demonstrated the truth of his assertions on Hoard's Dairyman Farm.</p> <p>He also was well aware of the differences in cows. Always a champion of the specialized dairy cow, he created intense, though friendly, rivalries with several contemporary editors. He also instituted a cow census covering sections of several states to determine the economic relations of the dairyman to his business. The first survey, carried on in a New York township in 1889 and covering more than 5,500 cows, showed an average yearly loss of $4.52 per cow. Something was wrong and the thinking farmers, when they learned this, blamed it on the unsuspected presence in their herds of what are now known as "boarder" cows. Other surveys were continued until 1908. These surveys were of great influence in the developing and popularizing of herd improvement, associations.</p> <p>The tuberculin test was ardently advocated by the former governor and he did much to pave the way for the introduction of the test which is now widely practiced on the comprehensive area. test plan and which is greatly reducing the prevalence of the disease.<br /> The silo, better barns, soil and farm management, lime for alfalfa, the better care of products, were all championed by him, and his efforts thru the press and on the platform helped these causes which are now accepted as sound and practical wherever the dairy cow is of importance.</p> <p>Hoard was in politics or in contact with political movements throughout his active life. His political career is marked by his straightforward attitude and his alignment on all questions on the side of public good regardless of party expediency. In the spring of 1888 his name was suggested for the governorship and the idea spread rapidly, finally resulting in his election.</p> <p>Outstanding in his achievements as governor was the enactment of the Bennett law which provided that all children between the ages of 7 and 14 should receive their instruction in the English language for a period of not less than twelve weeks during each year. These four words, "in the English language,'' brought mountains of criticism upon him and resulted in his defeat at the next election. Schools, especially parochial schools, in many sections of the state were conducted in German or other languages with the result that many native born Americans could neither read nor speak the tongue of their nation. Despite his defeat due to the organized opposition to this point of the law, it was only a few years later that the same groups saw their mistake and publicly apologized to him.</p> <p>This law and his firm attitude concerning it serves as an excellent example of his ideas on Americanism to which many tributes were paid from every corner of the nation at his death. The World War, just closed at that time, had impressed the entire country with the soundness of his ideas advanced 20 years earlier.</p> <p>Tributes to the man at his death attest to his greatness and the esteem in which lie was held by his contemporaries throughout the nation. But another tribute, given before his death, is even more significant. A feature of the Panama-Pacific Exposition held at San Francisco in 1915 was the conferring of honors on the most distinguished citizen of each western and middle-western state. Governor E. L. Phillip was asked to appoint a commission to make the selection for Wisconsin. Seven prominent, men from widely varied walks of life were appointed and the unanimous decision, reached in one short meeting, was that William Dempster Hoard was best qualified for that honor. Previous to this, in October, 1914, his portrait, was presented to the Saddle and Sirloin Club of Chicago, where it, hangs in the club's gallery with the portraits of other great agricultural leaders.</p> <p>Agricultural organizations of national scope, worked together in the collection of funds for the erection of a memorial monument for the former governor. This was quickly accomplished, and Gutzon Borglum was selected to prepare the likeness in bronze. The statue was dedicated on February 3, 1922, and it, now stands in front of the agricultural hall on the campus of the University of Wisconsin.</p> <p>Other activities of Hoard which attest to his varied abilities, the soundness of his ideas, and the esteem in which he was held by his contemporaries include the office of Commander of the Wisconsin Grand Army of the Republic, president of the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin, organizer and for many years executive head of the Northwestern Dairymen's Association, president of the Farmers' National Congress for two years, and first president of the National Dairy Union. Hoard was a pioneer, not in the establishment of farming areas in the primeval forest, but. in the formulation of new and sound ideas on dairy farming which still serve as landmarks of dairy thought and knowledge.</p> <p>Howard E. Jam-won -was born and reared on one- of Wisconsin's oldest Guernsey farm. He is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin and served 'for three years as a dairy extension, specialist at the University of Illinois, and for two years as associate editor of The Dairy Fanner. He is veil qualified to give us this interesting picture of the life of Governor Hoard.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:46:55 +0000 Anonymous 251 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Otto Hunziker https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/otto-hunziker <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Otto Hunziker</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: J.B. Fitch A TOWN boy&#039;s love for handling dairy cow? gave dairying one of its ten master minds. Hunziker, the scientist of dairy manufacture, spent most of his boyhood summers working at all sorts of jobs on the dairy farms of the neighborhood. That boyhood love provided a splendid background for the man who, more than any other individual, has taken the guess-work out of buttermaking. Without background there can be no vision. Thanks largely to the vision of this man, his love for the little, everyday things that make up life on the dairy farm his studies and research work buttermaking is now a manufacturing process with a scientific foundation for every step, a foundation as solid as that enjoyed by other great, manufacturing industries. To that, big majority of farmers who must depend on the creameries to provide a market for the product of the cows the change from guess to science in butter manufacture has meant millions of dollars in increased returns. Otto Frederick Hunziker was born in Zurich, Switzerland, on December 25, 1873, the son of Kail Otto and Louise Pupikofer Hunziker. The father was originally a minister and, later, rector and professor of history at the Industrial School and professor of pedagogy at the University of Zurich. Boyhood days of the younger Hunziker were spent in Goldbach, a small town near Zurich. Here, with one brother and two sisters he attended grade school. It was a happy. God-fearing home, of somewhat academic atmosphere which was rather disturbed by this one boy&#039;s hankering for farm work, for milking cows and for association with the supposedly rougher boys of the Swiss farms in his spare time. A son who insisted on returning from such excursions, smelling of cows and barns was a puzzle to a home where books and culture and the nice things of place and position were among the most desirable rewards for good bringing-up, good schooling and an honorable life. Not, that the boy wasn&#039;t happy in his home; not that the parents loved him less. But. why couldn&#039;t, he grow up in the regular way and be ambitions for a training that led to a profession or some kind of official position, like the best in his family? But at that. time he just couldn&#039;t. Strong of body and bent, to work with his hands, the open life on the farm, the sweet air of the fields, the handling of the cows and the horses, and always the rugged Alps and the wondrous beauty of Switzerland all about, him, lured the boy away from the sheltering home, whenever he was permitted his freedom. Luckily for him, nearby was the &quot;Strickhof&quot; agricultural college, which in due time he attended and from which, at 19, he was graduated. School work completed, it was perhaps only natural that a boy who had already shown an inclination to break away from the path of his people, should cast, longing eyes on the big country across the sea-the United States-full of promise to a healthy old-country boy who loved the open and knew how to do farm work. But home ties are not easily broken in a home-loving family. However, luck was with him-and with the science of dairy manufacture-in the form of a party of Americans visiting the neighborhood. On their assurance to look after him and get him work on a dairy farm, young Hunziker early in the spring of 1893, joyfully and with parental blessings, set out for the promised land and a job on a dairy farm near Attleboro, Massachusetts, at $5 a month and room and board. So the young man who later was to become the leader in the science of dairy manufacture started right at the bottom. For two years on this Massachusetts farm he got up at 2:30 in the morning, milked part of a herd of 25 cows, bottled some of the milk and got it all ready for distribution in a nearby town then worked all day and milked again in the evening. Handicapped by not knowing the language and customs of the country, the work was doubly hard, but his love for farm work and for handling cows and milk helped him out. Men who have worked themselves up to outstanding positions in life are supposed to have had their eyes on the goal all the time, using even the humblest, and hardest of work as a training school. Professor Hunziker, as the world now knows him, disclaims any such efforts at that period in his life. He just worked. But even if he &quot;just worked,&quot; the young Swiss couldn&#039;t help but get, into his very being the fundamental lessons about milk, its care and its behavior. There is no telling how long lie could have kept up the drudgery, if fate hadn&#039;t stepped in, fate in the form of an accident caused by his hard work and which put him on his back for three weeks. The enforced idleness and helplessness awakened him. It forced him to take stock as to progress made during the first two years in the promised land. The stocktaking was not, pleasant. As a result, when again on his feet, he put his dairy love behind him for the time being and resolutely entered a business college at Providence, Rhode Island, from which he was graduated in 1896. It meant more hard work for the wages of the farm hadn&#039;t counted up very fast, and young Hunziker had to do all kinds of work to support himself while at the business college. But lie. learned English, which was the main thing, and it was his good fortune to have the school principal take a special interest in him and give him encouragement in many ways. After graduation young Hunziker held minor positions with various business firms, always with credit to himself but never with love for the work. Times were hard, and it was a case of making a living. It was not a happy time, for the young Swiss who had set sail from his native country so courageously some five years before. Finally, with the savings he had managed to make. he returned to the home in Switzerland. Even though it was not the visit, of a conquering hero to his homeland, the trip meant, a great deal. The parents, the family, the familiar surroundings, the towering Alps, the old life that had gone on so serenely gave him a new start. At. the home base he found himself. Switzerland is a great dairy country. Its superior cheesemaking calls for the solution of &#039;many bacteriological problems. There earnest, study and fine leadership are found. It was just the right, atmosphere for a new baptism, a new resolve, a new and more clarified ambition-that andthe rugged everlasting mountains that make men independent of spirit, and strong of character. With new courage and determination Hunziker, then 25 years old, again crossed the Atlantic, this time straight for Cornell University, in New York state. He was older than the other students, but his schooling in Switzerland and his business training in this country-until then somewhat unused assets- came to his assistance, and he graduated with honors from the agricultural course in two years, specializing in dairying. After graduation he worked in a creamery for three months and then entered Cornell again to work for his master&#039;s degree which he received the following summer.  This reads like smooth sailing after the hardships of his first period in the United States, but it wasn&#039;t. Once more all manner of odd jobs had to be resorted to for a living. In addition, he tutored other Cornell students in French and German. After receiving this degree Hunziker spent a year at Cornell as assistant, in charge of dairy bacteriology, his first actual step on the road to his life&#039;s work. But his love for practical dairy work wouldn&#039;t let him stay in the laboratory. This time it was an ambition to translate science into actual dairy manufacture. So he soon found himself in a. new condensed milk plant, at Ellicottville, New York, where he first worked in the field among farmers and later at all of the positions in the plant. Eventually he was asked to equip and take care of a laboratory for the company-an opportunity for which he was ready and which he used in full measure. There Hunziker, in the scientific laboratory work of solving practical dairy manufacturing problems, took possession of the domain that has ever after been his own. Also there, he became an American citizen and, to top it all, was married to Florence Bell Burne, of Ellicottville, a marriage of devotion and happiness, shared in by six children, three sons and three daughters. The days at Ellicottville were the start, of Hunziker&#039;s leader- ship in the dairy manufacturing science. In 1905 he accepted a position in the dairy department at Purdue University, no doubt with the thought that it might offer an opportunity for further dairy research work. And so it turned out. After two years&#039; work as instructor Hunziker was made chief of the dairy department and soon brought recognition to the university and to himself as a result of his research work, especially in the fields of butter manufacture and of condensed and powdered milk.  These fields, especially that of buttermaking, were just then emerging from the rule of guess, of notions and hobbies, into real industries. Buttermaking was well on its way from the farm to the factory, and was pushing westward all the time. The hand separator was opening up the cornbelt for the dairy cows as an anchor to windward for the one-crop farmer. The rising tide of cream and more cream created problems for the creameries. They strived manfully and with some .success for efficiency in turning out a grade of butter that would bring the producer the highest possible price, but the why of many of their difficulties was unknown, and that was reflected in the farmer&#039;s cream check. Considerable study and research work had already been given to some of these problems by science, but it was a very young- science, and the research and experimental work had been sporadic and not at all correlated, nor had it always been thorough. And so the creamery industry grew up almost over night to become of tremendous economic importance to agriculture, without much scientific foundation for its guidance. The leadership gradually attained by Hunziker in the field of dairy manufacture was due to his complete thoroughness. The man whose boyhood preferred the simple work of the farm to the culture of a refined home; who, as a young emigrant, put in grueling hours of work on a dairy farm; who worked overtime day after day to get an education, and who came of rugged and conscientious stock, could not, help but be thorough in scientific research and experimental work. That was characteristic of his work at Purdue and stamped some fifty publications on various dairy manufacturing subjects that were issued from there as a result of his leadership in research at that, institution.  Professor Hunziker is a modest, man and his work covers so many phases of dairy manufacture which, to the layman, appear small and insignificant, that it is difficult to relate his achievements to the world that has no special knowledge of modern manufacturing methods of butter or condensed or powdered milk. There are no Hunziker systems, no Hunziker standards, no Hunziker equipment-all his contributions to the progress of dairy manufacture and, therefore, to the welfare of the farmer, have been given out freely for anybody to use in his own way. He early became a leading member of the American Dairy Science Association, and on its committees has done most important work in insuring the accuracy of the glassware used in the Babcock test and in setting up standard methods of using the Babcock test, matters that directly concern every cream producer and have a great, bearing on the. Efficiency of the creamery. As a member of the Association he has been a great help in guiding the instruction and research in dairy manufacturing problems in the colleges and universities of America. Another characteristic of Hunziker&#039;s work, besides its thoroughness, is its practicability. The results of his scientific research and studies are readily made use of by the manufacturer. No doubt this is due to his early experience in farm and factorywork. No doubt that also had much to do with his leaving Purdue-even though reluctantly-to take charge, in 1917, of the manufacturing department of the Blue Valley Creamery Company and establish its research laboratories. It is fortunate for the, dairy industry that this outstanding research specialist is in the employ of an institution that has permitted him to continue investigational work and allowed the results, of his work to go to the dairy industry without restrictions. His being in direct charge of all manufacture in the company&#039;s 22 creameries and two milk plants, gives him unusual opportunities in connection with his research work. Among the most outstanding results of Hunziker&#039;s work since 1917 are the discovery of the causes of fishiness, hallowness, and mottles in butter and means of prevention; establishment of systematic and neutralization of sour cream; methods of eliminating objectionable flavors in butter; methods of insuring keeping quality in salted and unsalted butter, and research work on the effect of metal on milk and milk products. The latter work is leading to the improvement of dairy and creamery equipment and utensils. The result of this and much other research work, when used by the dairy manufacturer, improves factory efficiency and the quality of the finished product and, therefore has a great bearing on the returns to the dairy farmer. Hunziker is known turnout the world as the author of &quot;The Butter Industry&quot; and &quot;Condensed Milk and Milk Powder.&quot; &quot;The Butter Industry,&quot; first published in 1920, was revised in 1927 and is widely used as a. text in this country and as a reference book in other countries. &quot;Condensed Milk and Milk Powder&quot; was first, published in 1914, revised in 1918, again in 1920, and the fourth edition was published in 1926. Professor Hunziker is adviser for condensed milk companies in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, and Japan. In 1927, under the auspices of the dairy organizations of Australia and New Zealand, he spent four months in those countries investigating and advising with dairy manufacturers, receiving universal recognition from the entire dairy industry of those far-off countries for his work on their behalf. Professor Hunziker was awarded a. diploma by the Italian government for Scientific Publications at the International Exposition at Milan, and several times he has been an official delegate and speaker at meetings of the World&#039;s Dairy Congress in various countries. Of all the official recognition that, has come to him lie treasures most, highly the Distinguished Service medal presented to him by the Swiss Dairy Federation at the time of his visit to his native Switzerland in 1928. This medal is for &quot;distinguished service to the dairy industry as a whole&quot; and is the fourth of its kind to be awarded since 1886. In spite of the many honors that have come to him, Hunziker has remained a. modest man most tolerant of all who seek advice from him, and the requests come from all over the world. He gives help unselfishly on any dairy problem. It is fortunate that his selection as one of the Ten Master Minds of Dairying has come at a time when he can appreciate the honor which may in turn encourage him to even greater accomplishments for the industry. For that may well be expected of Hunziker, now in his fullest manhood-a good son of his native Switzerland, proud of his American citizenship by choice, and a world leader in dairying. Here again is a dose relationship between subject and author. J. B. Fitch is a former student of Professor Hunziker&#039;s at Purdue University. Professor Fitch is now head of the Dairy Department at Kansas State Agricultural College at Manhattan. He is a past president of the American Dairy Science Association and was a delegate to the World&#039;s Dairy Congress at London in 1928. He is recognized as one of the lending dairy cattle judges of the country. His close association with Professor Hunziker put him in splendid position to write this life history. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: J.B. Fitch A TOWN boy&#039;s love for handling dairy cow? gave dairying one of its ten master minds. Hunziker, the scientist of dairy manufacture, spent most of his boyhood summers working at all sorts of jobs on the dairy farms of the neighborhood." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>BY: J.B. Fitch</em></p> <p><img alt="Otto Hunziker" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="b7c3b134-8015-4ff3-8105-06f135fce131" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/hunziker.PNG" class="align-right" />A TOWN boy's love for handling dairy cow? gave dairying one of its ten master minds. Hunziker, the scientist of dairy manufacture, spent most of his boyhood summers working at all sorts of jobs on the dairy farms of the neighborhood.</p> <p>That boyhood love provided a splendid background for the man who, more than any other individual, has taken the guess-work out of buttermaking. Without background there can be no vision. Thanks largely to the vision of this man, his love for the little, everyday things that make up life on the dairy farm his studies and research work buttermaking is now a manufacturing process with a scientific foundation for every step, a foundation as solid as that enjoyed by other great, manufacturing industries.</p> <p>To that, big majority of farmers who must depend on the creameries to provide a market for the product of the cows the change from guess to science in butter manufacture has meant millions of dollars in increased returns.</p> <p>Otto Frederick Hunziker was born in Zurich, Switzerland, on December 25, 1873, the son of Kail Otto and Louise Pupikofer Hunziker. The father was originally a minister and, later, rector and professor of history at the Industrial School and professor of pedagogy at the University of Zurich.</p> <p>Boyhood days of the younger Hunziker were spent in Goldbach, a small town near Zurich. Here, with one brother and two sisters he attended grade school. It was a happy. God-fearing home, of somewhat academic atmosphere which was rather disturbed by this one boy's hankering for farm work, for milking cows and for association with the supposedly rougher boys of the Swiss farms in his spare time. A son who insisted on returning from such excursions, smelling of cows and barns was a puzzle to a home where books and culture and the nice things of place and position were among the most desirable rewards for good bringing-up, good schooling and an honorable life.</p> <p>Not, that the boy wasn't happy in his home; not that the parents loved him less. But. why couldn't, he grow up in the regular way and be ambitions for a training that led to a profession or some kind of official position, like the best in his family? But at that. time he just couldn't. Strong of body and bent, to work with his hands, the open life on the farm, the sweet air of the fields, the handling of the cows and the horses, and always the rugged Alps and the wondrous beauty of Switzerland all about, him, lured the boy away from the sheltering home, whenever he was permitted his freedom. Luckily for him, nearby was the "Strickhof" agricultural college, which in due time he attended and from which, at 19, he was graduated.</p> <p>School work completed, it was perhaps only natural that a boy who had already shown an inclination to break away from the path of his people, should cast, longing eyes on the big country across the sea-the United States-full of promise to a healthy old-country boy who loved the open and knew how to do farm work. But home ties are not easily broken in a home-loving family. However, luck was with him-and with the science of dairy manufacture-in the form of a party of Americans visiting the neighborhood. On their assurance to look after him and get him work on a dairy farm, young Hunziker early in the spring of 1893, joyfully and with parental blessings, set out for the promised land and a job on a dairy farm near Attleboro, Massachusetts, at $5 a month and room and board.</p> <p>So the young man who later was to become the leader in the science of dairy manufacture started right at the bottom. For two years on this Massachusetts farm he got up at 2:30 in the morning, milked part of a herd of 25 cows, bottled some of the milk and got it all ready for distribution in a nearby town then worked all day and milked again in the evening. Handicapped by not knowing the language and customs of the country, the work was doubly hard, but his love for farm work and for handling cows and milk helped him out. Men who have worked themselves up to outstanding positions in life are supposed to have had their eyes on the goal all the time, using even the humblest, and hardest of work as a training school. Professor Hunziker, as the world now knows him, disclaims any such efforts at that period in his life. He just worked. But even if he "just worked," the young Swiss couldn't help but get, into his very being the fundamental lessons about milk, its care and its behavior.</p> <p>There is no telling how long lie could have kept up the drudgery, if fate hadn't stepped in, fate in the form of an accident caused by his hard work and which put him on his back for three weeks. The enforced idleness and helplessness awakened him. It forced him to take stock as to progress made during the first two years in the promised land. The stocktaking was not, pleasant. As a result, when again on his feet, he put his dairy love behind him for the time being and resolutely entered a business college at Providence, Rhode Island, from which he was graduated in 1896.</p> <p>It meant more hard work for the wages of the farm hadn't counted up very fast, and young Hunziker had to do all kinds of work to support himself while at the business college. But lie. learned English, which was the main thing, and it was his good fortune to have the school principal take a special interest in him and give him encouragement in many ways.</p> <p>After graduation young Hunziker held minor positions with various business firms, always with credit to himself but never with love for the work. Times were hard, and it was a case of making a living. It was not a happy time, for the young Swiss who had set sail from his native country so courageously some five years before. Finally, with the savings he had managed to make. he returned to the home in Switzerland.<br /> Even though it was not the visit, of a conquering hero to his homeland, the trip meant, a great deal. The parents, the family, the familiar surroundings, the towering Alps, the old life that had gone on so serenely gave him a new start. At. the home base he found himself. Switzerland is a great dairy country. Its superior cheesemaking calls for the solution of 'many bacteriological problems. There earnest, study and fine leadership are found. It was just the right, atmosphere for a new baptism, a new resolve, a new and more clarified ambition-that andthe rugged everlasting mountains that make men independent of spirit, and strong of character.</p> <p>With new courage and determination Hunziker, then 25 years old, again crossed the Atlantic, this time straight for Cornell University, in New York state. He was older than the other students, but his schooling in Switzerland and his business training in this country-until then somewhat unused assets- came to his assistance, and he graduated with honors from the agricultural course in two years, specializing in dairying. After graduation he worked in a creamery for three months and then entered Cornell again to work for his master's degree which he received the following summer.<span> </span></p> <p>This reads like smooth sailing after the hardships of his first period in the United States, but it wasn't. Once more all manner of odd jobs had to be resorted to for a living. In addition, he tutored other Cornell students in French and German.</p> <p>After receiving this degree Hunziker spent a year at Cornell as assistant, in charge of dairy bacteriology, his first actual step on the road to his life's work. But his love for practical dairy work wouldn't let him stay in the laboratory. This time it was an ambition to translate science into actual dairy manufacture. So he soon found himself in a. new condensed milk plant, at Ellicottville, New York, where he first worked in the field among farmers and later at all of the positions in the plant. Eventually he was asked to equip and take care of a laboratory for the company-an opportunity for which he was ready and which he used in full measure. There Hunziker, in the scientific laboratory work of solving practical dairy manufacturing problems, took possession of the domain that has ever after been his own. Also there, he became an American citizen and, to top it all, was married to Florence Bell Burne, of Ellicottville, a marriage of devotion and happiness, shared in by six children, three sons and three daughters.</p> <p>The days at Ellicottville were the start, of Hunziker's leader- ship in the dairy manufacturing science. In 1905 he accepted a position in the dairy department at Purdue University, no doubt with the thought that it might offer an opportunity for further dairy research work. And so it turned out. After two years' work as instructor Hunziker was made chief of the dairy department and soon brought recognition to the university and to himself as a result of his research work, especially in the fields of butter manufacture and of condensed and powdered milk.<span> </span><br /> These fields, especially that of buttermaking, were just then emerging from the rule of guess, of notions and hobbies, into real industries. Buttermaking was well on its way from the farm to the factory, and was pushing westward all the time. The hand separator was opening up the cornbelt for the dairy cows as an anchor to windward for the one-crop farmer. The rising tide of cream and more cream created problems for the creameries. They strived manfully and with some .success for efficiency in turning out a grade of butter that would bring the producer the highest possible price, but the why of many of their difficulties was unknown, and that was reflected in the farmer's cream check.<br /> Considerable study and research work had already been given to some of these problems by science, but it was a very young- science, and the research and experimental work had been sporadic and not at all correlated, nor had it always been thorough. And so the creamery industry grew up almost over night to become of tremendous economic importance to agriculture, without much scientific foundation for its guidance.</p> <p>The leadership gradually attained by Hunziker in the field of dairy manufacture was due to his complete thoroughness. The man whose boyhood preferred the simple work of the farm to the culture of a refined home; who, as a young emigrant, put in grueling hours of work on a dairy farm; who worked overtime day after day to get an education, and who came of rugged and conscientious stock, could not, help but be thorough in scientific research and experimental work. That was characteristic of his work at Purdue and stamped some fifty publications on various dairy manufacturing subjects that were issued from there as a result of his leadership in research at that, institution.<span> </span></p> <p>Professor Hunziker is a modest, man and his work covers so many phases of dairy manufacture which, to the layman, appear small and insignificant, that it is difficult to relate his achievements to the world that has no special knowledge of modern manufacturing methods of butter or condensed or powdered milk. There are no Hunziker systems, no Hunziker standards, no Hunziker equipment-all his contributions to the progress of dairy manufacture and, therefore, to the welfare of the farmer, have been given out freely for anybody to use in his own way. He early became a leading member of the American Dairy Science Association, and on its committees has done most important work in insuring the accuracy of the glassware used in the Babcock test and in setting up standard methods of using the Babcock test, matters that directly concern every cream producer and have a great, bearing on the. Efficiency of the creamery. As a member of the Association he has been a great help in guiding the instruction and research in dairy manufacturing problems in the colleges and universities of America.<br /> Another characteristic of Hunziker's work, besides its thoroughness, is its practicability. The results of his scientific research and studies are readily made use of by the manufacturer. No doubt this is due to his early experience in farm and factorywork. No doubt that also had much to do with his leaving Purdue-even though reluctantly-to take charge, in 1917, of the manufacturing department of the Blue Valley Creamery Company and establish its research laboratories.</p> <p>It is fortunate for the, dairy industry that this outstanding research specialist is in the employ of an institution that has permitted him to continue investigational work and allowed the results, of his work to go to the dairy industry without restrictions. His being in direct charge of all manufacture in the company's 22 creameries and two milk plants, gives him unusual opportunities in connection with his research work.<br /> Among the most outstanding results of Hunziker's work since 1917 are the discovery of the causes of fishiness, hallowness, and mottles in butter and means of prevention; establishment of systematic and neutralization of sour cream; methods of eliminating objectionable flavors in butter; methods of insuring keeping quality in salted and unsalted butter, and research work on the effect of metal on milk and milk products. The latter work is leading to the improvement of dairy and creamery equipment and utensils. The result of this and much other research work, when used by the dairy manufacturer, improves factory efficiency and the quality of the finished product and, therefore has a great bearing on the returns to the dairy farmer.</p> <p>Hunziker is known turnout the world as the author of "The Butter Industry" and "Condensed Milk and Milk Powder." "The Butter Industry," first published in 1920, was revised in 1927 and is widely used as a. text in this country and as a reference book in other countries. "Condensed Milk and Milk Powder" was first, published in 1914, revised in 1918, again in 1920, and the fourth edition was published in 1926. Professor Hunziker is adviser for condensed milk companies in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, and Japan. In 1927, under the auspices of the dairy organizations of Australia and New Zealand, he spent four months in those countries investigating and advising with dairy manufacturers, receiving universal recognition from the entire dairy industry of those far-off countries for his work on their behalf.<br /> Professor Hunziker was awarded a. diploma by the Italian government for Scientific Publications at the International Exposition at Milan, and several times he has been an official delegate and speaker at meetings of the World's Dairy Congress in various countries. Of all the official recognition that, has come to him lie treasures most, highly the Distinguished Service medal presented to him by the Swiss Dairy Federation at the time of his visit to his native Switzerland in 1928. This medal is for "distinguished service to the dairy industry as a whole" and is the fourth of its kind to be awarded since 1886.</p> <p>In spite of the many honors that have come to him, Hunziker has remained a. modest man most tolerant of all who seek advice from him, and the requests come from all over the world. He gives help unselfishly on any dairy problem. It is fortunate that his selection as one of the Ten Master Minds of Dairying has come at a time when he can appreciate the honor which may in turn encourage him to even greater accomplishments for the industry. For that may well be expected of Hunziker, now in his fullest manhood-a good son of his native Switzerland, proud of his American citizenship by choice, and a world leader in dairying.</p> <p>Here again is a dose relationship between subject and author. J. B. Fitch is a former student of Professor Hunziker's at Purdue University. Professor Fitch is now head of the Dairy Department at Kansas State Agricultural College at Manhattan. He is a past president of the American Dairy Science Association and was a delegate to the World's Dairy Congress at London in 1928. He is recognized as one of the lending dairy cattle judges of the country. His close association with Professor Hunziker put him in splendid position to write this life history.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:45:20 +0000 Anonymous 246 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Elmer McCollum https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/elmer-mccollum <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Elmer McCollum</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 22, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods-history/76/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="BY: M.D. Munn IT IS a long way from milking cows on a. Kansas farm to the scientific determination of why milk is man&#039;s most important food. Yet this distance is covered by the life and scientific achievements of Dr. E. V. McCollum, who is now only 51 years of age. Elmer Verner McCollum was born on March 3, 1879, on a faun near Fort Scott, Kansas. The house was a. small stone structure built, by his father and later replaced by a wooden building. In this humble environment were spent the boyhood days of a. man whose scientific achievements and the practical application of them have had a greater influence than those of any other one man on the use of the foods essential for growth and body maintenance. During Dr. McCoIlum&#039;s boyhood he had the same duties to perform as have most farm boys. He states that: &quot;From my earliest, recollections I always had work to do. The first obligation that I remember was bringing the cows and horses from the pasture. I was assigned the duty of keeping watch of the turkey hens to see where they laid their eggs. I learned to count by throwing three ears of corn to each pig in the pen, which necessitated first counting the pigs and then the corn. At the age of 71 began to learn to milk cows. First with a tin cup going around after the cows had been milked to collect, &quot;strippings&quot; and in general from that time on until the age of 17 I milked five or six cows morning and evening. There was no end of jobs that I had to do. At the age of 11, I began working in the field and from that, time on I did practically a man&#039;s work. When I was 12 my father&#039;s health failed and my brother and I took entire charge of the farm operations.&quot; Crop failures were frequent in the section of the country where Dr. McCollum spent, his boyhood days. In speaking of this he says: &quot;The things which remain most vividly in my memory about our general life upon the farm relate to frequent crop failures. For several years I saw the corn dry up under hot winds which baked the soil and caused the. leaves to curl so that our hope of financial returns for the year was completely blasted. I have reflected many times upon the fortitude of the people in our neighborhood under such repeated disappointments. While disappointment was evident on such occasion and both men and women talked about the hardships of the farmer&#039;s life, there was always evidence of hope for the future and each year we started a. new crop full of optimism. We were the only farmers within a radius of six or eight miles who kept as many as 25 dairy cows. I can well remember their appearance. Probably half of them were unprofitable. Nevertheless, the regular income from butter was our salvation financially so that we never suffered poverty.&quot; This all sounds quite prosaic and yet one who has spent, his boyhood on a. farm knows it is far more than that. It is basic in this environment nature becomes a, part of life; habits of industry are formed: independence and character join hands. The brown and scarlet splendor of autumnal death impels contemplation and the joyous birth of spring inspires hope. One cannot listen long to Dr. McCoIlum&#039;s account, of his life as a boy and his methods of work as a scientist without realizing that his youthful environment and experiences exerted a pro- found influence in molding his character and coloring his outlook on life as well as developing habits of industry, patience, andclose observation so necessary to successful research. Dr. McCollum was fortunate, as so many others have been, in having a mother with a fixed determination that her children should receive every educational advantage possible to give them. The illness of her husband threw all this responsibility upon her. When her son reached the age of 17 she concluded it was time for him to leave the farm and get an education. Up to this time, his. opportunities for this had been limited to the country district, school. In the autumn of 1896, young McCollum went to Lawrence, Kansas, where he had fully expected to enter the University of Kansas. He was dismayed to find that four years of high school work were a. necessary pre-requisite to entering the university. In speaking of this period of his, life Dr. McCollum says: &quot;I was not even qualified at this time to pass the technical examination necessary for entering high school. I was six feet, tall, weighed 122 pounds, and was exceedingly timid and self-conscious, and could not have brought, myself under any circumstances to enter a grade school in order to prepare for high school. When I went to the high school in Lawrence to talk about registration, Professor Frank H. Oiney looked me over and inquired about my academic record. I gave him most of the essential facts, and told him of some of the good books I had read, which included Martin&#039;s physiology, Whittier&#039;s &quot;Snow-bound,&quot; and several other worthwhile books. Professor Oiney apparently sensed the condition I would be in if I failed to pass the examination and said lie would admit me without further question and ask for a report on my work at. the end of the first month. If this was satisfactory, nothing further would be said about my fitness. If it was not satisfactory, I would have to go back to the eighth grade. Once in high school, I had no further difficulty and went thru the four-year course with a good record. I have frequently thought of how critical a time in my life was this conference with Professor Oiney. Had he adhered strictly to the rules, I am quite confident that I should have abandoned all effort at get- ting a higher education.&quot;  Dr. McCollum was. obliged to earn enough during his high school and college days to pay his living expenses. His work varied from lighting and extinguishing gas lamps on the streets of Lawrence and selling newspapers to regular employment on the Lawrence Journal-World. This continued until his senior year at the university when an assistantship in the chemical laboratory relieved him from the necessity of outside work. When he entered the university, Dr. McCollum expected to study medicine and did two years of pre-medical work as a part of his regular course. He then became so enthusiastic about organic chemistry that he decided to follow that. After completing his university course at Lawrence, he remained for one year of graduate work and during that, year assisted in several courses of chemical work, and left the university with a credit of 16 courses in chemistry, which was all the university could offer. He then decided to go to Yale University for further graduate work in chemistry. He left, Lawrence, Kansas, in the fall of 904 traveling in second-class day coaches to New Haven and arrived there with $82 in cash and no visible means of securing other funds. He remained at. Yale for three years doing graduate work. receiving his degree of doctor of philosophy in 1906. His first, two years&#039; work were under the direction of Dr. T. B. Johnson, professor of organic chemistry. His third year was spent with Professor LaFayette Mendel and Professor Russell H. Chittendon, who was then director of the Sheffield Scientific School. While at Yale he earned enough by tutoring to pay all his expenses and leave New Haven with $1,500. In 1907 Dr. McCollum went to the University of Wisconsin as an instructor. Here he remained until 1917 when he was called to Johns Hopkins University to take the professorship of biochemistry in the school of hygiene and public health of that institution. Dr. McCollum began his real life work at, Wisconsin with Professor E. B. Hart. At, that time Professor Hart had a number of experiments under way in which he was feeding farm animals specified diets for the purpose of determining what difference existed in the nutritive values of certain farm crops. It was at this time that Dr. McCollum conceived the idea of using small animals to solve the problems of nutrition. With the simplest kind of homemade equipment, he finally succeeded in establishing a colony of what he calls &quot;sanitary rats.&#039;&#039; It was necessary to develop rats that were free from disease or any conditions that would interfere with or impair the results sought by the use of varied diets. In one of his early addresses Dr. McCollum stated: &quot;The idea had long prevailed that the essential constituents in an adequate diet were protein, fat, carbohydrates such as starch and sugar, and certain inorganic salts. The attempts which had been made to nourish animals on such food mixtures, so made up as to lie of such a composition that they would pass the inspection of a chemist showed that, although these diets complied with all the requirements of the dietitian, they were not capable of maintaining life. . . . The early efforts which I made to secure growth in young animals fed mixtures of purified foodstuffs of the above character and in which everything in the diet, could be named, confirmed the experience of the foreign investigators in this field. It became evident to me at once that there was something necessary in the diet which had not been hitherto appreciated; and I began a systematic study of the cause of the failure of animals to thrive on these simple diets.&quot; It is unnecessary and impossible to attempt, here to detail the numerous experiments and failures involved in Dr. McCollum&#039;s five years of experimental work between 1907 and 1912, during which time he made his first important discovery that all fats used in the diet are not of equal value. It took nearly five years of experimental work on innumerable combinations of diets before Dr. McCollum finally demonstrated that a diet, would produce growth in young animals when butterfat was added to it, and that the same food mixture would not induce growth when lard, vegetable oils, and certain other fats and oils were used in place of butterfat. This was the first definite scientific determination that butterfat contains some element or principle essential to growth not found abundantly in any other food fat. He, therefore, concluded that there is some substance in butterfat which is not found in fats generally and which is absolutely necessary for the promotion of growth and the proper maintenance of life in the young and adult. During this period it was also determined that the fat in egg yolk and of the vital organs of animals produced similar effect on growth. The discovery of the importance of this growth promoting principle of vitamin A in butterfat opened up a vast field of research as to the importance generally of milk in the diet of the human race. Leading nutrition scientists, following this lead, have done and are still doing a large amount of investigational work on the importance of milk and its products in the diet. As. a result it has been found that milk not only furnishes the most, available and abundant supply of vitamin A thru its butterfat content, but also contains in a lesser quantity the other vitamins as well as a very high quality of protein and an abundance of mineral matter, such as calcium and phosphorous, necessary for building bones and sound teeth in the young and their maintenance in adult life.  The importance of Dr. McCollum&#039;s research work and discoveries have been recognized the world over. He is a member of many scientific societies and organizations and has received several medal awards in addition to the degrees lie has received from the Universities of Kansas, Yale, and Cincinnati. He has a world-wide reputation as a dietary authority and is the author of several works prominent among which is &quot;The Newer Knowledge of Nutrition&quot; published in 1918. This has gone thru foul-editions, the fourth one being published in 1929. It, is one of the most comprehensive and authoritative works on nutrition that has ever been published. In 1919 he published &quot;The American Home Diet&quot; and in 1925 &quot;Food. Nutrition, and Health,&quot; which is being widely used. In addition to opening this new field of research work, which has resulted in such valuable contributions to nutritional science on the importance of milk in the human diet. Dr. McCollum has been a. pioneer in helping to educate the public on the importance of milk in relation to health. On the entrance of this country into the World War, the Food Administration sent out appeals to the public to conserve fats, especially buttercream, and milk, in the interest of winning the war. &#039;Dr. McCollum saw the danger in this to the general health of the people of this country and especially the welfare of the children. He appeared before the Food Administration and presented information that he had obtained thru his research work as well as information which had come to him from other sections of the world, showing what, ailments followed the curtailment of the use of butter and whole milk in the diet. This resulted in a modification by the Food Administration of its position. Dr. McCollum then began delivering a series of addresses throughout the country. In an address delivered in the city of Chicago on April 13, 1918, before a large gathering of representatives of all branches of the dairy industry, he stated: &quot;It is because I have become convinced that there are large groups of people in the United States today who are making serious mistakes in the selection of food, and because of an unwise tendency of the public to reduce its purchases of milk, that I have left my laboratory to talk to the women who are interested in home economics and to the women&#039;s clubs in the larger cities, urging them to do all in their power to increase the consumption of milk. I have done this entirely on my own initiative, and with-out consulting any of the dairy interests.&quot; For several months he voluntarily spent, his time in speaking before home economics organizations, and various welfare groups, as well as, medical organizations, pointing out the dangers of a decreased use of milk and its products in the human diet. Ever since 1918 Dr. McCollum has been an ardent, advocate of the liberal use of milk and its products in the human diet. In the interest of health and especially in the interest, of proper growth and health to children. This work has been done by him solely because his research work, as well as the research work of other nutritional scientists in this same field, have convinced him that milk and its products are indispensable to a. properly balanced diet. Because it has been definitely established that the proper amount of milk in the diet will prevent certain human ailments by supplying essential food elements and principles deficient in many other foods, Dr. McCollum in 191S, characterized milk and its products as &quot;protective foods.&quot; This term is now in general use by most dietitians.  The fact that Dr. McCollum, in his numerous scientific papers in health journals, his published works, and numerous addresses before scientific, medical, dental, educational, and welfare organizations and associations has been an earnest advocate of the liberal use of milk in the diets of children as well as adults has made him the generally recognized and leading authority in the public mind on the reason why milk and its products are essential foods. Ever since he reached his first conclusion on the growth promoting principle of butterfat he has been conducting experimental work on the importance of the vitamins found in milk and other foods, which has resulted in a large fund of nutritional information on milk and its products, as well as many other foods.  He has given unstintingly of his time in assisting those who are endeavoring to educate the public on the importance of proper diet and especially of the products of the dairy cow in relation to growth and health.  Dr. McCollum is a most genial and pleasant, man to meet. His vast volume of information on nutrition, as well as many other scientific subjects, makes him most interesting to listen to. He has acquired a fund of information on the present and past which seems inexhaustible. He has a wonderful memory and once a fact is entered in his mind it becomes a fixture. Notwithstanding his accomplishments in the scientific world and his resulting contacts with leading scientists and educators, he still possesses the simple and delightful traits of character and habits of life of his youthful days. It is, indeed, a privilege and pleasure for one to know and talk with him.  It seems quite remarkable that, while milk and its products have been extensively used as food thru all the known centuries of the past, beginning with the early tribes of people on the Aryan plains down thru the numerous races of many countries and throughout the rise and fall of several civilizations and it always has been common knowledge that, milk is the young infants only food and that if necessary human and animal life can be maintained over extensive periods of time on milk alone, it remained for a young man whose early life was spent on a. small farm m Kansas to make the first definite scientific determination of why milk is man&#039;s most essential food. While this contribution by Dr. McCollum was made to nutritional science it is and always will be the dairy industry&#039;s greatest asset. Notwithstanding the fact that many valuable contributions have been made by other leading dietary scientists regarding the importance of milk and its products in the diet, Dr. McCollum realized that these facts should be placed before the public in a way to be put into practice in daily life. He was a crusader and pioneer in launching a movement for better health that had and is continuing to have far-reaching results in the health and habits of the American people. His position as a. leading research scientist is unquestioned. He must also he accorded a place of high honor for his contribution to the betterment of American living. M. D. Munn has long been a prominent figure in the dairy industry. As president mid a director of the American Jersey Cattle Club he was responsible to much of the progress of the breed. During the World War he, became, much interested in the work of Dr. McCollum and was charged by the industry with the responsibility of organizing the National Dairy Council to promote human health. For 11 years lie has guided the destiny of that organization and has seen it grow to the place where many consider it the most important health organization today. As the man who has done more than any other to carry Dr. McCollum&#039;s health story to the public it is fitting that he should be the author of tins story. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "BY: M.D. Munn IT IS a long way from milking cows on a. Kansas farm to the scientific determination of why milk is man&#039;s most important food. Yet this distance is covered by the life and scientific achievements of Dr. E. V. McCollum, who is now only 51 years of age." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>BY: M.D. Munn</em></p> <p><img alt="Elmer McCollum" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="2c287530-09ff-49f5-80ab-e5e2a2923189" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/mccollum.PNG" class="align-right" />IT IS a long way from milking cows on a. Kansas farm to the scientific determination of why milk is man's most important food. Yet this distance is covered by the life and scientific achievements of Dr. E. V. McCollum, who is now only 51 years of age.</p> <p>Elmer Verner McCollum was born on March 3, 1879, on a faun near Fort Scott, Kansas. The house was a. small stone structure built, by his father and later replaced by a wooden building. In this humble environment were spent the boyhood days of a. man whose scientific achievements and the practical application of them have had a greater influence than those of any other one man on the use of the foods essential for growth and body maintenance. During Dr. McCoIlum's boyhood he had the same duties to perform as have most farm boys. He states that: "From my earliest, recollections I always had work to do. The first obligation that I remember was bringing the cows and horses from the pasture. I was assigned the duty of keeping watch of the turkey hens to see where they laid their eggs. I learned to count by throwing three ears of corn to each pig in the pen, which necessitated first counting the pigs and then the corn. At the age of 71 began to learn to milk cows. First with a tin cup going around after the cows had been milked to collect, "strippings" and in general from that time on until the age of 17 I milked five or six cows morning and evening.</p> <p>There was no end of jobs that I had to do. At the age of 11, I began working in the field and from that, time on I did practically a man's work. When I was 12 my father's health failed and my brother and I took entire charge of the farm operations."</p> <p>Crop failures were frequent in the section of the country where Dr. McCollum spent, his boyhood days. In speaking of this he says: "The things which remain most vividly in my memory about our general life upon the farm relate to frequent crop failures. For several years I saw the corn dry up under hot winds which baked the soil and caused the. leaves to curl so that our hope of financial returns for the year was completely blasted. I have reflected many times upon the fortitude of the people in our neighborhood under such repeated disappointments. While disappointment was evident on such occasion and both men and women talked about the hardships of the farmer's life, there was always evidence of hope for the future and each year we started a. new crop full of optimism. We were the only farmers within a radius of six or eight miles who kept as many as 25 dairy cows. I can well remember their appearance. Probably half of them were unprofitable.</p> <p>Nevertheless, the regular income from butter was our salvation financially so that we never suffered poverty."</p> <p>This all sounds quite prosaic and yet one who has spent, his boyhood on a. farm knows it is far more than that. It is basic in this environment nature becomes a, part of life; habits of industry are formed: independence and character join hands. The brown and scarlet splendor of autumnal death impels contemplation and the joyous birth of spring inspires hope. One cannot listen long to Dr. McCoIlum's account, of his life as a boy and his methods of work as a scientist without realizing that his youthful environment and experiences exerted a pro- found influence in molding his character and coloring his outlook on life as well as developing habits of industry, patience, andclose observation so necessary to successful research.</p> <p>Dr. McCollum was fortunate, as so many others have been, in having a mother with a fixed determination that her children should receive every educational advantage possible to give them. The illness of her husband threw all this responsibility upon her. When her son reached the age of 17 she concluded it was time for him to leave the farm and get an education. Up to this time, his. opportunities for this had been limited to the country district, school. In the autumn of 1896, young McCollum went to Lawrence, Kansas, where he had fully expected to enter the University of Kansas. He was dismayed to find that four years of high school work were a. necessary pre-requisite to entering the university.</p> <p>In speaking of this period of his, life Dr. McCollum says: "I was not even qualified at this time to pass the technical examination necessary for entering high school. I was six feet, tall, weighed 122 pounds, and was exceedingly timid and self-conscious, and could not have brought, myself under any circumstances to enter a grade school in order to prepare for high school. When I went to the high school in Lawrence to talk about registration, Professor Frank H. Oiney looked me over and inquired about my academic record. I gave him most of the essential facts, and told him of some of the good books I had read, which included Martin's physiology, Whittier's "Snow-bound," and several other worthwhile books. Professor Oiney apparently sensed the condition I would be in if I failed to pass the examination and said lie would admit me without further question and ask for a report on my work at. the end of the first month. If this was satisfactory, nothing further would be said about my fitness. If it was not satisfactory, I would have to go back to the eighth grade.</p> <p>Once in high school, I had no further difficulty and went thru the four-year course with a good record. I have frequently thought of how critical a time in my life was this conference with Professor Oiney. Had he adhered strictly to the rules, I am quite confident that I should have abandoned all effort at get- ting a higher education."<span> </span></p> <p>Dr. McCollum was. obliged to earn enough during his high school and college days to pay his living expenses. His work varied from lighting and extinguishing gas lamps on the streets of Lawrence and selling newspapers to regular employment on the Lawrence Journal-World. This continued until his senior year at the university when an assistantship in the chemical laboratory relieved him from the necessity of outside work.</p> <p>When he entered the university, Dr. McCollum expected to study medicine and did two years of pre-medical work as a part of his regular course. He then became so enthusiastic about organic chemistry that he decided to follow that. After completing his university course at Lawrence, he remained for one year of graduate work and during that, year assisted in several courses of chemical work, and left the university with a credit of 16 courses in chemistry, which was all the university could offer.</p> <p>He then decided to go to Yale University for further graduate work in chemistry. He left, Lawrence, Kansas, in the fall of 904 traveling in second-class day coaches to New Haven and arrived there with $82 in cash and no visible means of securing other funds. He remained at. Yale for three years doing graduate work. receiving his degree of doctor of philosophy in 1906. His first, two years' work were under the direction of Dr. T. B. Johnson, professor of organic chemistry. His third year was spent with Professor LaFayette Mendel and Professor Russell H. Chittendon, who was then director of the Sheffield Scientific School. While at Yale he earned enough by tutoring to pay all his expenses and leave New Haven with $1,500. In 1907 Dr. McCollum went to the University of Wisconsin as an instructor. Here he remained until 1917 when he was called to Johns Hopkins University to take the professorship of biochemistry in the school of hygiene and public health of that institution. Dr. McCollum began his real life work at, Wisconsin with Professor E. B. Hart. At, that time Professor Hart had a number of experiments under way in which he was feeding farm animals specified diets for the purpose of determining what difference existed in the nutritive values of certain farm crops.</p> <p>It was at this time that Dr. McCollum conceived the idea of using small animals to solve the problems of nutrition. With the simplest kind of homemade equipment, he finally succeeded in establishing a colony of what he calls "sanitary rats.'' It was necessary to develop rats that were free from disease or any conditions that would interfere with or impair the results sought by the use of varied diets.</p> <p>In one of his early addresses Dr. McCollum stated: "The idea had long prevailed that the essential constituents in an adequate diet were protein, fat, carbohydrates such as starch and sugar, and certain inorganic salts. The attempts which had been made to nourish animals on such food mixtures, so made up as to lie of such a composition that they would pass the inspection of a chemist showed that, although these diets complied with all the requirements of the dietitian, they were not capable of maintaining life. . . . The early efforts which I made to secure growth in young animals fed mixtures of purified foodstuffs of the above character and in which everything in the diet, could be named, confirmed the experience of the foreign investigators in this field. It became evident to me at once that there was something necessary in the diet which had not been hitherto appreciated; and I began a systematic study of the cause of the failure of animals to thrive on these simple diets."</p> <p>It is unnecessary and impossible to attempt, here to detail the numerous experiments and failures involved in Dr. McCollum's five years of experimental work between 1907 and 1912, during which time he made his first important discovery that all fats used in the diet are not of equal value.</p> <p>It took nearly five years of experimental work on innumerable combinations of diets before Dr. McCollum finally demonstrated that a diet, would produce growth in young animals when butterfat was added to it, and that the same food mixture would not induce growth when lard, vegetable oils, and certain other fats and oils were used in place of butterfat. This was the first definite scientific determination that butterfat contains some element or principle essential to growth not found abundantly in any other food fat. He, therefore, concluded that there is some substance in butterfat which is not found in fats generally and which is absolutely necessary for the promotion of growth and the proper maintenance of life in the young and adult. During this period it was also determined that the fat in egg yolk and of the vital organs of animals produced similar effect on growth.</p> <p>The discovery of the importance of this growth promoting principle of vitamin A in butterfat opened up a vast field of research as to the importance generally of milk in the diet of the human race. Leading nutrition scientists, following this lead, have done and are still doing a large amount of investigational work on the importance of milk and its products in the diet. As. a result it has been found that milk not only furnishes the most, available and abundant supply of vitamin A thru its butterfat content, but also contains in a lesser quantity the other vitamins as well as a very high quality of protein and an abundance of mineral matter, such as calcium and phosphorous, necessary for building bones and sound teeth in the young and their maintenance in adult life.<span> </span></p> <p>The importance of Dr. McCollum's research work and discoveries have been recognized the world over. He is a member of many scientific societies and organizations and has received several medal awards in addition to the degrees lie has received from the Universities of Kansas, Yale, and Cincinnati. He has a world-wide reputation as a dietary authority and is the author of several works prominent among which is "The Newer Knowledge of Nutrition" published in 1918. This has gone thru foul-editions, the fourth one being published in 1929. It, is one of the most comprehensive and authoritative works on nutrition that has ever been published. In 1919 he published "The American Home Diet" and in 1925 "Food. Nutrition, and Health," which is being widely used.</p> <p>In addition to opening this new field of research work, which has resulted in such valuable contributions to nutritional science on the importance of milk in the human diet. Dr. McCollum has been a. pioneer in helping to educate the public on the importance of milk in relation to health. On the entrance of this country into the World War, the Food Administration sent out appeals to the public to conserve fats, especially buttercream, and milk, in the interest of winning the war. 'Dr. McCollum saw the danger in this to the general health of the people of this country and especially the welfare of the children. He appeared before the Food Administration and presented information that he had obtained thru his research work as well as information which had come to him from other sections of the world, showing what, ailments followed the curtailment of the use of butter and whole milk in the diet. This resulted in a modification by the Food Administration of its position. Dr. McCollum then began delivering a series of addresses throughout the country. In an address delivered in the city of Chicago on April 13, 1918, before a large gathering of representatives of all branches of the dairy industry, he stated: "It is because I have become convinced that there are large groups of people in the United States today who are making serious mistakes in the selection of food, and because of an unwise tendency of the public to reduce its purchases of milk, that I have left my laboratory to talk to the women who are interested in home economics and to the women's clubs in the larger cities, urging them to do all in their power to increase the consumption of milk. I have done this entirely on my own initiative, and with-out consulting any of the dairy interests."</p> <p>For several months he voluntarily spent, his time in speaking before home economics organizations, and various welfare groups, as well as, medical organizations, pointing out the dangers of a decreased use of milk and its products in the human diet.<br /> Ever since 1918 Dr. McCollum has been an ardent, advocate of the liberal use of milk and its products in the human diet. In the interest of health and especially in the interest, of proper growth and health to children. This work has been done by him solely because his research work, as well as the research work of other nutritional scientists in this same field, have convinced him that milk and its products are indispensable to a. properly balanced diet.</p> <p>Because it has been definitely established that the proper amount of milk in the diet will prevent certain human ailments by supplying essential food elements and principles deficient in many other foods, Dr. McCollum in 191S, characterized milk and its products as "protective foods." This term is now in general use by most dietitians.<span> </span></p> <p>The fact that Dr. McCollum, in his numerous scientific papers in health journals, his published works, and numerous addresses before scientific, medical, dental, educational, and welfare organizations and associations has been an earnest advocate of the liberal use of milk in the diets of children as well as adults has made him the generally recognized and leading authority in the public mind on the reason why milk and its products are essential foods. Ever since he reached his first conclusion on the growth promoting principle of butterfat he has been conducting experimental work on the importance of the vitamins found in milk and other foods, which has resulted in a large fund of nutritional information on milk and its products, as well as many other foods.<span> </span></p> <p>He has given unstintingly of his time in assisting those who are endeavoring to educate the public on the importance of proper diet and especially of the products of the dairy cow in relation to growth and health.<span> </span></p> <p>Dr. McCollum is a most genial and pleasant, man to meet. His vast volume of information on nutrition, as well as many other scientific subjects, makes him most interesting to listen to. He has acquired a fund of information on the present and past which seems inexhaustible. He has a wonderful memory and once a fact is entered in his mind it becomes a fixture. Notwithstanding his accomplishments in the scientific world and his resulting contacts with leading scientists and educators, he still possesses the simple and delightful traits of character and habits of life of his youthful days. It is, indeed, a privilege and pleasure for one to know and talk with him.<span> </span></p> <p>It seems quite remarkable that, while milk and its products have been extensively used as food thru all the known centuries of the past, beginning with the early tribes of people on the Aryan plains down thru the numerous races of many countries and throughout the rise and fall of several civilizations and it always has been common knowledge that, milk is the young infants only food and that if necessary human and animal life can be maintained over extensive periods of time on milk alone, it remained for a young man whose early life was spent on a. small farm m Kansas to make the first definite scientific determination of why milk is man's most essential food. While this contribution by Dr. McCollum was made to nutritional science it is and always will be the dairy industry's greatest asset. Notwithstanding the fact that many valuable contributions have been made by other leading dietary scientists regarding the importance of milk and its products in the diet, Dr. McCollum realized that these facts should be placed before the public in a way to be put into practice in daily life. He was a crusader and pioneer in launching a movement for better health that had and is continuing to have far-reaching results in the health and habits of the American people. His position as a. leading research scientist is unquestioned. He must also he accorded a place of high honor for his contribution to the betterment of American living.</p> <p>M. D. Munn has long been a prominent figure in the dairy industry. As president mid a director of the American Jersey Cattle Club he was responsible to much of the progress of the breed. During the World War he, became, much interested in the work of Dr. McCollum and was charged by the industry with the responsibility of organizing the National Dairy Council to promote human health. For 11 years lie has guided the destiny of that organization and has seen it grow to the place where many consider it the most important health organization today. As the man who has done more than any other to carry Dr. McCollum's health story to the public it is fitting that he should be the author of tins story.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods-history/10-masterminds-dairying" hreflang="en">10 Masterminds of Dairying</a></div> </div> Thu, 22 Jun 2017 21:42:28 +0000 Anonymous 241 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu