Dairy Foods https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods Dairy Foods for DRINC en How to Taste Ice Cream https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/how-taste-ice-cream <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How to Taste Ice Cream</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 27, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="TEMPERING While many folks like to dish out ice cream immediately after getting it from the fridge, it actually is best to take the ice cream out of the freezer and let it sit for about 5-10 minutes. This is called &quot;tempering,&quot; a step that helps maximize flavor release and enhance the overall taste.  VISUAL APPEAL Take a good look at the product - at it&#039;s color and texture. Does it appear appetizing? Part of tasting any food is the impression it makes on all of our senses -- not just the sense of taste. SPOONING Using a spoon, scrape a small sample off the surface. Now unlike the way we usually eat, invert the spoon so that the ice cream comes into contact with your tongue instead of the roof of your mouth. While this may seem like an &quot;upside down&quot; way to go about things, years of practice prove it to be the most effective way of delivering flavor to the 9,000 tastebuds in your mouth. MOUTH FEEL Coat your tongue with the ice cream. Roll it around and smack your lips. Let the complexities of the flavor build and spread so you can get a full sense of its taste. But don&#039;t yield to temptation and swallow the sample yet, or you&#039;ll have to start over again because the tasting process is not complete. AROMA Now close your mouth. Bring the ice cream&#039;s aroma up through the nose to sense the top notes and savor in the flavor&#039;s scent. Remember, all of the senses contribute to a food&#039;s taste, including your sense of smell! FINISH After you have extracted a definate impression of the product&#039;s taste, you can let it slide away down the throat and feel the taste sensation dissipate. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "TEMPERING While many folks like to dish out ice cream immediately after getting it from the fridge, it actually is best to take the ice cream out of the freezer and let it sit for about 5-10 minutes. This is called &quot;tempering,&quot; a step that helps maximize flavor release and enhance the overall taste.  VISUAL APPEAL " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><ol><li><strong>TEMPERING</strong><br /> While many folks like to dish out ice cream immediately after getting it from the fridge, it actually is best to take the ice cream out of the freezer and let it sit for about 5-10 minutes. This is called "tempering," a step that helps maximize flavor release and enhance the overall taste. </li> <li><strong>VISUAL APPEAL </strong><br /> Take a good look at the product - at it's color and texture. Does it appear appetizing? Part of tasting any food is the impression it makes on all of our senses -- not just the sense of taste.</li> <li><strong>SPOONING</strong><br /> Using a spoon, scrape a small sample off the surface. Now unlike the way we usually eat, invert the spoon so that the ice cream comes into contact with your tongue instead of the roof of your mouth. While this may seem like an "upside down" way to go about things, years of practice prove it to be the most effective way of delivering flavor to the 9,000 tastebuds in your mouth.</li> <li><strong>MOUTH FEEL</strong><br /> Coat your tongue with the ice cream. Roll it around and smack your lips. Let the complexities of the flavor build and spread so you can get a full sense of its taste. But don't yield to temptation and swallow the sample yet, or you'll have to start over again because the tasting process is not complete.</li> <li><strong>AROMA</strong><br /> Now close your mouth. Bring the ice cream's aroma up through the nose to sense the top notes and savor in the flavor's scent. Remember, all of the senses contribute to a food's taste, including your sense of smell!</li> <li><strong>FINISH</strong><br /> After you have extracted a definate impression of the product's taste, you can let it slide away down the throat and feel the taste sensation dissipate.</li> </ol> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/ice-cream" hreflang="en">Ice Cream</a></div> </div> Tue, 27 Jun 2017 17:28:07 +0000 Anonymous 76 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Outline of Ice Cream Manufacturing https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/outline-ice-cream-manufacturing <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Outline of Ice Cream Manufacturing</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="The basic steps in the manufacturing of ice cream are generally as follows: blending of the mix ingredients pasteurization homogenization aging the mix freezing packaging hardening First the ingredients are selected, weighed and then blended together to produce what is known as the &quot;ice cream mix&quot;. The mix is then pasteurized. Pasteurization is the biological control point in the system, designed for the destruction of pathogenic bacteria. In addition to this very important function, pasteurization also reduces the number of spoilage organisms such as psychrotrophs, and helps to hydrate some of the components (proteins, stabilizers). Both batch pasteurizes and continuous (HTST) methods are used. The mix is also homogenized which forms the fat emulsion by breaking down or reducing the size of the fat globules found in milk or cream to less than 1 µm. Two stage homogenization is usually preferred for ice cream mix. Clumping or clustering of the fat is reduced thereby producing a thinner, more rapidly whipped mix. Melt-down is also improved. Homogenization provides the following functions in ice cream manufacture: Reduces size of fat globules Increases surface area Forms membrane makes a smoother ice cream gives a greater apparent richness and palatability better whipping ability decreases danger of churning the fat makes possible the use of butter, frozen cream, etc. increases resistance to melting The mix is then aged for at least four hours and usually overnight. This allows time for the fat to cool down and crystallize, and for the proteins and polysaccharides to fully hydrate. Aging provides the following functions: * Improves whipping qualities of mix and body and texture of ice cream * Fat crystallization * Protein and stabilizer hydration viscosity increase * Membrane rearrangement protein/emulsifier interaction Freezing and Hardening  Following mix processing, the mix is drawn into a flavor tank where any liquid flavors, fruit purees, or colors are added. The mix then enters the dynamic freezing process which both freezes a portion of the water and whips air into the frozen mix. The &quot;barrel&quot; freezer is a scraped-surface, tubular heat exchanger, which is jacketed with a boiling refrigerant such as ammonia or freon (see refrigeration section). Mix is pumped through this freezer and is drawn off the other end in a matter of 30 seconds, (or 10 to 15 minutes in the case of batch freezers) with about 50% of its water frozen. There are rotating blades inside the barrel that keep the ice scraped off the surface of the freezer and also dashers inside the machine which help to whip the mix and incorporate air. Ice cream contains a considerable quantity of air, up to half of its volume. This air is referred to as overrun, the calculations of which are explained in detail elsewhere. This gives the product its characteristic lightness. Without air, ice cream would be similar to a frozen ice cube. As the ice cream is drawn with about half of its water frozen, particulate matter such as fruits, nuts, candy, cookies, or whatever you like, is added to the semi-frozen slurry which has a consistency similar to soft-serve ice cream. In fact, almost the only thing which differentiates hard frozen ice cream from soft-serve, is the fact that soft serve is drawn into cones at this point in the process rather than into packages for subsequent hardening. After the particulates have been added, the ice cream is packaged and is placed into a blast freezer at -30° to -40°C where most of the remainder of the water is frozen. A primer on the fundamental aspects of freezing will provide more details of this complex process. Below about -25°C, ice cream is stable for indefinite periods without danger of ice crystal growth; however, above this temperature, ice crystal growth is possible and the rate of crystal growth is dependent upon the temperature of storage. This limits the shelf life of the ice cream. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "The basic steps in the manufacturing of ice cream are generally as follows:" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="Ice Maker" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="4903472b-1ff3-420c-858e-6e8b0d5b2aa0" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/icemkr.gif" class="align-right" />The basic steps in the manufacturing of ice cream are generally as follows:</p> <ul><li>blending of the mix ingredients</li> <li>pasteurization</li> <li>homogenization</li> <li>aging the mix</li> <li>freezing</li> <li>packaging</li> <li>hardening</li> </ul><p>First the ingredients are selected, weighed and then blended together to produce what is known as the "ice cream mix". The mix is then pasteurized. Pasteurization is the biological control point in the system, designed for the destruction of pathogenic bacteria. In addition to this very important function, pasteurization also reduces the number of spoilage organisms such as psychrotrophs, and helps to hydrate some of the components (proteins, stabilizers).</p> <p>Both batch pasteurizes and continuous (HTST) methods are used. The mix is also homogenized which forms the fat emulsion by breaking down or reducing the size of the fat globules found in milk or cream to less than 1 µm. Two stage homogenization is usually preferred for ice cream mix. Clumping or clustering of the fat is reduced thereby producing a thinner, more rapidly whipped mix. Melt-down is also improved. Homogenization provides the following functions in ice cream manufacture:</p> <ul><li>Reduces size of fat globules</li> <li>Increases surface area</li> <li>Forms membrane</li> <li>makes a smoother ice cream</li> <li>gives a greater apparent richness and palatability</li> <li>better whipping ability</li> <li>decreases danger of churning the fat</li> <li>makes possible the use of butter, frozen cream, etc.</li> <li>increases resistance to melting</li> </ul><p>The mix is then aged for at least four hours and usually overnight. This allows time for the fat to cool down and crystallize, and for the proteins and polysaccharides to fully hydrate. Aging provides the following functions: * Improves whipping qualities of mix and body and texture of ice cream * Fat crystallization * Protein and stabilizer hydration viscosity increase * Membrane rearrangement protein/emulsifier interaction</p> <p>Freezing and Hardening <br /> Following mix processing, the mix is drawn into a flavor tank where any liquid flavors, fruit purees, or colors are added. The mix then enters the dynamic freezing process which both freezes a portion of the water and whips air into the frozen mix. The "barrel" freezer is a scraped-surface, tubular heat exchanger, which is jacketed with a boiling refrigerant such as ammonia or freon (see refrigeration section). Mix is pumped through this freezer and is drawn off the other end in a matter of 30 seconds, (or 10 to 15 minutes in the case of batch freezers) with about 50% of its water frozen. There are rotating blades inside the barrel that keep the ice scraped off the surface of the freezer and also dashers inside the machine which help to whip the mix and incorporate air. Ice cream contains a considerable quantity of air, up to half of its volume. This air is referred to as overrun, the calculations of which are explained in detail elsewhere. This gives the product its characteristic lightness. Without air, ice cream would be similar to a frozen ice cube.</p> <p>As the ice cream is drawn with about half of its water frozen, particulate matter such as fruits, nuts, candy, cookies, or whatever you like, is added to the semi-frozen slurry which has a consistency similar to soft-serve ice cream. In fact, almost the only thing which differentiates hard frozen ice cream from soft-serve, is the fact that soft serve is drawn into cones at this point in the process rather than into packages for subsequent hardening. After the particulates have been added, the ice cream is packaged and is placed into a blast freezer at -30° to -40°C where most of the remainder of the water is frozen. A primer on the fundamental aspects of freezing will provide more details of this complex process.</p> <p>Below about -25°C, ice cream is stable for indefinite periods without danger of ice crystal growth; however, above this temperature, ice crystal growth is possible and the rate of crystal growth is dependent upon the temperature of storage. This limits the shelf life of the ice cream.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/ice-cream" hreflang="en">Ice Cream</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:05:45 +0000 Anonymous 71 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Sandiness in Ice Cream https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/sandiness-ice-cream <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Sandiness in Ice Cream</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Sandiness has been a defect that has plagued the ice cream manufacturer for many years. In fact it has been a problem ever since it became known that increasing the solids-not-fat content above that found in milk markedly improved the body of ice cream. About the end of World War I the ice cream industry was expanding rapidly and increasing the milk solids was a convenient and economical method of improving the eating quality. However it soon became apparent that hard, gritty particles developed in this ice cream that seemed as though there was sand in the product; thus &quot;sandy&quot; became the term to describe the defect. Lactose crystals were suggested as the causative agent in 1920, and definitely proven to be the cause in 1921. Since that time many investigators have contributed to our knowledge on the subject, but even today we have no adequate explanation as to why certain ice creams became sandy while others do not. We know that the problem cannot be solved merely by limiting the lactose below the saturation point, because every ice cream contains a saturated lactose solution at the storage temperatures normally used. As water is frozen into ice the lactose becomes concentrated into a smaller and smaller amount of water so when ice cream storage temperatures are reached, the water is supersaturated with lactose even in ice creams of the lowest solids. Crystallization is a two step process; nucleation or start of a crystal center followed by crystal growth. The first step, nucleation, usually does not occur and consequently crystals do not develop. Thus ice cream does not normally become sandy because crystal nuclei do not develop. In some ice creams for one reason or another, these crystal nuclei do develop and subsequently grow so that they are detected in the mouth as &quot;sand.&quot; In many cases small particles of other material can act as crystal centers on which lactose is deposited. These foreign particles apparently can be of a widely diverse nature, and explain why some lactose solutions crystallize while others under similar conditions do not. Perhaps one reason why sandiness is less of a problem now is that the ice cream ingredients, particularly the milk products, are of much better quality. the use of more efficient clarifiers and of cleaner raw milk has most likely resulted in fewer foreign nuclei in ice cream to initiate lactose crystallization. Other foreign nuclei may be added with the flavoring material or the flavoring material may absorb moisture from the surrounding ice cream. Nuts, dehydrated fruit, or candy pieces often cause sandy ice cream in this way. Because of the absorbed moisture, a higher lactose concentration is produced where nuclei are more likely to develop. Other types of powdered flavorings that fail to dissolve completely may promote sandiness either by serving as nuclei or by absorbing moisture form the area surrounding the particles. Undissolved particles of high heat powder can have a similar effect. Undissolved dry milk particles also can have the opposite effect by actually preventing sandiness. In this case milk powder is added to partially frozen mix in the freezer and unnumerable small crystals are produced when the lactose glass of the milk particles is dampened. This was suggested years ago as a method of producing high solids ice cream that would not go sandy. The explanation given at the time was that the milk powder did not dissolve and therefore the lactose of the powder would not be part of the solution of the ice cream. In reality the powder produced so many small crystals that they could not be detected in the mouth. More recently seeding methods have been proposed that accomplish the same thing. A small quantity of lactose &quot;seed,&quot; such as dried whey powder or &quot;instant&quot; dry milk, is added to the mix as it goes to the freezer. This material contains such large quantities of minute crystals that the entire mass of ice cream develops crystals less than 10 microns long. Such crystals are not detectable in the mouth. Fewer crystals are produced and these grow larger than 10 microns, then they may be detectable, depending on the number. The larger the crystals become the fewer can be tolerated without causing a mealiness or sandiness. This is the problem with foreign nuclei; too few are present to adequately seed the mix and therefore they grow too large and cause sandiness. When adequate nuclei are added the ice cream is fully protected against sandiness regardless of flavor, storage conditions, or age. Another reason why present day ice cream does not tend to go sandy is due to the action of stabilizers. Apparently most of the stabilizers now in use aid in preventing nucleation; the ice cream is more resistant to crystallization when the stabilizers are present. Stabilizers will not prevent crystallization, however, once nuclei develop or if they are added. The concern about sandiness has made some ice cream manufacturers less flexible with regard to formulating frozen desserts. Some have been reluctant to use edible whey solids when it would be feasible to do so, because they feel the lactose content would be increased to the danger level for sandiness. This seems unjustified in view of the fact that research shows adding 2% pure lactose to a regular commercial mix (11% SNF) did not encountering any problem with lactose crystallization. This was true even in a standard ice cream cabinet set at 15°F. Sandiness certainly is not the major defect. A number of factors probable contribute to this fact, such as improved refrigeration to hold the product at lower and more constant emperatures, cleaner products that reduce contamination with foreign nuclei, and modern stabilizers that retard nucleation. When sandiness becomes a problem, for example with special flavors, the other techniques previously mentioned should be investigated as a possible solution to the problem. Sensory testing alone should not be relied upon as the sole means of detecting crystallization. This is satisfactory from a consumer&#039;s standpoint, but is not sensitive nor accurate enough to check the susceptibility of your ice cream to sandiness. Inexpensive polaroid filters are available to fit the ordinary microscope that will furnish polarized light. The lactose crystals under the polarized light appear as very bright areas in a dark field and are easily detected. This becomes a useful tool in the quality control of ice cream. Adapted by John C. Bruhn, Dairy Research and Information Center, UC Davis from writings of Professor T. A. Nickerson. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Sandiness has been a defect that has plagued the ice cream manufacturer for many years. In fact it has been a problem ever since it became known that increasing the solids-not-fat content above that found in milk markedly improved the body of ice cream. About the end of World War I the ice cream industry was expanding rapidly and increasing the milk solids was a convenient and economical method of improving the eating quality." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Sandiness has been a defect that has plagued the ice cream manufacturer for many years. In fact it has been a problem ever since it became known that increasing the solids-not-fat content above that found in milk markedly improved the body of ice cream. About the end of World War I the ice cream industry was expanding rapidly and increasing the milk solids was a convenient and economical method of improving the eating quality. However it soon became apparent that hard, gritty particles developed in this ice cream that seemed as though there was sand in the product; thus "sandy" became the term to describe the defect. Lactose crystals were suggested as the causative agent in 1920, and definitely proven to be the cause in 1921. Since that time many investigators have contributed to our knowledge on the subject, but even today we have no adequate explanation as to why certain ice creams became sandy while others do not.</p> <p>We know that the problem cannot be solved merely by limiting the lactose below the saturation point, because every ice cream contains a saturated lactose solution at the storage temperatures normally used. As water is frozen into ice the lactose becomes concentrated into a smaller and smaller amount of water so when ice cream storage temperatures are reached, the water is supersaturated with lactose even in ice creams of the lowest solids.</p> <p>Crystallization is a two step process; nucleation or start of a crystal center followed by crystal growth. The first step, nucleation, usually does not occur and consequently crystals do not develop. Thus ice cream does not normally become sandy because crystal nuclei do not develop. In some ice creams for one reason or another, these crystal nuclei do develop and subsequently grow so that they are detected in the mouth as "sand."</p> <p>In many cases small particles of other material can act as crystal centers on which lactose is deposited. These foreign particles apparently can be of a widely diverse nature, and explain why some lactose solutions crystallize while others under similar conditions do not. Perhaps one reason why sandiness is less of a problem now is that the ice cream ingredients, particularly the milk products, are of much better quality. the use of more efficient clarifiers and of cleaner raw milk has most likely resulted in fewer foreign nuclei in ice cream to initiate lactose crystallization.</p> <p>Other foreign nuclei may be added with the flavoring material or the flavoring material may absorb moisture from the surrounding ice cream. Nuts, dehydrated fruit, or candy pieces often cause sandy ice cream in this way. Because of the absorbed moisture, a higher lactose concentration is produced where nuclei are more likely to develop. Other types of powdered flavorings that fail to dissolve completely may promote sandiness either by serving as nuclei or by absorbing moisture form the area surrounding the particles. Undissolved particles of high heat powder can have a similar effect.</p> <p>Undissolved dry milk particles also can have the opposite effect by actually preventing sandiness. In this case milk powder is added to partially frozen mix in the freezer and unnumerable small crystals are produced when the lactose glass of the milk particles is dampened. This was suggested years ago as a method of producing high solids ice cream that would not go sandy. The explanation given at the time was that the milk powder did not dissolve and therefore the lactose of the powder would not be part of the solution of the ice cream. In reality the powder produced so many small crystals that they could not be detected in the mouth.</p> <p>More recently seeding methods have been proposed that accomplish the same thing. A small quantity of lactose "seed," such as dried whey powder or "instant" dry milk, is added to the mix as it goes to the freezer. This material contains such large quantities of minute crystals that the entire mass of ice cream develops crystals less than 10 microns long. Such crystals are not detectable in the mouth. Fewer crystals are produced and these grow larger than 10 microns, then they may be detectable, depending on the number. The larger the crystals become the fewer can be tolerated without causing a mealiness or sandiness. This is the problem with foreign nuclei; too few are present to adequately seed the mix and therefore they grow too large and cause sandiness. When adequate nuclei are added the ice cream is fully protected against sandiness regardless of flavor, storage conditions, or age.</p> <p>Another reason why present day ice cream does not tend to go sandy is due to the action of stabilizers. Apparently most of the stabilizers now in use aid in preventing nucleation; the ice cream is more resistant to crystallization when the stabilizers are present. Stabilizers will not prevent crystallization, however, once nuclei develop or if they are added.</p> <p>The concern about sandiness has made some ice cream manufacturers less flexible with regard to formulating frozen desserts. Some have been reluctant to use edible whey solids when it would be feasible to do so, because they feel the lactose content would be increased to the danger level for sandiness. This seems unjustified in view of the fact that research shows adding 2% pure lactose to a regular commercial mix (11% SNF) did not encountering any problem with lactose crystallization. This was true even in a standard ice cream cabinet set at 15°F.</p> <p>Sandiness certainly is not the major defect. A number of factors probable contribute to this fact, such as improved refrigeration to hold the product at lower and more constant emperatures, cleaner products that reduce contamination with foreign nuclei, and modern stabilizers that retard nucleation. When sandiness becomes a problem, for example with special flavors, the other techniques previously mentioned should be investigated as a possible solution to the problem. Sensory testing alone should not be relied upon as the sole means of detecting crystallization. This is satisfactory from a consumer's standpoint, but is not sensitive nor accurate enough to check the susceptibility of your ice cream to sandiness. Inexpensive polaroid filters are available to fit the ordinary microscope that will furnish polarized light. The lactose crystals under the polarized light appear as very bright areas in a dark field and are easily detected. This becomes a useful tool in the quality control of ice cream.</p> <p>Adapted by John C. Bruhn, Dairy Research and Information Center, UC Davis from writings of Professor T. A. Nickerson.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/ice-cream" hreflang="en">Ice Cream</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:04:53 +0000 Anonymous 66 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Quality Factors for Ice Cream https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/quality-factors-ice-cream <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Quality Factors for Ice Cream</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Many factors, including the flavor, body and texture, melting quality, color, package, appearance, and influence quality, the overall acceptability of the product by consumers. Appearance is the first aspect of a product to influence customers. This may be the appearance of the package in the supermarket cabinet, or it may be the appearance of the ice cream in the serving dish on the table. Appearance of the package is important, because obviously if the package is not attractive to prospective customers, they will not buy it. The quality of the ice cream itself will never be evaluated if the package doesn&#039;t attract interest. Appearance also includes the ice cream&#039;s color. It has a marked psychological effect on acceptability of foods of all types, and ice cream is no exception. How often have you seen a dish of chocolate ice cream with a dull, murky appearance reminiscent of mud, or a strawberry ice cream so brightly colored that you know it has to be imitation? The various quality factors concerning appearance influence our opinion as consumers even before we taste it, a product, and therefore these factors should be carefully considered and adequately addressed in a quality-control program. A good start has been made in producing a readily acceptable product when it has been made to look delicious. Once the appetite is whetted and a delightful flavor is anticipated, consumers are psychologically ready for a delicious taste sensation. At this point, all other quality factors become subordinate to flavor. If the flavor is not up to expectations, consumers will be disappointed and will consider the product to be of poor quality, regardless of the merits of other quality factors. Appearance of the ice cream itself is normally where most consumers start to differentiate among the qualities of ice creams. Here, dipping characteristics--gummy, sticky body; coarse, icy texture; pleasing color indicative of flavor; and appearance of flavoring pieces (if present)--all play a part in influencing consumers. How the ice cream melts down (melt-down) is a minor factor affecting appearance, and is normally noticed only in extreme cases--either adversely as a curdled, wheyed-off melted product, or favorably as an especially smooth, creamy, rich-appearing melted product. Textural characteristics of the ice cream are important and influence by may factors. If two samples of the same ice cream are handled differently to produce a coarser (icy) texture than another with the same formulations, the sample with the better texture will be considered to a better flavor. In eating ice cream, one becomes intimately interwoven with flavor sensations, and the ice cream texture, in this case icy or course can either complement or detract from the apparent flavor. Milkfat accounts for most of the rich-sensations of ice cream, and only a limited amount of substitution with other ingredients can be made without changing the product&#039;s characteristics. Milkfat contributes a mellowness and flavor as no other constituent can. Emulsifiers are helpful here, as are the phospholipids found in good-quality buttermilk powder, but much reduction in milkfat will affect the eating quality of the product. Milk solids-not-fat (SNF) contributes to flavor but are most important to the body and texture of ice cream. Proteins bind water to act as stabilizers, have an emulsifying effect on the fat, and give viscosity and chewiness to the body. Milk solids also include salts and lactose. If used in excessive amounts, milk solids cause a condensed-milk or milk protein flavor, but in most cases saltiness will be the limiting factor on the amount of milk solids that can be used. For many years the fear of lactose crystallization (described as sandy) forced manufacturers to limit the solids-not-fat in ice cream to 12% or less. Today, however, there is little danger in sandiness developing under commercial conditions. In fact, there is no excuse for sandiness in ice cream because technical advances have made it possible to eliminate this defect. Some experimental data indicate that the incidence of sandiness is increased when the drawing temperature is decreased. Because milk solids tend to mask delicate flavors, it is necessary to use more flavoring materials in order to make the flavor apparent. This is especially true for vanilla and fruit flavors, in which high levels of solids-not-fat interfere with the flavor. The more SNF, the more flavoring will generally be needed. Sweeteners play an important role in any ice cream, and the current trend is to add them in increasing quantities. They have three important functions: to give sweetness, to add to the solids content, and to lower the freezing point so that the product is soft and smooth at low temperatures, say 10 F. For many years the industry has taken it for granted that the desirable level for sweetness is 15%, based on consumer tests. Increased sweetness in fruit ice creams is particularly important. Because fruit acids depress the apparent sweetness and because the added bulk of the fruit dilutes the mix, the body and texture is poorer. The higher sugar level brings out the fruit flavor and at the same time improves the body and texture. Recent trends in the use of sweeteners have been to increase the amount of corn syrup or corn solids and to use blends. Changes that result in a less expensive product are readily accepted. The use of additional corn solids is justified, but not merely on the basis of economics. Corn syrups got their start initially as table sugar substitutes during World War II, when they were used to stretch the sugar rations available to ice cream manufacturers. During this period it became apparent that corn syrup had certain desirable properties that imparted improved quality to the ice cream, if the corn syrup was used wisely. Corn syrup improves and helps to maintain smoothness when the ice cream encounters temperature fluctuations of heat-shock. It gives a desirable chewiness to the body of the product due to the presence of dextrins, high-molecular-weight polysaccharides that remain after acid hydrolysis of the cornstarch to produce corn syrup. Not all corn syrups have the same composition; in fact, there is a considerable range depending primarily on the extent of hydrolysis used in their preparation. Corn syrups have a characteristic flavor of their own, and if used in excessive amounts they interfere with natural flavoring materials. Even when used in sub-threshold levels, when the flavor of the syrup itself cannot be detected, there is a masking effect on ice cream flavor, particularly for vanilla. Gums of various kinds are useful as stabilizers in ice cream because of their characteristic property of imbibing or absorbing large amounts of water. This characteristic is effective in limiting the natural tendency of ice cream to become coarse in texture during storage. Numerous types of animal and vegetable products have been found effective in ice cream and as a result a considerable range of stabilizers is available on the market. The primary purpose of stabilizers is to maintain the smooth texture by inhibiting the formation and growth of ice crystals, but other considerations are also important. Their effect on flavor, color, viscosity, whipping ability and meltdown should also be considered. The effect of the stabilizer on viscosity in relation to temperature and age has very practical significance. If the viscosity is increased immediately and greatly, the mix will be difficult to cool. On the other hand, if the stabilizer imbibes water slowly and takes time to establish a gel structure, an aging period is necessary, and viscosity will vary with age. Constant physical characteristics are important when mix is sold, or when it is necessary to freeze the mix immediately after processing. Some gums are especially effective in increasing viscosity; others produce a heavier body or provide better resistance to heat shock. Many have certain limitations if used alone, such as a curdy meltdown or coagulation of the milk proteins, and cause the mix to whey-off. Most commercial stabilizers are blends or various gums standardized to give uniform results from lot to lot. These products are more effective in maintaining good texture and aid in producing a heavier, chewier ice cream. Emulsifiers have become more uniform, more versatile, and almost essential to modern ice cream manufacturing. They are especially useful in producing a stiff, dry product for specialty items, but they also have their place in regular manufacturing and packaging operations. The ice cream is smoother, creamier, and more melt-resistant when emulsifiers are used. However, excessive use causes an unnatural slickness, a partially churned appearance, and product that does not melt. In some cases the flavor is adversely affected, too. Summary It is apparent from this discussion that each ice cream ingredient has specific functions that it alone can perform most effectively. However, there is a definite overlapping of some of the functions. For example, all ingredients influence body and texture, so that a variety of variations can still produce an acceptable product. One must be careful when altering ingredients to assure that the eating quality is not impaired. Composition control is essential in obtaining and maintaining quality. The ice cream&#039;s ingredients serve specific functions in supplying the characteristic properties of the final product. Several ingredients may influence some properties, so that similar results can be obtained by altering the quantities of any or all of them. Other properties of ice cream depend primarily on one ingredient.  "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Many factors, including the flavor, body and texture, melting quality, color, package, appearance, and influence quality, the overall acceptability of the product by consumers." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Many factors, including the flavor, body and texture, melting quality, color, package, appearance, and influence quality, the overall acceptability of the product by consumers.</p> <p>Appearance is the first aspect of a product to influence customers. This may be the appearance of the package in the supermarket cabinet, or it may be the appearance of the ice cream in the serving dish on the table. Appearance of the package is important, because obviously if the package is not attractive to prospective customers, they will not buy it. The quality of the ice cream itself will never be evaluated if the package doesn't attract interest.</p> <p>Appearance also includes the ice cream's color. It has a marked psychological effect on acceptability of foods of all types, and ice cream is no exception. How often have you seen a dish of chocolate ice cream with a dull, murky appearance reminiscent of mud, or a strawberry ice cream so brightly colored that you know it has to be imitation? The various quality factors concerning appearance influence our opinion as consumers even before we taste it, a product, and therefore these factors should be carefully considered and adequately addressed in a quality-control program. A good start has been made in producing a readily acceptable product when it has been made to look delicious. Once the appetite is whetted and a delightful flavor is anticipated, consumers are psychologically ready for a delicious taste sensation. At this point, all other quality factors become subordinate to flavor. If the flavor is not up to expectations, consumers will be disappointed and will consider the product to be of poor quality, regardless of the merits of other quality factors.</p> <p>Appearance of the ice cream itself is normally where most consumers start to differentiate among the qualities of ice creams. Here, dipping characteristics--gummy, sticky body; coarse, icy texture; pleasing color indicative of flavor; and appearance of flavoring pieces (if present)--all play a part in influencing consumers.</p> <p>How the ice cream melts down (melt-down) is a minor factor affecting appearance, and is normally noticed only in extreme cases--either adversely as a curdled, wheyed-off melted product, or favorably as an especially smooth, creamy, rich-appearing melted product.</p> <p>Textural characteristics of the ice cream are important and influence by may factors. If two samples of the same ice cream are handled differently to produce a coarser (icy) texture than another with the same formulations, the sample with the better texture will be considered to a better flavor. In eating ice cream, one becomes intimately interwoven with flavor sensations, and the ice cream texture, in this case icy or course can either complement or detract from the apparent flavor.</p> <p>Milkfat accounts for most of the rich-sensations of ice cream, and only a limited amount of substitution with other ingredients can be made without changing the product's characteristics. Milkfat contributes a mellowness and flavor as no other constituent can. Emulsifiers are helpful here, as are the phospholipids found in good-quality buttermilk powder, but much reduction in milkfat will affect the eating quality of the product.</p> <p>Milk solids-not-fat (SNF) contributes to flavor but are most important to the body and texture of ice cream. Proteins bind water to act as stabilizers, have an emulsifying effect on the fat, and give viscosity and chewiness to the body. Milk solids also include salts and lactose. If used in excessive amounts, milk solids cause a condensed-milk or milk protein flavor, but in most cases saltiness will be the limiting factor on the amount of milk solids that can be used.</p> <p>For many years the fear of lactose crystallization (described as sandy) forced manufacturers to limit the solids-not-fat in ice cream to 12% or less. Today, however, there is little danger in sandiness developing under commercial conditions. In fact, there is no excuse for sandiness in ice cream because technical advances have made it possible to eliminate this defect. Some experimental data indicate that the incidence of sandiness is increased when the drawing temperature is decreased.</p> <p>Because milk solids tend to mask delicate flavors, it is necessary to use more flavoring materials in order to make the flavor apparent. This is especially true for vanilla and fruit flavors, in which high levels of solids-not-fat interfere with the flavor. The more SNF, the more flavoring will generally be needed. Sweeteners play an important role in any ice cream, and the current trend is to add them in increasing quantities. They have three important functions: to give sweetness, to add to the solids content, and to lower the freezing point so that the product is soft and smooth at low temperatures, say 10 F.</p> <p>For many years the industry has taken it for granted that the desirable level for sweetness is 15%, based on consumer tests. Increased sweetness in fruit ice creams is particularly important. Because fruit acids depress the apparent sweetness and because the added bulk of the fruit dilutes the mix, the body and texture is poorer. The higher sugar level brings out the fruit flavor and at the same time improves the body and texture. Recent trends in the use of sweeteners have been to increase the amount of corn syrup or corn solids and to use blends. Changes that result in a less expensive product are readily accepted.</p> <p>The use of additional corn solids is justified, but not merely on the basis of economics. Corn syrups got their start initially as table sugar substitutes during World War II, when they were used to stretch the sugar rations available to ice cream manufacturers. During this period it became apparent that corn syrup had certain desirable properties that imparted improved quality to the ice cream, if the corn syrup was used wisely. Corn syrup improves and helps to maintain smoothness when the ice cream encounters temperature fluctuations of heat-shock. It gives a desirable chewiness to the body of the product due to the presence of dextrins, high-molecular-weight polysaccharides that remain after acid hydrolysis of the cornstarch to produce corn syrup. Not all corn syrups have the same composition; in fact, there is a considerable range depending primarily on the extent of hydrolysis used in their preparation. Corn syrups have a characteristic flavor of their own, and if used in excessive amounts they interfere with natural flavoring materials. Even when used in sub-threshold levels, when the flavor of the syrup itself cannot be detected, there is a masking effect on ice cream flavor, particularly for vanilla.</p> <p>Gums of various kinds are useful as stabilizers in ice cream because of their characteristic property of imbibing or absorbing large amounts of water. This characteristic is effective in limiting the natural tendency of ice cream to become coarse in texture during storage. Numerous types of animal and vegetable products have been found effective in ice cream and as a result a considerable range of stabilizers is available on the market. The primary purpose of stabilizers is to maintain the smooth texture by inhibiting the formation and growth of ice crystals, but other considerations are also important. Their effect on flavor, color, viscosity, whipping ability and meltdown should also be considered.</p> <p>The effect of the stabilizer on viscosity in relation to temperature and age has very practical significance. If the viscosity is increased immediately and greatly, the mix will be difficult to cool. On the other hand, if the stabilizer imbibes water slowly and takes time to establish a gel structure, an aging period is necessary, and viscosity will vary with age. Constant physical characteristics are important when mix is sold, or when it is necessary to freeze the mix immediately after processing.</p> <p>Some gums are especially effective in increasing viscosity; others produce a heavier body or provide better resistance to heat shock. Many have certain limitations if used alone, such as a curdy meltdown or coagulation of the milk proteins, and cause the mix to whey-off. Most commercial stabilizers are blends or various gums standardized to give uniform results from lot to lot. These products are more effective in maintaining good texture and aid in producing a heavier, chewier ice cream.</p> <p>Emulsifiers have become more uniform, more versatile, and almost essential to modern ice cream manufacturing. They are especially useful in producing a stiff, dry product for specialty items, but they also have their place in regular manufacturing and packaging operations. The ice cream is smoother, creamier, and more melt-resistant when emulsifiers are used. However, excessive use causes an unnatural slickness, a partially churned appearance, and product that does not melt. In some cases the flavor is adversely affected, too.</p> <h3>Summary</h3> <p>It is apparent from this discussion that each ice cream ingredient has specific functions that it alone can perform most effectively. However, there is a definite overlapping of some of the functions. For example, all ingredients influence body and texture, so that a variety of variations can still produce an acceptable product. One must be careful when altering ingredients to assure that the eating quality is not impaired.</p> <p>Composition control is essential in obtaining and maintaining quality. The ice cream's ingredients serve specific functions in supplying the characteristic properties of the final product. Several ingredients may influence some properties, so that similar results can be obtained by altering the quantities of any or all of them. Other properties of ice cream depend primarily on one ingredient. </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/ice-cream" hreflang="en">Ice Cream</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:03:48 +0000 Anonymous 61 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu 100th Anniversary of the Ice Cream Cone https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/100th-anniversary-ice-cream-cone <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">100th Anniversary of the Ice Cream Cone</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Most ice cream history buffs believe that the originator of this beloved frozen treat is one Ernest A. Hamwi, a Syrian who&#039;d been a sailor but as an American immigrant had a waffle stand at the 1904 St. Louis World&#039;s Fair (also called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition). Following is a popular version of the story: On one particularly busy day, when a nearby ice cream concessionaire, Charles Menches, ran out of dishes, Hamwi came to the rescue. He used a sailor&#039;s tool he had at hand to roll a zaiabia (one of the thin, crisp Persian pastries he was vending) into a cone and offered it as a dish substitute. Necessity being the mother of invention, the ice cream vendor took him up on his offer .. . and the result was an instant hit. Suddenly, there was a &quot;World&#039;s Fair Cornucopia5&#039; to be had almost anywhere ... within a short time of the consumption of that first cone, there were some fifty ice cream stands selling them. After the Fair, Hamwi became superintendent of the Cornucopia Waffle Co. in St. Louis and in 1910, founded the Missouri Cone Co. If he were to visit an ice cream store today, he&#039;d be surprised to see that we&#039;re still baking waffle cones and rolling them on a wooden, conical tool very much like the one he used as a sailor to mend rope a century ago! Hamwi&#039;s story is partly based on a letter he wrote in 1928 to the Ice Cream Trade Journal., long after he had established the Cornucopia Waffle Co. Fifty years ago this year, the International Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers - now the International Ice Cream Association [IICA] - held its convention in St. Louis to help celebrate the golden anniversary of that first cone. Though there had been much dispute about the beginnings of the ice cream cone, the Association confirmed the version of the ice cream cone&#039;s history which places Hamwi as its originator. Their decision was reached after considerable research, including interviews with Hamwi&#039;s relatives and testimony from Stephen H. Sullivan who claimed to have been at the 1904 Fair and witnessed the birth of the cone. But the story doesn&#039;t end there. Now, two generations later, the IICA has reached a different conclusion. In the most recent issues of its publication. The Latest Scoop, they assert that &quot;Italo Marchiony, who migrated from Italy in the late 1800s, produced the first ice cream cone in 1896 in New York City.&quot; They acknowledge the 1904 World&#039;s Fair version of the cone&#039;s history only insofar as giving credit to Hamwi for introducing and popularizing it there (i.e., not creating it, per se). What is there in support of the claim that Marchiony is the originator of the ice cream cone? Well, for one thing, William Marchiony of Thousand Oaks, CA, reports that his grandfather, Italo, applied to the U.S. Patent Office for a patent on his new mold, and Patent Number 746971 was issued to him on December 13, 1903. Author-researcher Paul Dickson (The Great American Ice Cream Book, Atheneum, 1973) wrote this about the Marchiony invention: &#039;The mold was described in the patent application as being &quot;split in two like a waffle iron and producing several small, round pastry cups with sloping sides.&quot; (See illustration, courtesy of Mike Exinger ofZinger&#039;s Ice Cream Parlor &amp; Sweets, Seaside, Oregon.) These pastry cups had to be tiny, to fit 10 of them in a waffle-size iron, and they wouldn&#039;t be like today&#039;s cup cone, but an edible &quot;cuplet,&quot; to replace the &quot;penny licks&quot; - small, glass containers used by street ice cream vendors. But Marrchiony&#039;s grandson. Bill, claims that Italo used these cuplets, made on his patented mold, to increase the efficiency of his street-vending business, and thereby made the first ice cream cones. Bryce Thomson, author of The Sundae School Newsletter, a monthly publication distributed by the National Ice Cream Retailers Association, strongly believes that Ernest Hamwi should be credited as the originator of the ice cream cone. However, he does write that &quot;[Marchiony] belongs in the history books for inventing the edible ice cream dish!&quot; His little containers were more sanitary than the shot-size glasses they replaced. Penny Licks remained popular for a long time [as noted in Ed Marks&#039; book. Ice Cream Collectibles], even though they were the cause of many health problems. Most vendors seldom washed them as they were passed from one customer to the next. But Thomson agrees with the late Jack Marlowe, who wrote that &quot;the bottoms of [Marchiony&#039;s] cups were flat, not conical and thus his post-Exposition claim that the burgeoning cone manufacturers were all violating his patent melted under the hot gaze of the law.&quot; While cookbook authors and many others along with those already mentioned give credence to the Hamwi story, there are yet other claimants to the cone&#039;s origin. David Avayou, a Turk who worked at the St. Louis Fair and later operated stores in Atlantic City, said he got the idea after seeing ice cream served in pointed paper cups in France. Abe Doumar, also a Middle Easterner, sold Holy Land souvenirs at that same Fair during the daytime. Nights, he would hang out at Hamwi&#039;s waffle stand, according to a July, 2003, Jack Marlowe article. One evening, he took one of Hamwi&#039;s pastries, rolled it into a horn, much as he had done back home in Syria when making a sandwich. But this time, instead of filling it with a slice of meat or balls of falafeL he added ice cream to make what he called &quot;a kind of Syrian ice cream sandwich.&quot; In a 1947 interview for the Chicago Sun, Max Goldberg also lay claim to selling the first ice cream cone ... in 1903. (In which case, we would be a little late with our centennial celebration of the event.) But Mr. Goldberg himself, in a previous (1944) newspaper interview, stated the cone originated at the St. Louis World&#039;s Fair. There are still more claims and stories connected with the origins of this most popular, all-American treat. For a different slant on the Hamwi story, go to &quot;A Brief History of the Ice Cream Cone.&quot; Also see Linda Stradley&#039;s &quot;History of the Ice Cream Cone&quot;, where she acknowledges that &#039;the 1904 Fair was the place where the cone became popular and where the great ice cream cone controversy began.&quot; But Linda also mentions Mrs. A.B. Marshall&#039;s Cookery Book as being the first recorded use of a cone for serving ice cream. Mrs. Marshall (1855-1905) was an Englishwoman. And the idea for stuffing rolled waffle-comets with a yummy treat appears to have come from Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899), chef at New York&#039;s famous Delmonico&#039;s. He wrote a cookbook in 1894 which contains a recipe for these cones filled with flavored whipped cream. Illustrations Hamwi&#039;s creation and a pastry cup made on Marchiony&#039;s invention, with a Penny Lick in the middle. Which one do you think resembles our modem-day cone? Which man do you think should be credited with the origination of the cone? Also, here is a picture of Marchiony&#039;s Pastry Cup. In this picture, the top illustration is what the first ice cream cones looked like. For several years, this rolled &quot;sugar cone&quot; was the only type available. Below would be the first molded cake cone. According to Bryce Thomson&#039;s re­search, it materialized sometime between 1910 and 1916. This illustration is from a 1917 ad which emphasized that Cremo Cake Cones were &quot;made in clean, sanitary factories .. . Not a hand-rolled cone.&quot; Cone manufacturing became a highly competitive business and improved designs were frequent. Example: the advertisement for The McLaren &quot;Real Cake Double Ring Cone&quot; (right, center) claimed that &quot;an ice cream cone without a nesting ring is old-fashioned,&quot; and that up-to-date fountain owners now demand ring cones.&quot; The competition to create best­seller cone designs was stiffest in the 1930s, writes author Paul Dickson. &quot;Companies would bring out a new line each year. There were cones with a side-pouch for an extra scoop, spiral cones, cones that stood on the table, those that looked like rocket ships (or Gothic spires), those that borrowed from tum-of-the-century bathtub designs ... This decade-long flurry of intense creative activity, when inventors throughout the land dreamed of originating the great American cone, is half-forgotten history today.&quot; But in this era of high awareness of the environmentally-correct, we can still agree with the Department of Health, Education and Welfare official who said 30 years ago that, &quot;The ice cream cone is the only ecologically sound package known. It is the perfect package.&quot; THE LAST IMPORTANT improvement to the cone came in the late 1930s with the introduction of the &quot;dripless&quot; cake cone in both pointed and cup styles. Their flared tops did much to solve the dripping problem - until ten to 15 years ago, that is, when operators started heaping huge dips on cones designed to accommodate small ones! By the way, dripping had been dealt with in various ways before. Earlier in the century, the Sayford Paper Specialty Co. ofVineland, N.JL, designed and sold a pleated, white paper apron which could be slipped onto a cone. &quot;The customer wants them to protect his clothes, his car, his furniture and his disposition,&quot; the company&#039;s ad stated, adding, &quot;and he doesn&#039;t have to turn his handkerchief into a mop.&quot; These little paper skirts could be imprinted with the ice cream retailer&#039;s logo. As the Sayford ad put it, &quot;... they put your advertising under the very nose of the man who is most interested, when he is in his most receptive mood.&quot;  Within the first two decades of the ice cream cone&#039;s debut at the St. Louis World&#039;s Fair, notes Mr. Dickson, &quot;America [had] wolfed down an estimated 245 million of them.&quot; We have long since stopped counting ... Reprinted (with permission) from The Sundae School Newsletter January 2004, edited by Bryce Thompson "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Most ice cream history buffs believe that the originator of this beloved frozen treat is one Ernest A. Hamwi, a Syrian who&#039;d been a sailor but as an American immigrant had a waffle stand at the 1904 St. Louis World&#039;s Fair (also called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition). Following is a popular version of the story:" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Most ice cream history buffs believe that the originator of this beloved frozen treat is one Ernest A. Hamwi, a Syrian who'd been a sailor but as an American immigrant had a waffle stand at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair (also called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition). Following is a popular version of the story:</p> <p>On one particularly busy day, when a nearby ice cream concessionaire, Charles Menches, ran out of dishes, Hamwi came to the rescue. He used a sailor's tool he had at hand to roll a zaiabia (one of the thin, crisp Persian pastries he was vending) into a cone and offered it as a dish substitute. Necessity being the mother of invention, the ice cream vendor took him up on his offer .. . and the result was an instant hit. Suddenly, there was a "World's Fair Cornucopia5' to be had almost anywhere ... within a short time of the consumption of that first cone, there were some fifty ice cream stands selling them. After the Fair, Hamwi became superintendent of the Cornucopia Waffle Co. in St. Louis and in 1910, founded the Missouri Cone Co. If he were to visit an ice cream store today, he'd be surprised to see that we're still baking waffle cones and rolling them on a wooden, conical tool very much like the one he used as a sailor to mend rope a century ago!</p> <p>Hamwi's story is partly based on a letter he wrote in 1928 to the Ice Cream Trade Journal., long after he had established the Cornucopia Waffle Co. Fifty years ago this year, the International Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers - now the International Ice Cream Association [IICA] - held its convention in St. Louis to help celebrate the golden anniversary of that first cone. Though there had been much dispute about the beginnings of the ice cream cone, the Association confirmed the version of the ice cream cone's history which places Hamwi as its originator. Their decision was reached after considerable research, including interviews with Hamwi's relatives and testimony from Stephen H. Sullivan who claimed to have been at the 1904 Fair and witnessed the birth of the cone.</p> <p>But the story doesn't end there. Now, two generations later, the IICA has reached a different conclusion. In the most recent issues of its publication. The Latest Scoop, they assert that "Italo Marchiony, who migrated from Italy in the late 1800s, produced the first ice cream cone in 1896 in New York City." They acknowledge the 1904 World's Fair version of the cone's history only insofar as giving credit to Hamwi for introducing and popularizing it there (i.e., not creating it, per se).</p> <p>What is there in support of the claim that Marchiony is the originator of the ice cream cone? Well, for one thing, William Marchiony of Thousand Oaks, CA, reports that his grandfather, Italo, applied to the U.S. Patent Office for a patent on his new mold, and Patent Number 746971 was issued to him on December 13, 1903. Author-researcher Paul Dickson (The Great American Ice Cream Book, Atheneum, 1973) wrote this about the Marchiony invention: 'The mold was described in the patent application as being "split in two like a waffle iron and producing several small, round pastry cups with sloping sides." (See illustration, courtesy of Mike Exinger ofZinger's Ice Cream Parlor &amp; Sweets, Seaside, Oregon.)</p> <p>These pastry cups had to be tiny, to fit 10 of them in a waffle-size iron, and they wouldn't be like today's cup cone, but an edible "cuplet," to replace the "penny licks" - small, glass containers used by street ice cream vendors. But Marrchiony's grandson. Bill, claims that Italo used these cuplets, made on his patented mold, to increase the efficiency of his street-vending business, and thereby made the first ice cream cones.</p> <p>Bryce Thomson, author of The Sundae School Newsletter, a monthly publication distributed by the National Ice Cream Retailers Association, strongly believes that Ernest Hamwi should be credited as the originator of the ice cream cone. However, he does write that "[Marchiony] belongs in the history books for inventing the edible ice cream dish!" His little containers were more sanitary than the shot-size glasses they replaced. Penny Licks remained popular for a long time [as noted in Ed Marks' book. Ice Cream Collectibles], even though they were the cause of many health problems. Most vendors seldom washed them as they were passed from one customer to the next. But Thomson agrees with the late Jack Marlowe, who wrote that "the bottoms of [Marchiony's] cups were flat, not conical and thus his post-Exposition claim that the burgeoning cone manufacturers were all violating his patent melted under the hot gaze of the law."</p> <p>While cookbook authors and many others along with those already mentioned give credence to the Hamwi story, there are yet other claimants to the cone's origin. David Avayou, a Turk who worked at the St. Louis Fair and later operated stores in Atlantic City, said he got the idea after seeing ice cream served in pointed paper cups in France. Abe Doumar, also a Middle Easterner, sold Holy Land souvenirs at that same Fair during the daytime. Nights, he would hang out at Hamwi's waffle stand, according to a July, 2003, Jack Marlowe article. One evening, he took one of Hamwi's pastries, rolled it into a horn, much as he had done back home in Syria when making a sandwich. But this time, instead of filling it with a slice of meat or balls of falafeL he added ice cream to make what he called "a kind of Syrian ice cream sandwich." In a 1947 interview for the Chicago Sun, Max Goldberg also lay claim to selling the first ice cream cone ... in 1903. (In which case, we would be a little late with our centennial celebration of the event.) But Mr. Goldberg himself, in a previous (1944) newspaper interview, stated the cone originated at the St. Louis World's Fair.</p> <p>There are still more claims and stories connected with the origins of this most popular, all-American treat. For a different slant on the Hamwi story, go to "A Brief History of the Ice Cream Cone." Also see Linda Stradley's "History of the Ice Cream Cone", where she acknowledges that 'the 1904 Fair was the place where the cone became popular and where the great ice cream cone controversy began." But Linda also mentions Mrs. A.B. Marshall's Cookery Book as being the first recorded use of a cone for serving ice cream. Mrs. Marshall (1855-1905) was an Englishwoman. And the idea for stuffing rolled waffle-comets with a yummy treat appears to have come from Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899), chef at New York's famous Delmonico's. He wrote a cookbook in 1894 which contains a recipe for these cones filled with flavored whipped cream.</p> <h3>Illustrations</h3> <p>Hamwi's creation and a pastry cup made on Marchiony's invention, with a Penny Lick in the middle. Which one do you think resembles our modem-day cone? Which man do you think should be credited with the origination of the cone? Also, here is a picture of Marchiony's Pastry Cup.</p> <p>In this picture, the top illustration is what the first ice cream cones looked like. For several years, this rolled "sugar cone" was the only type available. Below would be the first molded cake cone. According to Bryce Thomson's re­search, it materialized sometime between 1910 and 1916. This illustration is from a 1917 ad which emphasized that Cremo Cake Cones were "made in clean, sanitary factories .. . Not a hand-rolled cone." Cone manufacturing became a highly competitive business and improved designs were frequent. Example: the advertisement for The McLaren "Real Cake Double Ring Cone" (right, center) claimed that "an ice cream cone without a nesting ring is old-fashioned," and that up-to-date fountain owners now demand ring cones." The competition to create best­seller cone designs was stiffest in the 1930s, writes author Paul Dickson. "Companies would bring out a new line each year. There were cones with a side-pouch for an extra scoop, spiral cones, cones that stood on the table, those that looked like rocket ships (or Gothic spires), those that borrowed from tum-of-the-century bathtub designs ... This decade-long flurry of intense creative activity, when inventors throughout the land dreamed of originating the great American cone, is half-forgotten history today." But in this era of high awareness of the environmentally-correct, we can still agree with the Department of Health, Education and Welfare official who said 30 years ago that, "The ice cream cone is the only ecologically sound package known. It is the perfect package."</p> <p>THE LAST IMPORTANT improvement to the cone came in the late 1930s with the introduction of the "dripless" cake cone in both pointed and cup styles. Their flared tops did much to solve the dripping problem - until ten to 15 years ago, that is, when operators started heaping huge dips on cones designed to accommodate small ones!</p> <p>By the way, dripping had been dealt with in various ways before. Earlier in the century, the Sayford Paper Specialty Co. ofVineland, N.JL, designed and sold a pleated, white paper apron which could be slipped onto a cone. "The customer wants them to protect his clothes, his car, his furniture and his disposition," the company's ad stated, adding, "and he doesn't have to turn his handkerchief into a mop." These little paper skirts could be imprinted with the ice cream retailer's logo. As the Sayford ad put it, "... they put your advertising under the very nose of the man who is most interested, when he is in his most receptive mood." <br /> Within the first two decades of the ice cream cone's debut at the St. Louis World's Fair, notes Mr. Dickson, "America [had] wolfed down an estimated 245 million of them." We have long since stopped counting ...</p> <p><strong>Reprinted (with permission) from The Sundae School Newsletter January 2004, edited by Bryce Thompson</strong></p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/ice-cream" hreflang="en">Ice Cream</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:02:18 +0000 Anonymous 56 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu David Jacks and Monterey Jack Cheese https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/david-jacks-and-monterey-jack-cheese <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">David Jacks and Monterey Jack Cheese</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="David Jacks (1822-1909) David Jacks&#039; story begins in Crief, Scotland, located 40 miles northeast of Edinburgh, where he was born in 1822. Letters written to Jacks by his sister years later portray life in Crief as bleak. It is no wonder David Jacks immigrated to America in 1841, at the age of 19, to join his two older brothers who had already established themselves as shopkeepers on Long Island. He ventured out on his own in the mid 1840s, finding employment at Brooklyn&#039;s Fort Hamilton, overlooking New York Harbor. &quot;Robert E. Lee, then a young captain of army engineers, was stationed at the Fort during those years, and David Jacks could remember Captain Lee&#039;s visits to the shop to inspect caisson wheels&quot; (Bestor 1945:6). It was 1848, while a civilian employed by a wheelwright at Fort Hamilton, that David Jacks heard news of the discovery of gold in California. Jacks joined the rush to California two months later. &quot;As an accountant, he found employment with a sutler attached to the 3rd Regiment of Artillery, and he sailed with them around the Horn, leaving New York in November 1848 and reaching California in April 1849&quot; (Bestor 1945:6). He spent the rest of the year aiding the 3rd Artillery in the collection of customs revenues. &quot;On 3 December 1849 Jacks was legally naturalized in San Francisco&quot; (Bestor 1945:6). Resisting the lure of gold, David Jacks traveled to Monterey by sea, arriving New Year&#039;s Day, 1850. &quot;Monterey was his home for the rest of his life&quot; (Bestor 1945:6). There are no documented records, but the Jacks&#039; family tradition tells us that David Jacks&#039; first job in Monterey was as a clerk in Joseph Boston&#039;s store--the building knows as Casa de Oro. The building was originally constructed by Thomas Larkin, who sold it to Jose Abrego, who in turn rented the building to Joseph Boston. The Boston Store served many purposes: it was first a general store and because one of Boston&#039;s partners was the deputy tax collector the store became the depository for county taxes. It was there too, that David Jacks, the clerk, dealt with miners who brought their gold dust into Boston&#039;s store in condor quills. Hence, the name Casa de Oro. The Boston Store was David Jacks&#039; first Monterey home. After putting in his day&#039;s work, &quot;...he pulled his bedding out from under the counter and slept in the shop&quot; (Bestor 1945:7). The 1855, David Jacks bought Casa de Oro from Jose Abrego. &quot;By 1851 we find David Jacks in the employ of James McKinlay, a fellow Scotsman...&quot; (Bestor 1945:7). McKinlay&#039;s place of business was in the Pacific Building, where he had a grocery and dry goods store. McKinlay also loaned money and sold real estate. &quot;...David Jacks was entrusted with considerable responsibility in handling his employer&#039;s affairs&quot; (Bestor 1945:7). Correspondence between McKinlay and Jacks shows Jacks to be an invaluable employee. Not only did he take care of all McKinlay&#039;s local business while he was away, sometimes for months at a time, but he took care of his personal business as well. In 1869, David Jacks bought the Pacific Building from D.R. Ashley. For reasons of security, he didn&#039;t put title to the Pacific Building in his own name until 1880. Within his first two years in Monterey, David Jacks proved himself a talented and successful businessman. &quot;As early as 1852 Jacks was chosen Treasurer of the County of Monterey&quot; (Bestor 1945:10). His foremost interest, however, was in the acquisition of land. &quot;As early as 1852 his name appeared in the register of deeds of Monterey County as the purchaser of half a league of land from an Indian, and there is evidence that his transactions in land began during his very first year in Monterey. The Official register of mortgages shows that as early as 1851 Jacks was lending money on the security of land, and a number of his acquisitions were made through foreclosure. Jacks also followed tax sales carefully&quot; (Bestor 1945:10). The land acquisition that would give David Jacks a &quot;black eye&quot; for the rest of his life was his purchase of the pueblo lands of the City of Monterey. &quot;...the confusion that occurred was largely due to the Mexican land titles that existed at the time of the transfer of California to American Sovereignty, by the treaty of February 2, 1848&quot; (Bestor 1945:11). William C. Jones, a confidential agent of the United States Government, who was sent to California in 1849-1850 for the purpose of procuring information as to the circumstances of the land titles wrote: There were not, as far as I could learn, any regular surveys made of grants in California up to the time of the cessation of the former government. There was no public or authorized surveyor in the country... Strictness of written law required that they should have been made by exact measurement, with written titles, and a record of them kept. In the rude and uncultivated state of the country that then existed, and lands possessing so little value, these formalities were no doubt to great extent disregarded and if not then altogether disregarded, the evidence of their observance in many cases now lost (Bestor 1945:2). For this reason, &quot;...the cost of defending a claim was great; many legitimate grants were forfeited; and others changed hands at bargain-sale prices&quot; (Bestor 1945:12). David Jacks, a businessman, would take advantage of these opportunities. The Monterey pueblo, by special concession from the Spanish crown, was entitled to more than the four square leagues [about 4,400 acres] of land generally allotted. The Monterey pueblo was approximately 30,000 acres, whereas most pueblos were approximately 20,000 acres. In order for the trustees of Monterey to clear title to the 30,000 acre pueblo, they retained Delos Rodeyn (D.R.) Ashley, the city attorney. He petitioned the U.S. land commissioners and the U.S. courts for the board of trustees on March, 2, 1853, &quot;...praying for a confirmation of the pueblo grant to the pueblo of Monterey, and a decree was made accordingly on January 22, 1856, confirming its title&quot; (Bestor 1945:13). An appeal by the United States was taken and then dismissed on June 16, 1858. &quot;On January 24, 1859, said Ashley presented to the trustees of the city of Monterey a claim amounting to $991.50 for services as its attorney in presenting such pueblo claim to the commissioners. The claim was approved and allowed...&quot; (Bestor 1945:14). However, there was no money in the coffers to pay Ashley. The city trustees, according to the act incorporating Monterey, passed a resolution dictating the sale of the pueblo lands to raise the necessary money to pay Ashley&#039;s claim. &quot;Notice was given announcing the sale and the sale was held...in accordance with the notice&quot; (Bestor 1945:14). The entire pueblo tract was bid on by D.R. Ashley and David Jacks successfully for $1,002.50, &quot;...the amount of indebtedness and the necessary expenses of sale; no one offering to purchase less than the whole, or bid a higher amount&quot; (Bestor 1945:14). On September 4, 1869, D.R. Ashley yielded his interest in the Monterey pueblo land to David Jacks for $500.00. From the beginning the trustees were criticized for transferring ownership of the lands belonging to the city for the purpose of paying its debts. Suits were filed and the case was eventually taken to the California Supreme Court. &quot;This question--whether the pueblo lands were held in trust by the City of Monterey in such a way as to render their sale to Ashley and Jacks illegal--constituted the principal issue before the courts&quot; (Bestor 1945:6). The decision was handed down in favor of Jacks. &quot;In the end, the case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States&quot; (Bestor 1945:16), which on July 11, 1903 handed down a decision in favor of Jacks. By this time, David Jacks had acquired another 30,000 acres of Monterey County, making the Monterey pueblo lands only half of his 60,000 acres. &quot;The bitterness of the land controversies of the day tended...to be directed against David Jacks&quot; (Bestor 1945:17). The argument was not just a theoretical discussion, but a flaming economic battle. David Jacks&#039; opponents considered him a &quot;landshark&quot; while he considered his opponents (ranchers and farmers, who had been living on the land in controversy) &quot;Squatters.&quot; Among Jacks&#039; documents was a letter from &quot;The Executive Committee of the Squatters League of Monterey County&quot; (Bestor 1945:17) which threatened his life. Robert Lewis Stevenson, in Across the Plains, wrote: Kearny is a man too well known in California, but a word of explanation is required for English readers. Originally an Irish drayman, he rose, by his command of bad language, to almost dictatorial authority in the State; throned it there for six months, his mouth full of oaths, gallowses, and conflagrations... It was while he was at the top of his fortune that visited Monterey with his battle-cry against Chinese labor, the railroad monopolists, and the land-thieves; and his one articulate counsel to the Montereyans was to &quot;hang David Jacks&quot; (Bestor 1945:18). David Jacks could not travel anywhere in Monterey County without his bodyguards. &quot;As far as can be determined, he never broke any law&quot; (Stone 1989). But he may not have been as ethical as he could have been either. Many believe he took advantage of the Spanish and Mexican rancheros. When their books were insolvent, Jacks was always willing to lend them money, but at the same time he was always ready to foreclose. He would post a foreclosure notice in the most inconspicuous place and &quot;If the owners were Spanish-speaking, the notice was in English, and if English-speaking, in Spanish&quot; (McGinty 1967). It was said that local rancheros who lost their lands to Jacks placed an &quot;Indian curse&quot; on him and his family, so &quot;...the seeds of his greed would not spread beyond his children&quot; (Costello 1963). The desire was that he leave no descendants to enjoy the harvest of his, so called, greed. At the same time, Jacks was a benevolent contributor and benefactor. &quot;David Jacks was deeply interested in higher education, as well as in religious and adult education&quot; (Bestor 1945:31). He served on the University of the Pacific Board of Trustees. (University of the Pacific was then located between San Jose and Santa Clara.) &quot;He was the joint donor of its observatory furnished with a telescope; he contributed $5,000 for the erection of a new building in the 1880s; and he was the man to whom the University frequently turned in times of stringency&quot; (Bestor 1945:31). In 1875, Jacks donated the land and financially backed the Pacific Grove Methodist Retreat. The Pacific Grove Retreat was &quot;not merely to hold a religious meeting, but to afford a summer resort for Christian people--a place of recreation as free as possible from the follies and vices of the fashionable watering places&quot; (Bestor 1945:31). At the end of his life, &quot;...he prided himself on being the oldest Sunday-school teacher in continuous service in the state, with fifty years to his credit&quot; (Bestor 1945:29). He was generous to foreign missions in Asia and never forgot his family and friends back in Crief, coming to their rescue financially on numerous occasions. An enterprise that &quot;...contributed directly to the prosperity of Monterey County and its agricultural interests&quot; (Bestor 1945:24) was the Monterey and Salinas Valley narrow gauge railway. Of the total $375,000 cost, David Jacks &quot;sank&quot; $75,000 &quot;borrowed on his ranchos in Chualar and Zanjones&quot; (Stone 1989). He was also the--unpaid--treasurer of the railroad. The intent of the railroad was to &quot;force the Southern Pacific to reduce freight rates on grain to San Francisco by offering an alternative outlet from Salinas--via rail to Monterey and then via steamship from Monterey&quot; (Bestor 1945:19). David Jacks was married to Maria Soledad de Romie, who was often seen giving food away to the needy. They had seven children, five daughters and two sons. &quot;He gave his children the best, but drew only $150.00 a month salary for himself&quot; (Costello 1963). His two sons and two of his daughters married. When Jacks died in 1909, his estate was passed on to his family. David Jacks had no grandchildren, so &quot;...when the last of the family, Miss Margaret Jacks, died in 1962 millions of dollars had been dispersed to California colleges and universities&quot; (Stone 1989). Gifts to the City of Monterey were: the Pacific House, Casa de Oro, and Don Dahvee Park (Don Dahvee was the name David Jacks was called by the Mexicans who were in his employ and by his close friends). &quot;The lands now part of Jacks Peak Park were also returned to the city a little over one-hundred years after Jacks bought them in February, 1858, on the steps of Colton Hall&quot; (Stone 1989). &quot;Carmel Martin, a prominent attorney in Monterey once noted, &#039;The Jacks&#039; land deal was a terrible thing, but it was the best thing that ever happened to Monterey and the Peninsula.&#039; His point was that David Jacks held on to the land he purchased, ...selling it in large tracts rather than subdividing&quot; (Stone 1989). In this way he encouraged planned growth, which was advantageous to the Monterey area in the long run. Although the legacy of David Jacks and his land dealings are controversial, from that can be determined in researching the man, his real estate acquisitions, and the end result, one living or visiting here today would find it difficult to argue with Carmel Martin. Most of the information on David Jacks came from the book David Jacks of Monterey, and Lee L. Jacks, His Daughter, by Arthur Eugene Bestor, Jr. This edition of only 105 copies was printed for private distribution in 1945. This thoroughly researched and documented biography can be found in the California Room of the Monterey Public Library. Other important information comes from the Noticias del Puerto de Monterey, a quarterly bulletin of historic Monterey issued by the Monterey History and Art Association, as well as from articles in the clippings files of the Pacific Grove and Monterey Public Libraries. Sources: Bestor, A.E., Jr., David Jacks of Monterey, and Lee L. Jacks, His Daughter (Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1945). Costello, J., &quot;Monterey Lost Rich Heritage To Shrewd Scot&quot; (Monterey Peninsula Herald, January 15, 1963). McGinty, B., &quot;Monterey&#039;s Hated Benefactor&quot; (Westways, January 1967). Stone, V.W., &quot;Who Was the Real David Jacks?&quot; (Noticias del Puerto de Monterey, March, 1989). "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "David Jacks (1822-1909) David Jacks&#039; story begins in Crief, Scotland, located 40 miles northeast of Edinburgh, where he was born in 1822. Letters written to Jacks by his sister years later portray life in Crief as bleak. It is no wonder David Jacks immigrated to America in 1841, at the age of 19, to join his two older brothers who had already established themselves as shopkeepers on Long Island. He ventured out on his own in the mid 1840s, finding employment at Brooklyn&#039;s Fort Hamilton, overlooking New York Harbor." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2 class="heading--underline"><strong>David Jacks (1822-1909)</strong></h2> <p>David Jacks' story begins in Crief, Scotland, located 40 miles northeast of Edinburgh, where he was born in 1822. Letters written to Jacks by his sister years later portray life in Crief as bleak. It is no wonder David Jacks immigrated to America in 1841, at the age of 19, to join his two older brothers who had already established themselves as shopkeepers on Long Island. He ventured out on his own in the mid 1840s, finding employment at Brooklyn's Fort Hamilton, overlooking New York Harbor.</p> <p>"Robert E. Lee, then a young captain of army engineers, was stationed at the Fort during those years, and David Jacks could remember Captain Lee's visits to the shop to inspect caisson wheels" (Bestor 1945:6). It was 1848, while a civilian employed by a wheelwright at Fort Hamilton, that David Jacks heard news of the discovery of gold in California. Jacks joined the rush to California two months later. "As an accountant, he found employment with a sutler attached to the 3rd Regiment of Artillery, and he sailed with them around the Horn, leaving New York in November 1848 and reaching California in April 1849" (Bestor 1945:6). He spent the rest of the year aiding the 3rd Artillery in the collection of customs revenues. "On 3 December 1849 Jacks was legally naturalized in San Francisco" (Bestor 1945:6). Resisting the lure of gold, David Jacks traveled to Monterey by sea, arriving New Year's Day, 1850. "Monterey was his home for the rest of his life" (Bestor 1945:6).</p> <p>There are no documented records, but the Jacks' family tradition tells us that David Jacks' first job in Monterey was as a clerk in Joseph Boston's store--the building knows as Casa de Oro. The building was originally constructed by Thomas Larkin, who sold it to Jose Abrego, who in turn rented the building to Joseph Boston. The Boston Store served many purposes: it was first a general store and because one of Boston's partners was the deputy tax collector the store became the depository for county taxes. It was there too, that David Jacks, the clerk, dealt with miners who brought their gold dust into Boston's store in condor quills. Hence, the name Casa de Oro. The Boston Store was David Jacks' first Monterey home. After putting in his day's work, "...he pulled his bedding out from under the counter and slept in the shop" (Bestor 1945:7). The 1855, David Jacks bought Casa de Oro from Jose Abrego. "By 1851 we find David Jacks in the employ of James McKinlay, a fellow Scotsman..." (Bestor 1945:7). McKinlay's place of business was in the Pacific Building, where he had a grocery and dry goods store. McKinlay also loaned money and sold real estate. "...David Jacks was entrusted with considerable responsibility in handling his employer's affairs" (Bestor 1945:7).</p> <p>Correspondence between McKinlay and Jacks shows Jacks to be an invaluable employee. Not only did he take care of all McKinlay's local business while he was away, sometimes for months at a time, but he took care of his personal business as well. In 1869, David Jacks bought the Pacific Building from D.R. Ashley. For reasons of security, he didn't put title to the Pacific Building in his own name until 1880. Within his first two years in Monterey, David Jacks proved himself a talented and successful businessman. "As early as 1852 Jacks was chosen Treasurer of the County of Monterey" (Bestor 1945:10). His foremost interest, however, was in the acquisition of land. "As early as 1852 his name appeared in the register of deeds of Monterey County as the purchaser of half a league of land from an Indian, and there is evidence that his transactions in land began during his very first year in Monterey.</p> <p>The Official register of mortgages shows that as early as 1851 Jacks was lending money on the security of land, and a number of his acquisitions were made through foreclosure. Jacks also followed tax sales carefully" (Bestor 1945:10). The land acquisition that would give David Jacks a "black eye" for the rest of his life was his purchase of the pueblo lands of the City of Monterey. "...the confusion that occurred was largely due to the Mexican land titles that existed at the time of the transfer of California to American Sovereignty, by the treaty of February 2, 1848" (Bestor 1945:11).</p> <p>William C. Jones, a confidential agent of the United States Government, who was sent to California in 1849-1850 for the purpose of procuring information as to the circumstances of the land titles wrote: There were not, as far as I could learn, any regular surveys made of grants in California up to the time of the cessation of the former government. There was no public or authorized surveyor in the country... Strictness of written law required that they should have been made by exact measurement, with written titles, and a record of them kept. In the rude and uncultivated state of the country that then existed, and lands possessing so little value, these formalities were no doubt to great extent disregarded and if not then altogether disregarded, the evidence of their observance in many cases now lost (Bestor 1945:2). For this reason, "...the cost of defending a claim was great; many legitimate grants were forfeited; and others changed hands at bargain-sale prices" (Bestor 1945:12). David Jacks, a businessman, would take advantage of these opportunities.</p> <p>The Monterey pueblo, by special concession from the Spanish crown, was entitled to more than the four square leagues [about 4,400 acres] of land generally allotted. The Monterey pueblo was approximately 30,000 acres, whereas most pueblos were approximately 20,000 acres. In order for the trustees of Monterey to clear title to the 30,000 acre pueblo, they retained Delos Rodeyn (D.R.) Ashley, the city attorney. He petitioned the U.S. land commissioners and the U.S. courts for the board of trustees on March, 2, 1853, "...praying for a confirmation of the pueblo grant to the pueblo of Monterey, and a decree was made accordingly on January 22, 1856, confirming its title" (Bestor 1945:13). An appeal by the United States was taken and then dismissed on June 16, 1858. "On January 24, 1859, said Ashley presented to the trustees of the city of Monterey a claim amounting to $991.50 for services as its attorney in presenting such pueblo claim to the commissioners. The claim was approved and allowed..." (Bestor 1945:14). However, there was no money in the coffers to pay Ashley. The city trustees, according to the act incorporating Monterey, passed a resolution dictating the sale of the pueblo lands to raise the necessary money to pay Ashley's claim. "Notice was given announcing the sale and the sale was held...in accordance with the notice" (Bestor 1945:14).</p> <p>The entire pueblo tract was bid on by D.R. Ashley and David Jacks successfully for $1,002.50, "...the amount of indebtedness and the necessary expenses of sale; no one offering to purchase less than the whole, or bid a higher amount" (Bestor 1945:14). On September 4, 1869, D.R. Ashley yielded his interest in the Monterey pueblo land to David Jacks for $500.00. From the beginning the trustees were criticized for transferring ownership of the lands belonging to the city for the purpose of paying its debts. Suits were filed and the case was eventually taken to the California Supreme Court. "This question--whether the pueblo lands were held in trust by the City of Monterey in such a way as to render their sale to Ashley and Jacks illegal--constituted the principal issue before the courts" (Bestor 1945:6). The decision was handed down in favor of Jacks. "In the end, the case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States" (Bestor 1945:16), which on July 11, 1903 handed down a decision in favor of Jacks. By this time, David Jacks had acquired another 30,000 acres of Monterey County, making the Monterey pueblo lands only half of his 60,000 acres. "The bitterness of the land controversies of the day tended...to be directed against David Jacks" (Bestor 1945:17). The argument was not just a theoretical discussion, but a flaming economic battle.</p> <p>David Jacks' opponents considered him a "landshark" while he considered his opponents (ranchers and farmers, who had been living on the land in controversy) "Squatters." Among Jacks' documents was a letter from "The Executive Committee of the Squatters League of Monterey County" (Bestor 1945:17) which threatened his life. Robert Lewis Stevenson, in Across the Plains, wrote: Kearny is a man too well known in California, but a word of explanation is required for English readers. Originally an Irish drayman, he rose, by his command of bad language, to almost dictatorial authority in the State; throned it there for six months, his mouth full of oaths, gallowses, and conflagrations... It was while he was at the top of his fortune that visited Monterey with his battle-cry against Chinese labor, the railroad monopolists, and the land-thieves; and his one articulate counsel to the Montereyans was to "hang David Jacks" (Bestor 1945:18).</p> <p>David Jacks could not travel anywhere in Monterey County without his bodyguards. "As far as can be determined, he never broke any law" (Stone 1989). But he may not have been as ethical as he could have been either. Many believe he took advantage of the Spanish and Mexican rancheros. When their books were insolvent, Jacks was always willing to lend them money, but at the same time he was always ready to foreclose. He would post a foreclosure notice in the most inconspicuous place and "If the owners were Spanish-speaking, the notice was in English, and if English-speaking, in Spanish" (McGinty 1967). It was said that local rancheros who lost their lands to Jacks placed an "Indian curse" on him and his family, so "...the seeds of his greed would not spread beyond his children" (Costello 1963). The desire was that he leave no descendants to enjoy the harvest of his, so called, greed. At the same time, Jacks was a benevolent contributor and benefactor. "David Jacks was deeply interested in higher education, as well as in religious and adult education" (Bestor 1945:31). He served on the University of the Pacific Board of Trustees. (University of the Pacific was then located between San Jose and Santa Clara.) "He was the joint donor of its observatory furnished with a telescope; he contributed $5,000 for the erection of a new building in the 1880s; and he was the man to whom the University frequently turned in times of stringency" (Bestor 1945:31).</p> <p>In 1875, Jacks donated the land and financially backed the Pacific Grove Methodist Retreat. The Pacific Grove Retreat was "not merely to hold a religious meeting, but to afford a summer resort for Christian people--a place of recreation as free as possible from the follies and vices of the fashionable watering places" (Bestor 1945:31). At the end of his life, "...he prided himself on being the oldest Sunday-school teacher in continuous service in the state, with fifty years to his credit" (Bestor 1945:29). He was generous to foreign missions in Asia and never forgot his family and friends back in Crief, coming to their rescue financially on numerous occasions. An enterprise that "...contributed directly to the prosperity of Monterey County and its agricultural interests" (Bestor 1945:24) was the Monterey and Salinas Valley narrow gauge railway. Of the total $375,000 cost, David Jacks "sank" $75,000 "borrowed on his ranchos in Chualar and Zanjones" (Stone 1989). He was also the--unpaid--treasurer of the railroad. The intent of the railroad was to "force the Southern Pacific to reduce freight rates on grain to San Francisco by offering an alternative outlet from Salinas--via rail to Monterey and then via steamship from Monterey" (Bestor 1945:19).</p> <p>David Jacks was married to Maria Soledad de Romie, who was often seen giving food away to the needy. They had seven children, five daughters and two sons. "He gave his children the best, but drew only $150.00 a month salary for himself" (Costello 1963). His two sons and two of his daughters married. When Jacks died in 1909, his estate was passed on to his family. David Jacks had no grandchildren, so "...when the last of the family, Miss Margaret Jacks, died in 1962 millions of dollars had been dispersed to California colleges and universities" (Stone 1989).</p> <p>Gifts to the City of Monterey were: the Pacific House, Casa de Oro, and Don Dahvee Park (Don Dahvee was the name David Jacks was called by the Mexicans who were in his employ and by his close friends). "The lands now part of Jacks Peak Park were also returned to the city a little over one-hundred years after Jacks bought them in February, 1858, on the steps of Colton Hall" (Stone 1989). "Carmel Martin, a prominent attorney in Monterey once noted, 'The Jacks' land deal was a terrible thing, but it was the best thing that ever happened to Monterey and the Peninsula.' His point was that David Jacks held on to the land he purchased, ...selling it in large tracts rather than subdividing" (Stone 1989). In this way he encouraged planned growth, which was advantageous to the Monterey area in the long run. Although the legacy of David Jacks and his land dealings are controversial, from that can be determined in researching the man, his real estate acquisitions, and the end result, one living or visiting here today would find it difficult to argue with Carmel Martin.</p> <p>Most of the information on David Jacks came from the book David Jacks of Monterey, and Lee L. Jacks, His Daughter, by Arthur Eugene Bestor, Jr. This edition of only 105 copies was printed for private distribution in 1945. This thoroughly researched and documented biography can be found in the California Room of the Monterey Public Library. Other important information comes from the Noticias del Puerto de Monterey, a quarterly bulletin of historic Monterey issued by the Monterey History and Art Association, as well as from articles in the clippings files of the Pacific Grove and Monterey Public Libraries.</p> <h5>Sources:</h5> <ul><li>Bestor, A.E., Jr., David Jacks of Monterey, and Lee L. Jacks, His Daughter (Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1945).</li> <li>Costello, J., "Monterey Lost Rich Heritage To Shrewd Scot" (Monterey Peninsula Herald, January 15, 1963).</li> <li>McGinty, B., "Monterey's Hated Benefactor" (Westways, January 1967).</li> <li>Stone, V.W., "Who Was the Real David Jacks?" (Noticias del Puerto de Monterey, March, 1989).</li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/cheeses" hreflang="en">Cheeses</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 18:59:29 +0000 Anonymous 51 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu The "True" Story of Monterey Jack Cheese https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/true-story-monterey-jack-cheese <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The &quot;True&quot; Story of Monterey Jack Cheese</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Who invented Monterey Jack Cheese? Was it David Jacks, the man who lays claim to putting the Jack in jack cheese? Or was it Dona Juana Cota de Boronda? Or Domingo Pedrazziof Carmel Valley? There are other versions and other stories as well and I think that you will be surprised with what you find out. What is Monterey Jack Cheese? First, it is one of the four cheeses to supposedly have been created in the United States. It is said to be a &quot;descendent of the semi-soft Italian cheese that fed Caesar&#039;s armies.&quot; A booklet from the Kraft Food Co., dated 1954, calls Monterey jack cheese &quot;a mild buffet and sandwich cheese made something like cheddar.&quot; The connection to cheddar is due to the manufacturing process that is similar, although without dye. Monterey Jack is also compared as a &quot;granular cheese similar to Wisconsin brick.&quot; Lastly and most importantly is that Monterey jack is a descendant of &quot;Queso del Pais&quot; which translates as &quot;country cheese.&quot; For more than half a century there has been an ongoing debate over who actually created Monterey Jack Cheese and the characters who tell the story are as interesting as those who created it. First I&#039;ll tell you how the &quot;jack&quot; got put into the cheese--the official title was given by the Food and Drug Administration of The United States of America sometime in the fall of 1955. &quot;The name has been sanctioned &#039;pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act,&#039; according to a bulletin just received from Washington D.C.&quot; This is taken from an article in the Monterey Peninsula Herald dated Wednesday, Oct. 5, 1955. That does not mean that Jack&#039;s Monterey or Monterey jack had not been used prior to the official title being designated. Now comes the tricky part--who first manufactured and marketed jack cheese? In 1859, records from The Curtis and Conover Store state that &quot;A.W. Billings shipped out five boxes of cheese on August 27, 1859 and paid $1 to have them hauled to the wharf and shipped.&quot; His actions were repeated over later months. &quot;Two other people were also shipping cheese at the same time as Mr. Billings. I. Shaw shipped cheese by schooner in September, 1859, and Miguel Allen (of the Boronda family) bought &#039;1 cheese hoop&#039; for $2.&quot; These records are based on one store&#039;s records only, and there were several others in the area that dealt with shipping items. There is also a note in the records that no individual cheese sales had taken place from this particular commercial retailer, so the common deduction is that either people were making their own or buying from certain individuals in the area. One individual who is known to have manufactured and sold &quot;Queso del Pais&quot; door-to-door is Dona Juana Cota de Boronda. Dona Boronda took on this effort after an accident crippled her husband and justify her to fend for her family of 17, fifteen children as well as she and her husband. On the family property behind the historic adobe built by her husband there once stood the remains of an old cheese factory. Another individual who apparently manufactured cheese was Domingo Pedrazzi of Carmel Valley. S.F.B. Morse asserts that Domingo created a cheese that required &quot;the application of pressure.&quot; The pressure was applied with a device called a &quot;housejack&quot; hence, jack cheese. &quot;He developed a fine cheese, and it became known as Pedrazzi&#039;s jack cheese&quot;--jack not Jacks. Later the cheese was marketed as &quot;Del Monte Cheese,&quot; a name which was still used in 1955. &quot;None of the Jacks family had anything to do with it as far as I know,&quot; stated Mr. Morse. Now David Jacks lays claim to Monterey jack cheese with the shrewdness of a business man. He upscaled the dairy operation and stole the idea of &quot;Queso del Pais.&quot; With 60,000 acres of prime land and 14 dairy ranches that&#039;s easy to do. Supposedly he was in business with Swiss and Portuguese investors. Jacks marked the cheese as &quot;Jacks&#039; Cheese.&quot; According to the Jacks story, the name was finally changed because so many customer&#039;s were asking for the cheese made by &quot;Monterey Jack.&quot; So who really invented the cheese that became the famous Monterey jack cheese we know today? Franciscans in the 1700s! Monterey Jack cheese was brought from Spain, via Mexico by the Franciscan Monks of the 18th century. Prior to Spain, the cheese came through Majorca via Romans from Italy. Hence, being a &quot;descendent of the semi-soft Italian cheeses that fed Caesar&#039;s armies.&quot; Sources: Anonymous, excerpt from &quot;Point&#039;s of Interest&quot; (What&#039;s Doing, November 1947, p. 5). Anonymous, &quot;It Happened in Monterey&quot; (The Monterey Herald, July 11, 1973). O&#039;Donnell, Mayo Hayes, &quot;Here is More on Jack Cheese&quot; (The Monterey Herald, December 11, 1950). O&#039;Donnell, Mayo Hayes, &quot;More About Monterey Jack Cheese&quot; (The Monterey Herald, January 2, 1951). O&#039;Donnell, Mayo Hayes, &quot;Our Own Monterey Jack Cheese&quot; (The Monterey Herald, November 8, 1959). Phillips, C.A., &quot;The Manufacture of Monterey Cheese&quot; (The College of Agriculture, University of California, September 1927). Sorri, Fred, &quot;Government Puts &#039;Jack&#039; In Monterey Cheese&quot; (Monterey Peninsula Herald, October 5, 1955). Excerpts from a letter received from Teresa Russell, summer 1996: * Wendy wrote a wonderful article about Dona Boronda&#039;s Jack Cheese. She is (was) my Grandmother. * The name &quot;jack&quot; is from the use of a vice she made the cheese with. My dad, Ralph Russell (now 76 years old) lived on Rancho Los Gatos, with his mother (Charlotte Espinosa) at Russell and Espinosa Roads in Castroville. The Espinosas and Borondas came to California on pack trains in the 1700s. Dona Boronda brought her cheese recipe with her and started a dairy operation. The &quot;jack&quot; was a &quot;vice.&quot; * My dad tells about how the milk was poured down into this jack device, and as it turned to cheese, it was squeezed between wooden paddles of the vice/jack that fit in the box. The handles were pulled together and bound by leather straps to hold the cheese. The whole gizmo was called a jack, because it pressed the cheese. * The Borondas sold this cheese to a man named [David] Jacks, who had a store. Jacks also exported the cheese on ships out of Monterey. Jacks identified his crates by stamping them &quot;Jack Cheese.&quot; * But the original method of using a jack to make the cheese came from Espinosa Spain. (The Boronda and Espinosa families both came from Spain). "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Who invented Monterey Jack Cheese? Was it David Jacks, the man who lays claim to putting the Jack in jack cheese? Or was it Dona Juana Cota de Boronda? Or Domingo Pedrazziof Carmel Valley? There are other versions and other stories as well and I think that you will be surprised with what you find out." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Who invented Monterey Jack Cheese? Was it David Jacks, the man who lays claim to putting the Jack in jack cheese? Or was it Dona Juana Cota de Boronda? Or Domingo Pedrazziof Carmel Valley? There are other versions and other stories as well and I think that you will be surprised with what you find out.</p> <p>What is Monterey Jack Cheese? First, it is one of the four cheeses to supposedly have been created in the United States. It is said to be a "descendent of the semi-soft Italian cheese that fed Caesar's armies." A booklet from the Kraft Food Co., dated 1954, calls Monterey jack cheese "a mild buffet and sandwich cheese made something like cheddar." The connection to cheddar is due to the manufacturing process that is similar, although without dye. Monterey Jack is also compared as a "granular cheese similar to Wisconsin brick." Lastly and most importantly is that Monterey jack is a descendant of "Queso del Pais" which translates as "country cheese."</p> <p>For more than half a century there has been an ongoing debate over who actually created Monterey Jack Cheese and the characters who tell the story are as interesting as those who created it. First I'll tell you how the "jack" got put into the cheese--the official title was given by the Food and Drug Administration of The United States of America sometime in the fall of 1955. "The name has been sanctioned 'pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act,' according to a bulletin just received from Washington D.C." This is taken from an article in the Monterey Peninsula Herald dated Wednesday, Oct. 5, 1955. That does not mean that Jack's Monterey or Monterey jack had not been used prior to the official title being designated.</p> <p>Now comes the tricky part--who first manufactured and marketed jack cheese? In 1859, records from The Curtis and Conover Store state that "A.W. Billings shipped out five boxes of cheese on August 27, 1859 and paid $1 to have them hauled to the wharf and shipped." His actions were repeated over later months. "Two other people were also shipping cheese at the same time as Mr. Billings. I. Shaw shipped cheese by schooner in September, 1859, and Miguel Allen (of the Boronda family) bought '1 cheese hoop' for $2." These records are based on one store's records only, and there were several others in the area that dealt with shipping items. There is also a note in the records that no individual cheese sales had taken place from this particular commercial retailer, so the common deduction is that either people were making their own or buying from certain individuals in the area.</p> <p>One individual who is known to have manufactured and sold "Queso del Pais" door-to-door is Dona Juana Cota de Boronda. Dona Boronda took on this effort after an accident crippled her husband and justify her to fend for her family of 17, fifteen children as well as she and her husband. On the family property behind the historic adobe built by her husband there once stood the remains of an old cheese factory.</p> <p>Another individual who apparently manufactured cheese was Domingo Pedrazzi of Carmel Valley. S.F.B. Morse asserts that Domingo created a cheese that required "the application of pressure." The pressure was applied with a device called a "housejack" hence, jack cheese. "He developed a fine cheese, and it became known as Pedrazzi's jack cheese"--jack not Jacks. Later the cheese was marketed as "Del Monte Cheese," a name which was still used in 1955. "None of the Jacks family had anything to do with it as far as I know," stated Mr. Morse.</p> <p>Now David Jacks lays claim to Monterey jack cheese with the shrewdness of a business man. He upscaled the dairy operation and stole the idea of "Queso del Pais." With 60,000 acres of prime land and 14 dairy ranches that's easy to do. Supposedly he was in business with Swiss and Portuguese investors. Jacks marked the cheese as "Jacks' Cheese." According to the Jacks story, the name was finally changed because so many customer's were asking for the cheese made by "Monterey Jack."</p> <p>So who really invented the cheese that became the famous Monterey jack cheese we know today? Franciscans in the 1700s! Monterey Jack cheese was brought from Spain, via Mexico by the Franciscan Monks of the 18th century. Prior to Spain, the cheese came through Majorca via Romans from Italy. Hence, being a "descendent of the semi-soft Italian cheeses that fed Caesar's armies."</p> <h5>Sources:</h5> <ul><li>Anonymous, excerpt from "Point's of Interest" (What's Doing, November 1947, p. 5).</li> <li>Anonymous, "It Happened in Monterey" (The Monterey Herald, July 11, 1973).</li> <li>O'Donnell, Mayo Hayes, "Here is More on Jack Cheese" (The Monterey Herald, December 11, 1950).</li> <li>O'Donnell, Mayo Hayes, "More About Monterey Jack Cheese" (The Monterey Herald, January 2, 1951).</li> <li>O'Donnell, Mayo Hayes, "Our Own Monterey Jack Cheese" (The Monterey Herald, November 8, 1959).</li> <li>Phillips, C.A., "The Manufacture of Monterey Cheese" (The College of Agriculture, University of California, September 1927).</li> <li>Sorri, Fred, "Government Puts 'Jack' In Monterey Cheese" (Monterey Peninsula Herald, October 5, 1955).</li> </ul><p><strong>Excerpts from a letter received from Teresa Russell, summer 1996:</strong></p> <p>* Wendy wrote a wonderful article about Dona Boronda's Jack Cheese. She is (was) my Grandmother.</p> <p>* The name "jack" is from the use of a vice she made the cheese with. My dad, Ralph Russell (now 76 years old) lived on Rancho Los Gatos, with his mother (Charlotte Espinosa) at Russell and Espinosa Roads in Castroville. The Espinosas and Borondas came to California on pack trains in the 1700s. Dona Boronda brought her cheese recipe with her and started a dairy operation. The "jack" was a "vice."</p> <p>* My dad tells about how the milk was poured down into this jack device, and as it turned to cheese, it was squeezed between wooden paddles of the vice/jack that fit in the box. The handles were pulled together and bound by leather straps to hold the cheese. The whole gizmo was called a jack, because it pressed the cheese.</p> <p>* The Borondas sold this cheese to a man named [David] Jacks, who had a store. Jacks also exported the cheese on ships out of Monterey. Jacks identified his crates by stamping them "Jack Cheese."</p> <p>* But the original method of using a jack to make the cheese came from Espinosa Spain. (The Boronda and Espinosa families both came from Spain).</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/cheeses" hreflang="en">Cheeses</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 18:56:20 +0000 Anonymous 46 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Food Safety and Cheese https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/food-safety-and-cheese <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Food Safety and Cheese</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Institute of Food Science and Technology Position Statement Contaminated cheese has been responsible for outbreaks of food poisoning by several types of bacteria and sporadic cases of illness associated with contaminated cheeses have also been reported. Experience shows that there have probably been many others that were undetected or unreported. Some of these bacteria can cause severe illness with long-term consequences and death. For example, Listeria monocytogenes can cause meningitis and septicemia with up to 30% mortality. Gastroenteritis due to Salmonella spp. can lead to long-term illness such as reactive arthritis. Infection with Salmonella paratyphi B may lead to septicemia (enteric fever). Brucella melitensis causes undulant fever, a severe disease that can be long-lasting and incapacitating. Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157: H7 causes enteritis but may also cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and kidney damage, particularly in young children and others with a weaken immune system. The role of this bacterium in foodborne disease was only recognized in the early 1980s, but improvements in methods for the detection and isolation of this organism have led to a progressive increase in the number of outbreaks and sporadic cases of infection detected. Several types of cheese have caused outbreaks of food-poisoning. In thirteen out of sixteen outbreaks in the cheeses were known to have been prepared using unpasteurized milk. It is true that there have also been outbreaks of food-poisoning due to cheese made with pasteurized milk; in these incidents there was evidence of faulty processing such as inadequate heat treatment during pasteurization, mixing with raw milk after pasteurization, or contamination during further processing or distribution of the product. For example, in the production of the Mexican-style cheese involved in the outbreak of Listeriosis pasteurized milk was used but it was reported that (a) it was possible to by-pass the pasteurizer, (b) on several occasions 10% more raw milk was delivered than could be pasteurized given the capacity of the pasteurizer, and (c) tests of cheese on the final day of production showed that more than 10% of samples had an &quot;excessive level of phosphates... “Consistent with insufficient pasteurization or the introduction of raw milk into the milk after the initial pasteurization&quot; (Linnan et al. 1988). Although unusual, a recent outbreak of botulism associated with cheese indicates that this organism can multiply in some cheeses. In mold-ripened cheeses the pH falls during the fermentation by lactic acid bacteria then rises due to the activity of the mold; in soft mold-ripened cheeses this rise can allow the multiplication of bacteria, including pathogens, to very high numbers. Raw milk cannot be guaranteed to be free from pathogenic bacteria (Rampling 1996). Most of the types of bacteria shown in are liable to be present in some samples of raw milk. A survey of raw milk from farm bulk milk tanks in England and Wales in 1992-3 for Salmonella and Listeria spp. showed that of 1673 samples, 0.36% contained Salmonella spp. and 5.08% contained Listeria Monocytogenes (O&#039;Donnell, 1995). The presence of these bacteria may result from direct excretion from the udder or as a result of fecal contamination. Accurately controlled pasteurization kills these bacteria. In general, if the milk has not been pasteurized it is difficult to ensure the safety of the final cheese no matter how good the control of hygiene during production. Following the major outbreaks of Listeriosis due to contaminated cheese (Linnan et al. 1988; Bille, 1990) many producers of cheese have changed from the use of unpasteurised to pasteurized milk and great improvements have been made in the conditions of hygiene in major cheese factories (Lund, 1990). In order to ensure the production of safe cheese the following measures are important: the raw milk should be collected and maintained in good hygienic conditions  the raw milk should be refrigerated to minimize multiplication of bacteria  the milk should undergo a full pasteurization  after pasteurization good conditions of hygiene should be maintained during production of the cheese to prevent contamination. Microbiological tests on finished cheeses have an important place in quality control, but these tests cannot ensure the microbiological safety of the cheese (Desenclos et al. 1996; Rambling, 1996). In view of all these considerations the Institute of Food Science and Technology considers that it is important to draw attention to the real hazards to human health due to pathogenic bacteria in raw milk cheeses, particularly of the soft and semi-soft type, and to encourage the use of pasteurized milk in the production of cheeses. * Pasteurized milk was used, but there was evidence that unpasteurised milk was also included.  ** These products are known to have been produced using unpasteurised milk.  *** Many Brie cheeses are made from unpasteurised milk. NR = not reported.  # one case of hemolytic uremic syndrome.  ## all cases of hemolytic uramic syndrome. REFERENCES Anon (1994). E.coli O157 : H7 phage Type 28 infections in Grampian. Communicable Diseases and Environmental Health of Scotland 28 (No. 94/46) 1. Anon (1995). Brucellosis-associated with unpasteurised milk products abroad. Communicable Disease Report (32). Bille, J.(1990). Epidemiology of human Listeriosis in Europe with special reference to the Swiss Outbreak. In Foodborne Listeriosis. eds Miller, A.J., Smith, J.L. and Somkuti,G.A. pp 71-74. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Bone, F.J., Bogie, D. and Morgan-Jones, S.C. (1989) Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese. Epidemiology and Infection. 103, 449-458. D&#039;Aoust, J-Y. (1994). Salmonella &amp; international trade. International Journal of Food Microbiology 24,1- 31. D&#039;Aoust, J-Y., Warburton, D.W. and Sewell, A.M. (1985). Salmonella typhimurium phage type 10 from Cheddar cheese implicated in a major Canadian foodborne outbreak. Journal of Food protection 48, 1062-1066. Desenclos, J.C. et al. (1996). Large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi B infection caused by goats&#039; milk cheese, France: a case finding and epidemiological study. British Medical Journal 312, 91-94. Goulet, V. et al. (1995). Listeriosis from consumption of raw-milk cheese. Lancet 345, 1581-1582. Hedberg, C.W. et al. (1992). A multistate outbreak of Salmonella javiana and Salmonella oranienberg infections due to contaminated cheese. Journal of the American Medical Association 268, 3203- 3207. Linnan et al. (1988). Epidemic Listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese. New England Journal of Medicine 319, 823-828. Lund, B.M. (1990). The prevention of foodborne Listeriosis. British Food Journal 92, (4) 13-22. MacDonald, K.L. et al. (1985). A multistate outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in imported semisoft cheese. Journal of Infectious Diseases 151, 716-720. Maguire, H.C.F. et al. (1991). A large outbreak of food poisoning of unknown etiology associated with Stilton cheese. Epidemiology and Infection 106, 497-505. Maguire et al. (1992). An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft, unpasteurized cow&#039;s milk cheese. Epidemiology and Infection 109, 389-396. Nooitgedagt, A.J. and Hartog, B.J. (1988). A survey of the microbiological quality of Brie and Camembert cheese. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal 42, 57-72. O&#039;Donnell, E.T. (1995). The incidence of Salmonella and Listeria in raw milk from farm bulk milk tanks in England and Wales. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology 48, 25-29. Rampling, A. (1996). Raw milk cheeses and salmonella. British Medical Journal 312, 67-68. Sadik, C. et al. (1986). An epidemiological investigation following an infection by Salmonella typhimurium due to the ingestion of cheese made from raw milk. In proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Foodborne Infections and Intoxication’s 1, Berlin, pp 280-282. Simini, B. et al. (1996). Outbreak of foodborne botulism continues in Italy. Lancet 348, 813. Vaillant, V., Haeghebaert, S., Desenclos, J.C. et al. (1996) Outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in France, November-December 1995. Eurosurveillance 1, (2) 9-10. The Institute of Food Science &amp; Technology, through its Public Affairs and Technical &amp; Legislative Committees has authorized this Position Statement, dated 15 November 1996, prepared by its Professional Food Microbiology Group. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Institute of Food Science and Technology Position Statement Contaminated cheese has been responsible for outbreaks of food poisoning by several types of bacteria and sporadic cases of illness associated with contaminated cheeses have also been reported. Experience shows that there have probably been many others that were undetected or unreported. Some of these bacteria can cause severe illness with long-term consequences and death. For example, Listeria monocytogenes can cause meningitis and septicemia with up to 30% mortality." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2 class="heading--underline">Institute of Food Science and Technology Position Statement</h2> <p>Contaminated cheese has been responsible for outbreaks of food poisoning by several types of bacteria and sporadic cases of illness associated with contaminated cheeses have also been reported. Experience shows that there have probably been many others that were undetected or unreported. Some of these bacteria can cause severe illness with long-term consequences and death. For example, Listeria monocytogenes can cause meningitis and septicemia with up to 30% mortality. Gastroenteritis due to Salmonella spp. can lead to long-term illness such as reactive arthritis. Infection with Salmonella paratyphi B may lead to septicemia (enteric fever). Brucella melitensis causes undulant fever, a severe disease that can be long-lasting and incapacitating. Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157: H7 causes enteritis but may also cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and kidney damage, particularly in young children and others with a weaken immune system. The role of this bacterium in foodborne disease was only recognized in the early 1980s, but improvements in methods for the detection and isolation of this organism have led to a progressive increase in the number of outbreaks and sporadic cases of infection detected.</p> <p>Several types of cheese have caused outbreaks of food-poisoning. In thirteen out of sixteen outbreaks in the cheeses were known to have been prepared using unpasteurized milk. It is true that there have also been outbreaks of food-poisoning due to cheese made with pasteurized milk; in these incidents there was evidence of faulty processing such as inadequate heat treatment during pasteurization, mixing with raw milk after pasteurization, or contamination during further processing or distribution of the product. For example, in the production of the Mexican-style cheese involved in the outbreak of Listeriosis pasteurized milk was used but it was reported that (a) it was possible to by-pass the pasteurizer, (b) on several occasions 10% more raw milk was delivered than could be pasteurized given the capacity of the pasteurizer, and (c) tests of cheese on the final day of production showed that more than 10% of samples had an "excessive level of phosphates... “Consistent with insufficient pasteurization or the introduction of raw milk into the milk after the initial pasteurization" (Linnan et al. 1988). Although unusual, a recent outbreak of botulism associated with cheese indicates that this organism can multiply in some cheeses.</p> <p>In mold-ripened cheeses the pH falls during the fermentation by lactic acid bacteria then rises due to the activity of the mold; in soft mold-ripened cheeses this rise can allow the multiplication of bacteria, including pathogens, to very high numbers.</p> <p>Raw milk cannot be guaranteed to be free from pathogenic bacteria (Rampling 1996). Most of the types of bacteria shown in are liable to be present in some samples of raw milk. A survey of raw milk from farm bulk milk tanks in England and Wales in 1992-3 for Salmonella and Listeria spp. showed that of 1673 samples, 0.36% contained Salmonella spp. and 5.08% contained Listeria Monocytogenes (O'Donnell, 1995). The presence of these bacteria may result from direct excretion from the udder or as a result of fecal contamination. Accurately controlled pasteurization kills these bacteria. In general, if the milk has not been pasteurized it is difficult to ensure the safety of the final cheese no matter how good the control of hygiene during production. Following the major outbreaks of Listeriosis due to contaminated cheese (Linnan et al. 1988; Bille, 1990) many producers of cheese have changed from the use of unpasteurised to pasteurized milk and great improvements have been made in the conditions of hygiene in major cheese factories (Lund, 1990).</p> <p>In order to ensure the production of safe cheese the following measures are important:</p> <ol><li>the raw milk should be collected and maintained in good hygienic conditions </li> <li>the raw milk should be refrigerated to minimize multiplication of bacteria </li> <li>the milk should undergo a full pasteurization </li> <li>after pasteurization good conditions of hygiene should be maintained during production of the cheese to prevent contamination.</li> </ol><p>Microbiological tests on finished cheeses have an important place in quality control, but these tests cannot ensure the microbiological safety of the cheese (Desenclos et al. 1996; Rambling, 1996).<br /> In view of all these considerations the Institute of Food Science and Technology considers that it is important to draw attention to the real hazards to human health due to pathogenic bacteria in raw milk cheeses, particularly of the soft and semi-soft type, and to encourage the use of pasteurized milk in the production of cheeses.</p> <p><br /> * Pasteurized milk was used, but there was evidence that unpasteurised milk was also included. <br /> ** These products are known to have been produced using unpasteurised milk. <br /> *** Many Brie cheeses are made from unpasteurised milk. NR = not reported. <br /> # one case of hemolytic uremic syndrome. <br /> ## all cases of hemolytic uramic syndrome.</p> <h5>REFERENCES</h5> <ul><li>Anon (1994). E.coli O157 : H7 phage Type 28 infections in Grampian. Communicable Diseases and Environmental Health of Scotland 28 (No. 94/46) 1.</li> <li>Anon (1995). Brucellosis-associated with unpasteurised milk products abroad. Communicable Disease Report (32).</li> <li>Bille, J.(1990). Epidemiology of human Listeriosis in Europe with special reference to the Swiss Outbreak. In Foodborne Listeriosis. eds Miller, A.J., Smith, J.L. and Somkuti,G.A. pp 71-74. Amsterdam: Elsevier.</li> <li>Bone, F.J., Bogie, D. and Morgan-Jones, S.C. (1989) Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese. Epidemiology and Infection. 103, 449-458.</li> <li>D'Aoust, J-Y. (1994). Salmonella &amp; international trade. International Journal of Food Microbiology 24,1- 31.</li> <li>D'Aoust, J-Y., Warburton, D.W. and Sewell, A.M. (1985). Salmonella typhimurium phage type 10 from Cheddar cheese implicated in a major Canadian foodborne outbreak. Journal of Food protection 48, 1062-1066.</li> <li>Desenclos, J.C. et al. (1996). Large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi B infection caused by goats' milk cheese, France: a case finding and epidemiological study. British Medical Journal 312, 91-94.</li> <li>Goulet, V. et al. (1995). Listeriosis from consumption of raw-milk cheese. Lancet 345, 1581-1582.</li> <li>Hedberg, C.W. et al. (1992). A multistate outbreak of Salmonella javiana and Salmonella oranienberg infections due to contaminated cheese. Journal of the American Medical Association 268, 3203- 3207.</li> <li>Linnan et al. (1988). Epidemic Listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese. New England Journal of Medicine 319, 823-828.</li> <li>Lund, B.M. (1990). The prevention of foodborne Listeriosis. British Food Journal 92, (4) 13-22.</li> <li>MacDonald, K.L. et al. (1985). A multistate outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in imported semisoft cheese. Journal of Infectious Diseases 151, 716-720.</li> <li>Maguire, H.C.F. et al. (1991). A large outbreak of food poisoning of unknown etiology associated with Stilton cheese. Epidemiology and Infection 106, 497-505.</li> <li>Maguire et al. (1992). An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft, unpasteurized cow's milk cheese. Epidemiology and Infection 109, 389-396.</li> <li>Nooitgedagt, A.J. and Hartog, B.J. (1988). A survey of the microbiological quality of Brie and Camembert cheese. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal 42, 57-72.</li> <li>O'Donnell, E.T. (1995). The incidence of Salmonella and Listeria in raw milk from farm bulk milk tanks in England and Wales. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology 48, 25-29.</li> <li>Rampling, A. (1996). Raw milk cheeses and salmonella. British Medical Journal 312, 67-68.</li> <li>Sadik, C. et al. (1986). An epidemiological investigation following an infection by Salmonella typhimurium due to the ingestion of cheese made from raw milk. In proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Foodborne Infections and Intoxication’s 1, Berlin, pp 280-282.</li> <li>Simini, B. et al. (1996). Outbreak of foodborne botulism continues in Italy. Lancet 348, 813.</li> <li>Vaillant, V., Haeghebaert, S., Desenclos, J.C. et al. (1996) Outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in France, November-December 1995. Eurosurveillance 1, (2) 9-10.</li> <li>The Institute of Food Science &amp; Technology, through its Public Affairs and Technical &amp; Legislative Committees has authorized this Position Statement, dated 15 November 1996, prepared by its Professional Food Microbiology Group.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/cheeses" hreflang="en">Cheeses</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 18:54:23 +0000 Anonymous 41 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu A Brief Description of Cheese in Europe https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/brief-description-cheese-europe <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">A Brief Description of Cheese in Europe</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="There are hundreds of varieties of cheese in Europe; some of them are: Bel Paese A delicate soft Italian cheese. Bleu Cheese A blue, French cheese which is available in different varieties designated by the name of the district where it was made. Brie cheese Made of whole milk and inoculated with a mold which makes the cheese soften as it matures, until it becomes liquid. It is circular and when ready should be soft enough to yield to pressure when pressed in any part; after this it deteriorates quickly. It is sold packed in straw. Camembert A whole milk soft French cheese which is inoculated with &quot;Penicillium album&quot; which gives it a runny texture when the cheese is mature. It must be really ripe when ready and should yield to the pressure of the fingers. Store at room temperature. Caerphilly The famous Welsh cheese is of the soft cream type, ideal for those who appreciate the creamy slightly sour taste of the freshly made dairy cheeses. Carré de l’est A soft cheese sold in wooden boxes; taste as for Camembert. Cheddar The oldest and one of the best of English cheeses, a cutting cheese from semi-hard, to part crumbly or flaky, based upon its maturing period whose color varies from pale yellow to ochre. Cheshire An excellent English cheese, mistakenly known as &quot;Chester&quot; in the European continent. It is not as easy to imitate as are many other English cheeses, since the milk from which it is made of has a slightly salty flavor, due to the nature of the grazing in Cheshire. Coulommiers A rich, double cream cheese and prepared from fresh milk enriched with cream. It should be eaten fresh and not allowed to mature. Demi-sel A cottage cheese made in Normandy from whole milk. It is slightly salted and sold in foil-wrapped squares. Double crème A mild and very rich cheese made from milk which has been enriched with dreined and pressed, more cream is worked in. It is then molded and wrapped. Dunlop The famous Scottish cheese, pure white in color, unless unnaturally colored, cheddar type in texture, but differing slightly in flavor because of the northern pasturages. Edam Excellent cheese from Holland, made from cow’s milk renneted and colored at the same time. It is round like a ball, bright red outside and orange-yellow inside. Gloucester English semi-hard cheese, cartwheel in shape. Gouda Similar in taste and texture to Edam but of a different shape, being flat and much larger and weighing about 20 lb. Lancashire A white cheese, semi-hard, slightly crumbly, with a distinctive sharp taste. Leicester A rich reddish ochre colored semi-hard cheese, greatly esteemed for its clean, sharp taste. Limburger A German semi-hard whole milk cheese with a pungent smell which is flavored with herbs. Monsieur French cheese similar in flavor to Camembert and made in Normandy. Mozzarella A soft, slightly ripened fresh Italian cheese, being the cheese &quot;par excellence&quot; for pizzas. Neufchatel A small, loaf-shaped ripe French cheese with a red skin which is dark yellow inside. Petit Suisse A creamy, unsalted cheese made from milk to which extra cream has been added. It is small and cylindrical in shape. The best petit-suisse is the Gervais. Pont l’Evèque A semi-hard fermented French cheese, packed in wooden boxes. It is firmer than Camembert but also has a pale, wrinkled crust. Port du Salut Also a French, delicious, semi-hard whole milk cheese with a mild flavor. Romano Italian cheese, once made only in Latium, is now made in Southern Italy and Sicily from cows’ and goats’ milk. There are distinctive kinds: Pecorino Romano, made of sheep&#039;s milk, Vacchino Romano, made of cows’ milk and Caprino Romano, made of goats’ milk. Roquefort A blue-veined cheese made from ewes’ milk and inoculated with the same culture as Stilton. It is matured in limestone caves. True Roquefort is fairly scarce and expensive. It is considered in France to be &quot;the king of cheeses&quot;. Steinbuscher A well known German cheese, together with Limburger and Romadour. Tilsiter A semi-hard German cheese Tomme There are several varieties of this cheese which is reminiscent of &quot;Port Salut&quot; but whiter. The outside is covered closely with grape pips taken from the vine press. Wensleydale English, a cylindrical double cream cheese, similar in shape and texture to Stilton, otherwise a loosely packed curd. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "There are hundreds of varieties of cheese in Europe; some of them are: Bel Paese A delicate soft Italian cheese. Bleu Cheese A blue, French cheese which is available in different varieties designated by the name of the district where it was made." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>There are hundreds of varieties of cheese in Europe; some of them are:</p> <p><strong>Bel Paese</strong><br /> A delicate soft Italian cheese.</p> <p><strong>Bleu Cheese</strong><br /> A blue, French cheese which is available in different varieties designated by the name of the district where it was made.</p> <p><strong>Brie cheese</strong><br /> Made of whole milk and inoculated with a mold which makes the cheese soften as it matures, until it becomes liquid. It is circular and when ready should be soft enough to yield to pressure when pressed in any part; after this it deteriorates quickly. It is sold packed in straw.</p> <p><strong>Camembert</strong><br /> A whole milk soft French cheese which is inoculated with "Penicillium album" which gives it a runny texture when the cheese is mature. It must be really ripe when ready and should yield to the pressure of the fingers. Store at room temperature.</p> <p><strong>Caerphilly</strong><br /> The famous Welsh cheese is of the soft cream type, ideal for those who appreciate the creamy slightly sour taste of the freshly made dairy cheeses.</p> <p><strong>Carré de l’est</strong><br /> A soft cheese sold in wooden boxes; taste as for Camembert.</p> <p><strong>Cheddar</strong><br /> The oldest and one of the best of English cheeses, a cutting cheese from semi-hard, to part crumbly or flaky, based upon its maturing period whose color varies from pale yellow to ochre.</p> <p><strong>Cheshire</strong><br /> An excellent English cheese, mistakenly known as "Chester" in the European continent. It is not as easy to imitate as are many other English cheeses, since the milk from which it is made of has a slightly salty flavor, due to the nature of the grazing in Cheshire.</p> <p><strong>Coulommiers</strong><br /> A rich, double cream cheese and prepared from fresh milk enriched with cream. It should be eaten fresh and not allowed to mature.</p> <p><strong>Demi-sel</strong><br /> A cottage cheese made in Normandy from whole milk. It is slightly salted and sold in foil-wrapped squares.</p> <p><strong>Double crème</strong><br /> A mild and very rich cheese made from milk which has been enriched with dreined and pressed, more cream is worked in. It is then molded and wrapped.</p> <p><strong>Dunlop</strong><br /> The famous Scottish cheese, pure white in color, unless unnaturally colored, cheddar type in texture, but differing slightly in flavor because of the northern pasturages.</p> <p><strong>Edam</strong><br /> Excellent cheese from Holland, made from cow’s milk renneted and colored at the same time. It is round like a ball, bright red outside and orange-yellow inside.</p> <p><strong>Gloucester</strong><br /> English semi-hard cheese, cartwheel in shape.</p> <p><strong>Gouda</strong><br /> Similar in taste and texture to Edam but of a different shape, being flat and much larger and weighing about 20 lb.</p> <p><strong>Lancashire</strong><br /> A white cheese, semi-hard, slightly crumbly, with a distinctive sharp taste.</p> <p><strong>Leicester</strong><br /> A rich reddish ochre colored semi-hard cheese, greatly esteemed for its clean, sharp taste.</p> <p><strong>Limburger</strong><br /> A German semi-hard whole milk cheese with a pungent smell which is flavored with herbs.</p> <p><strong>Monsieur</strong><br /> French cheese similar in flavor to Camembert and made in Normandy.</p> <p><strong>Mozzarella</strong><br /> A soft, slightly ripened fresh Italian cheese, being the cheese "par excellence" for pizzas.</p> <p><strong>Neufchatel</strong><br /> A small, loaf-shaped ripe French cheese with a red skin which is dark yellow inside.</p> <p><strong>Petit Suisse</strong><br /> A creamy, unsalted cheese made from milk to which extra cream has been added. It is small and cylindrical in shape. The best petit-suisse is the Gervais.</p> <p><strong>Pont l’Evèque</strong><br /> A semi-hard fermented French cheese, packed in wooden boxes. It is firmer than Camembert but also has a pale, wrinkled crust.</p> <p><strong>Port du Salut</strong><br /> Also a French, delicious, semi-hard whole milk cheese with a mild flavor.</p> <p><strong>Romano</strong><br /> Italian cheese, once made only in Latium, is now made in Southern Italy and Sicily from cows’ and goats’ milk. There are distinctive kinds: Pecorino Romano, made of sheep's milk, Vacchino Romano, made of cows’ milk and Caprino Romano, made of goats’ milk.</p> <p><strong>Roquefort</strong><br /> A blue-veined cheese made from ewes’ milk and inoculated with the same culture as Stilton. It is matured in limestone caves. True Roquefort is fairly scarce and expensive. It is considered in France to be "the king of cheeses".</p> <p><strong>Steinbuscher</strong><br /> A well known German cheese, together with Limburger and Romadour.</p> <p><strong>Tilsiter</strong><br /> A semi-hard German cheese</p> <p><strong>Tomme</strong><br /> There are several varieties of this cheese which is reminiscent of "Port Salut" but whiter. The outside is covered closely with grape pips taken from the vine press.</p> <p><strong>Wensleydale</strong><br /> English, a cylindrical double cream cheese, similar in shape and texture to Stilton, otherwise a loosely packed curd.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/cheeses" hreflang="en">Cheeses</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 18:51:50 +0000 Anonymous 36 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu The Legend of Monterey Jack Cheese https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/legend-monterey-jack-cheese <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The Legend of Monterey Jack Cheese</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="The California cheese story goes back more than two centuries to the arrival of the Franciscan padres in what is now known as California. The road by which it arrived here goes back as much as 2,000 years. The collapse of the Roman Empire put an end to the cheese of antiquity. However, some aspects of Rome&#039;s cultural knowledge were preserved in Christian monasteries including the techniques of wine production and cheese making. In Europe, when the time came, the monks spread their knowledge abroad hand-in-hand with the preaching of religion, just as their later brethren did in California. One of the early countries to which the art of cheesemaking was introduced was the island of Majorca from which Fathers Serra, Palou and others came to introduce it in this state. The mission fathers recognized cheese as a nutritious food that could be used on long journeys. Referring to his departure form Loreto Mission in Baja California as he embarked on his journey to Alta California and the work that lay ahead, Father Serra wrote in his diary, &quot;And I took along no more provisions for so long a journey than a loaf of bread and a piece of cheese.&quot; Presumably, the cheese of that time was higher in acid and salt content and lower in moisture than it is now. Father Maynard Geiger, Franciscan historian, on March 27, 1965 wrote, &quot;I can definitely tell you that...the early California missions used the milk of cows for their chocolate and also make cheese for their enchiladas. During the starvation period between 1772 and 1774, milk helped to keep the struggling colony at Monterey alive.&quot; In the latter part of 1950 and early in 1951, Joseph Hitchcok, who was born and raised in the Carmel Valley, engaged in an exchange of Letters tot he Editor of the Monterey Peninsula Herald. In one of these he wrote, &quot;One of the earliest industries of the Valley was cheesemaking by the Boronda family after they settled here and built their adobe. The Queso del Pais, as it was then called by all Spanish- speaking pioneers, was later named Monterey Jack Cheese by David Jacks who was the first to put it on the market commercially. &quot;In those days there were no presses, so anyone making cheese made their own press. They made it by installing at the proper height a 2 x 12 plank and above at the proper height a 2 x 4 scantling, so as to give a place where another 2 x 4, 4 to 6 feet long, could be placed under and still leave room for a cheese of the proper size.&quot; Subsequently, in this exchange of Letters to the Editor he wrote, &quot;Referring to the origin of Jack Cheese, I still say that what I said in my first letter is backed up by the records of the mission fathers as told to me by Harry Downie, the curator at the Carmel Mission, plus my memory which dates back to the early 1880s. Whatever name the cheese went by does not change the origin or the fact that El Queso del Pais dates back to our early civilization by the pioneer mission fathers. Of course, people coming from carious parts of Spain and Mexico were accustomed to the cheese itself and manner of making it.&quot; In its heyday, the great Hotel del Monte made cheese on its dairy farm manages by Will Hatton. They served it to their guests and sold it to them to take home, under the name Del Monte Cheese. David Jacks arrived from Scotland in 1849 and eventually owned 60,000 acres in Monterey County. He operated 14 ranches among which were several dairies operated on shared with Swiss and Portuguese partners. He acquired much acreage by loaning old Mexican families money and, if they couldn&#039;t repay the loans, foreclosing on the mortgages. It was the way of the times but David Jacks operated on a more extensive scale than the others and during his lifetime his reputation suffered accordingly. Norman C. Earl was the accountant and office manager for the partnership of the three daughters of David Jacks from 1933 to 1962, when the last of the sisters died. In a letter written in 1976, he said, &quot;California and especially California education owes much to the family of David Jacks. I knew of their benefactions while I was with them. The multitude of gifts both to charities and private individuals, whether or not any tax benefit might result, would astound most people; yet these wonderful ladies never sought or wanted publicity. In fact, they insisted on anonymity. Margaret A. Jacks, the last of the family to die, justify the residue of her estate to Stanford. I understand it was the largest gift Stanford had received up to that time. Lee L. Hacks also gave Stanford a considerable sum. The University of California also benefited from the sisters&#039; gifts. They were also generous with funds in support of the restoration of Old Monterey.&quot; (This includes Pacific House, Casa de Oro and Castro Adobe.) So, if indeed the image of Don Dahee needed redeeming, his daughters did so handsomely. Mrs. Amelie Elkinton reports record of Captain Cooper taking a shipment of 112 cheeses to the Argentine as early as 1833. The shipment of cheese to brokers in San Francisco was begun by David Jacks for shipment to the towns of Mother Lode. This constitutes some of the earliest records of the coast ranched being paid for with the product of the cow -- cheese and butter. The story is told that on an occasion the city of Monterey needed a fire engine which would cost $10,000. They didn&#039;t have the money in their treasury and the price would go up considerably if the engine was not bought then. The city fathers went to David Jacks and he loaned them $10,000 and took a mortgage on the city. When the date of the mortgage came due, he staged a bear-baiting and free whiskey for the town fathers. By now they had the funds in their treasury with which to repay the loan but the councilmen woke up the next morning with headaches and a realization that the date of repayment had gone by. David Jacks had foreclosed on the town. However, on this occasion the townspeople raised such a ruckus that he gave their town back to them free and clear. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "The California cheese story goes back more than two centuries to the arrival of the Franciscan padres in what is now known as California. The road by which it arrived here goes back as much as 2,000 years." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The California cheese story goes back more than two centuries to the arrival of the Franciscan padres in what is now known as California. The road by which it arrived here goes back as much as 2,000 years.</p> <p>The collapse of the Roman Empire put an end to the cheese of antiquity. However, some aspects of Rome's cultural knowledge were preserved in Christian monasteries including the techniques of wine production and cheese making. In Europe, when the time came, the monks spread their knowledge abroad hand-in-hand with the preaching of religion, just as their later brethren did in California. One of the early countries to which the art of cheesemaking was introduced was the island of Majorca from which Fathers Serra, Palou and others came to introduce it in this state.</p> <p>The mission fathers recognized cheese as a nutritious food that could be used on long journeys. Referring to his departure form Loreto Mission in Baja California as he embarked on his journey to Alta California and the work that lay ahead, Father Serra wrote in his diary, "And I took along no more provisions for so long a journey than a loaf of bread and a piece of cheese." Presumably, the cheese of that time was higher in acid and salt content and lower in moisture than it is now.</p> <p>Father Maynard Geiger, Franciscan historian, on March 27, 1965 wrote, "I can definitely tell you that...the early California missions used the milk of cows for their chocolate and also make cheese for their enchiladas. During the starvation period between 1772 and 1774, milk helped to keep the struggling colony at Monterey alive."</p> <p>In the latter part of 1950 and early in 1951, Joseph Hitchcok, who was born and raised in the Carmel Valley, engaged in an exchange of Letters tot he Editor of the Monterey Peninsula Herald. In one of these he wrote, "One of the earliest industries of the Valley was cheesemaking by the Boronda family after they settled here and built their adobe. The Queso del Pais, as it was then called by all Spanish- speaking pioneers, was later named Monterey Jack Cheese by David Jacks who was the first to put it on the market commercially.</p> <p>"In those days there were no presses, so anyone making cheese made their own press. They made it by installing at the proper height a 2 x 12 plank and above at the proper height a 2 x 4 scantling, so as to give a place where another 2 x 4, 4 to 6 feet long, could be placed under and still leave room for a cheese of the proper size."</p> <p>Subsequently, in this exchange of Letters to the Editor he wrote, "Referring to the origin of Jack Cheese, I still say that what I said in my first letter is backed up by the records of the mission fathers as told to me by Harry Downie, the curator at the Carmel Mission, plus my memory which dates back to the early 1880s. Whatever name the cheese went by does not change the origin or the fact that El Queso del Pais dates back to our early civilization by the pioneer mission fathers. Of course, people coming from carious parts of Spain and Mexico were accustomed to the cheese itself and manner of making it."</p> <p>In its heyday, the great Hotel del Monte made cheese on its dairy farm manages by Will Hatton. They served it to their guests and sold it to them to take home, under the name Del Monte Cheese.</p> <p>David Jacks arrived from Scotland in 1849 and eventually owned 60,000 acres in Monterey County. He operated 14 ranches among which were several dairies operated on shared with Swiss and Portuguese partners. He acquired much acreage by loaning old Mexican families money and, if they couldn't repay the loans, foreclosing on the mortgages. It was the way of the times but David Jacks operated on a more extensive scale than the others and during his lifetime his reputation suffered accordingly.</p> <p>Norman C. Earl was the accountant and office manager for the partnership of the three daughters of David Jacks from 1933 to 1962, when the last of the sisters died. In a letter written in 1976, he said, "California and especially California education owes much to the family of David Jacks. I knew of their benefactions while I was with them. The multitude of gifts both to charities and private individuals, whether or not any tax benefit might result, would astound most people; yet these wonderful ladies never sought or wanted publicity. In fact, they insisted on anonymity. Margaret A. Jacks, the last of the family to die, justify the residue of her estate to Stanford. I understand it was the largest gift Stanford had received up to that time. Lee L. Hacks also gave Stanford a considerable sum. The University of California also benefited from the sisters' gifts. They were also generous with funds in support of the restoration of Old Monterey." (This includes Pacific House, Casa de Oro and Castro Adobe.)</p> <p>So, if indeed the image of Don Dahee needed redeeming, his daughters did so handsomely.</p> <p>Mrs. Amelie Elkinton reports record of Captain Cooper taking a shipment of 112 cheeses to the Argentine as early as 1833.</p> <p>The shipment of cheese to brokers in San Francisco was begun by David Jacks for shipment to the towns of Mother Lode. This constitutes some of the earliest records of the coast ranched being paid for with the product of the cow -- cheese and butter.</p> <p>The story is told that on an occasion the city of Monterey needed a fire engine which would cost $10,000. They didn't have the money in their treasury and the price would go up considerably if the engine was not bought then. The city fathers went to David Jacks and he loaned them $10,000 and took a mortgage on the city. When the date of the mortgage came due, he staged a bear-baiting and free whiskey for the town fathers. By now they had the funds in their treasury with which to repay the loan but the councilmen woke up the next morning with headaches and a realization that the date of repayment had gone by.</p> <p>David Jacks had foreclosed on the town. However, on this occasion the townspeople raised such a ruckus that he gave their town back to them free and clear.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/cheeses" hreflang="en">Cheeses</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 18:50:04 +0000 Anonymous 31 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Butter: Some Technology and Chemistry https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/butter-some-technology-and-chemistry <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Butter: Some Technology and Chemistry</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 19, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="The history about the definition and standard for butter in the United States can be traced back to legislation Congress enacted in 1886. Many changes have occurred since that date, leading to the present statutory standard that Congress enacted into law on March 4, 1923: Butter shall be understood to mean the food product usually known as butter which is made exclusively from milk or cream, or both, with or without common salt, and with or without additional coloring matter, and containing not less than 80% by weight of milk fat, all tolerances having been allowed for. Butter production in the United States during 1999 totaled 1.28 billion pounds, 9.2 percent above 1998. California accounted for 26.9 percent of the production, followed by Wisconsin with 22.8 percent and Washington with 9.3 percent. However, per capita consumption of butter has continued to decline. Undoubtedly, many reasons--nutritional, economic, and aesthetic--can be cited for this decrease. A 1986 survey conducted by the United Dairy Industry Association among approximately 4,000 U.S. consumers aged thirteen years and older revealed that most consumers prefer butter to margarine, claiming that they can taste the difference. Also, most of the respondents agreed that butter is a healthful food, despite media reports to the contrary. Almost 60% believed that butter has more nutritional value than margarine, while 61% believed that margarine is not as fattening as butter. When groups advertize butter, the advertizing campaign stress the taste, aroma, freshness, and natural ingredients of butter and remind viewers hat butter is superior to its competition at enhancing the taste of food. No mention is made of the textural aspect of butter which is also an important attribute of the overall unique butter characteristics. Butter is one of several dairy products that may be subjected to the inspection and grading services of the Dairy Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Butter manufactures must request these services, qualify for them, and pay a fee based on the cost of providing the services. Participation in this program leads to improvement of quality, wholesomeness, manufacture, and distribution of butter. Butter Characteristics The U.S. grade of butter is determined by first the flavor characteristics and then the characteristics of body, color, and salt content. The following comment is made in the above reference about the body of butter. Butter with a firm waxy body has an attractive appearance, has granules that are close knit, cuts clean when sliced, and has good spreadability. The trier sample from such butter will show this clean cut smooth, waxy appearance. The temperature of the butter at the time of grading is important in determining the true characteristics of body and should be between 45oF and 50oF. USDA graders evaluate body in butter for its characteristics or defects. There are eight major defects considered in this evaluation: (1) crumbly (lacks cohesion); (2) gummy (sticky mouthfeel); (3) leaky (free moisture on the butter surface); (4) mealy or grainy (a grainy feel on the tongue similar to cornmeal); (5) ragged boring (unable to draw a smooth full trier of butter); (6) short (lacks plasticity and tends toward brittleness); (7) sticky (butter sticks to trier as a smear); and (8) weak (lacks firmness). Most of the above defects in body can be associated with the spreadability characteristics of butter. USDA has made the following general statement about body characteristics: Butterfat in butter is a mixture of various triglycerides of different melting points and appears as fat globule and free fat. In both forms, part of the fat is crystalline and part liquid. Some fats are solid at temperatures up to 100oF or even higher. Others are still liquid at temperatures far below the freezing point. Butter, at the temperature at which it is usually handled, is always a mixture of crystallized and liquid fat. The variations in the composition of milk fat thus have great influence upon the body and spreadability of butter. In the summer when milk fat contains more liquid or soft fat, butter tends to be weak and leaky. In the winter when the milk fat contains more solid fat, butter tends to be hard and brittle, resulting in unsatisfactory spreadability. The ratio between the crystalline and liquid fat particles depends upon the composition of the milk fat (varying with the season of the year), manufacturing methods, and the temperature of the butter. Close attention needs to be given to tempering the cream, temperature of churning, washing and working of the butter as the seasons of the year change. This is important in maintaining a uniform firm, waxy body possessing good spreadability. Thus, many factors evidently play a role in determining the body and spreadabilty characteristics of butter. Unfortunately, when butter is removed from the refrigerator (40-45oF), the spreadability is limited. One must allow the butter to temper at room temperature to obtain optimum spreadability. Much research has been conducted which is directed toward improving the spreadability of butter. The remainder of this article will consider the various aspects of manufacturing butter with improved spreadability. Manufacture of Butter The theory of churning proposed by King is still considered plausible today: The normal churning process is confined to a comparatively narrow temperature range with an optimum value for the ratio of crystalline to solid to liquid fat. When cream foams, fat globules come to the air--a serum interface of air bubbles. Liquid fat from the globules spreads at the interface along with material of fat globule membranes. The film of liquid fat cements globules into clumps. On repeated formation and destruction of foam bubbles, clumps grow to butter granules that contain modified serum (buttermilk) in the interstices between the fat globules. During working of the mass, some fat globules are crushed, and their contents are added to liquid fat. Also, moisture droplets are subdivided and air is entrapped. Most butter in the U.S. today is manufactured in a continuous churn. However, some butter is still manufactured by the conventional batch method that was prevalent for many years before the introduction the continuous churn. In either case, the butter is manufactured under rigid sanitary requirements. The cream must be pasteurized before churning at a temperature equal to or greater than 74oC for a minimum of thirty minutes or else at a temperature equal to or greater than 85oC for a minimum of fifteen second; most cream is pasteurized by the latter method today. Batch Method A huge metal cylinder that turns around a horizontal axis is most often used for churning butter by the conventional batch method. As the churn rotates, the cream is agitated, and several thousand pounds (8,000) of butter can be manufactured in one churning. The following steps are usually followed in batch churning: &quot;(1) prepare the churn by cleaning and sanitizing, (2) pump cream of 30-33% fat at 9oC in summer or 13oC in winter into a churn, (3) add coloring, (4) rotate the churn until butter granules are formed (breaking point) and become the size of peas or popcorn, (5) drain buttermilk, (6) rinse buttermilk from interior surfaces of the churn with clean, cold water, (7) wash butter with sufficient water to bring total volume to that of original cream (water colder than butter firms, where as water warmer than butter softens), (8) drain wash water, (9) add salt, (10) work butter sufficiently to bring granules and water into compact mass, (11) sample and test for moisture, (12) add water if insufficient (below about 16%) or permit to escape from the churn if the test shows high moisture, (13) work butter until it has a firm, waxy body, (14) sample and test for moisture, salt and curd, and (15) remove butter from the churn.&quot; Butter is then packaged in automated printer-wrapper machines, being cut into one-quarter or 1-lb prints (sticks), wrapped in foil or parchment, and then stored at -18o to -29oC. Continuous Method Manufacture of butter by the continuous method did not become applicable until the late 1940s, although methods were introduced at the end of the 19th century. Continuous manufacture of butter is based on one of two principles: (1) accelerated churning and working and (2) reseparation with phase inversion. In most butter-producing nations today, the first principle is employed in continuous butter manufacture, the Fritz method being the best-known process. In this process, which employs the same principles as conventional batch churning, crystallization of milk fat takes place in the cream, with phase inversion and concentration of milk fat occurring in the churn. The steps in manufacture of butter by the Fritz process are as follows. Cream (40-42% milk fat) is fed into the double-cooled churning cylinder fitted with beaters driven by a variable-speed motor. Phase inversion takes place very rapidly, with the butter grains and buttermilk passing on to the separation section, where the butter is separated from the buttermilk. Butter grains are washed with recirculated buttermilk en route to the separation section (first working section). Butter working begins in this section while the butter is being conveyed by the screw conveyor to the squeeze-drying section. In the squeeze-drying section, the butter passes through a conical channel and perforated plate to remove any remaining buttermilk. The butter grains continue to the second working section, which operates at the speed of the screw in the first working section to achieve optimum working of the butter. Upon reaching the injection section, a high-pressure injector may add salt. The vacuum working section is attached to a vacuum pump, allowing air to be removed from the butter to improve physical properties and keeping quality. The final working stage consists of four small sections separated from each other by a perforated plate. The perforations are of varying diameters so that the butter receives satisfactory treatment as it is being worked. The first section contains a water injector for final adjustment of moisture content, which deviates by less that 0,1% if the cream characteristics remain constant. The most modern continuous butter churn manufactured by Westfalia, Oelde, Germany (Type BUD) is also a Fritz system. Cream of 40% milk fat content is tempered and fed to the first churning cylinder, forming the basic butter granules. The prechurned mixture of granules and buttermilk then enters a second churning cylinder, which is a rotating drum (two-thirds screened). There, granules are compacted, and the buttermilk is discharged through the screen into a buttermilk a collecting vessel. This vessel contains a rotating screen basket that recovers residual butter granules. Butter granules from the second churning cylinder then enter the texturizer, where remaining buttermilk is squeezed from the butter granules and necessary adjustment is made for moisture control and salt addition. The butter then passes to a second texturizer system via a vacuum chamber where gas and air can be drawn off. Thorough intermixing and texturizing are accomplished in the second texturizer, and the finished butter is then discharged from the churn. Moisture control is the most serious problem in this process. The treatment of the cream (fat content and temperature crystallization conditions) and the churning process must be controlled for uniform moisture content. The most common moisture control unit is based on the dielectric properties, but infrared methods are also available. Most Fritz-type continuous churns have a capacity of 1,800-11,000 lb. of butter/hour. However, a computer-operated machine is now available with a capacity of 22,000 lb/hour. Factors affecting Spreadability Since milk fat is the major constituent of butter, it obviously plays a major role in determining its textural properties. The major fatty acids found in milk fat and their melting points are listed in Table 1. The fatty acid composition, distribution of fatty acids in the triglycerides, and the polymorphic forms of the fat crystals influence the melting properties of the milk fat. Melting takes place between 30 and 41oC. Other factors also affect spreadability: Seasonal Diet The cow’s diet and stage of lactation influence the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Thus, cyclic changes which can be monitored influence the melting properties of milk fat. In the northern U. S., butter tends to become firmer during the fall and winter because of dietary intake changes, i.e., an increased consumption of high-molecular-weight saturated fatty acids. Studies have been conducted with the objective of altering the composition of milk fat by feeding. For example, introduction of soybean oil into the diet resulted in a higher oleic acid content and a butter with a lower melting point and reasonable spreadability at refrigeration temperature. However, because of economic factors and physiological effects on the cow, this procedure has gained only limited use. Pretreatment of Cream Much research has been conducted over the past forty years to improve the consistency of butter through temperature pretreatment of the cream before churning. Such treatment results in controlled crystallization of the milk fat. The Swedish or Alnarp: 6-21-12&quot; method has gained wide acceptance in many countries. In this process, after pasteurization, the fat in fat globules is in the liquid form, but the fat begins to crystallize when the cream is cooled to below 40o C. Quick cooling of the cream to a low temperature results in the rapid formation of many small fat crystals. However, the ratio of liquid to solid fat would be low and would result in a hard butter. Heating such cooled cream to a higher temperature melts the higher-melting -point triglycerides from the crystals. Recrystallization of the melted fat at a lower temperature results in a higher liquid/solids ratio, yielding a softer butter. Treatment of Butter Although treatment of cream before churning is considered the most feasible means of improving the spreadability of butter, attempts have been make to work butter after churning to improve it. One of the most interesting properties of butter is its tendency to soften during working. The greater part of softening occurs instantaneously, and the properties of the butter determine the amount of the breakdown rather than the intensity of working. Ivarson showed that holding freshly churned butter at 5oC for a few hours, then working it in a compact mixer will result in improved spreadability at refrigeration temperature. However, the present practice of manufacturing butter continuously usually precludes the opportunity for such treatment since the butter is packaged almost directly after churning. The mixing process apparently results in deformation of the crystalline structure of the butter, yielding improved spreadability and slow recovery of firmness. Other Approaches Other approaches have been taken to improve the spreadability of butter. Whipping Whipping a gas into it can improve the spreadabililty of butter, nitrogen now being commonly used. While such butter possesses improved spreadability, it tends to be crumbly and does not possess as much butter aroma as unwhipped butter. Nevertheless, there may be an increase in consumption of whipped butter in the U.S. Blending As butter must contain no fat other than milk fat, manufacturing a blend is not possible and still call the resultant product butter. However, in the U.S. in recent years manufacturers have introduced margarines that are blends of vegetable fat and milk fat (60:40). These products possess improved spreadability but lack the fine flavor quality of butter. Fractionation The process of fractionation has given considerable interest to the possibility of improving the texture of butter. For example, short-path distillation has been used to obtain butter enriched in short- and medium-chain triglycerides. However, this process requires the use of high temperature, with the possibility of decomposition or polymerizaton occurring. Reducing the time of exposure by use of a wiped-film evaporator or centrifugal still reduces this possibility. Boudreau and Arul have investigated the use of supercritical. For example, in one experiment, anhydrous milk fat was separated into tow fractions, the liquid one being enriched in short- and medium-chain triglycerides and fatty acids, and the solid fraction enriched in both saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. While this process provides high-quality milk-fat fractions, it is costly from both energy and capital cost standpoints. Fractionation of milk fat by crystallization from the melt (dry fractionation) has been thoroughly studied. The liquid fraction becomes enriched in the short-chain triglyceride and both short-chain and unsaturated fatty acids. However, the efficiency of this process is low, and flavor compounds, pigment, vitamin A, and cholesterol are concentrated in the liquid fraction. There is one active industrial process, the Tiriaux system, which uses dry fractionation. It is possible to fractionate milk fat by crystallization in organic solvents such as acetone. However, the loss of flavor compounds, pigment alteration, and presence of solvent residues in the milk-fat fractions has prevented industrial application. Interesterification A chemical approach to improving the texture of milk fat is the process of Interesterification, which alters the distribution of fatty acids. In this process, the triglyceride composition and the physical properties of the fat are changed, while the original total fatty acid composition is retained. While this process can improve the spreadability of butter, it has not yet been applied because it results in loss of the fine flavor of butter. Also, interesterification via enzyme catalysis is considered too costly presently to be feasible. Measurement of Textural Properties Many techniques have measured textural properties of butter, the penetrometer being the most widely reported. Sectility testing, in which a cutting wire is loaded until it cuts through a sample of butter at a constant rate, has also been studied. Compression testing using a basic rheometer to produce load/deformation curves, has yielded information on the viscosity and moduli of elasticity for butter. Extrusion of a plug of butter through an orifice has been used as an index of spreadability. Finally, attempts have been made to determine the spreadability of butter by using a blade that scrapes along the surface to simulate the spreading action. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "The history about the definition and standard for butter in the United States can be traced back to legislation Congress enacted in 1886. Many changes have occurred since that date, leading to the present statutory standard that Congress enacted into law on March 4, 1923: " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>The history about the definition and standard for butter in the United States can be traced back to legislation Congress enacted in 1886. Many changes have occurred since that date, leading to the present statutory standard that Congress enacted into law on March 4, 1923:</p> <p>Butter shall be understood to mean the food product usually known as butter which is made exclusively from milk or cream, or both, with or without common salt, and with or without additional coloring matter, and containing not less than 80% by weight of milk fat, all tolerances having been allowed for.</p> <p>Butter production in the United States during 1999 totaled 1.28 billion pounds, 9.2 percent above 1998. California accounted for 26.9 percent of the production, followed by Wisconsin with 22.8 percent and Washington with 9.3 percent. However, per capita consumption of butter has continued to decline. Undoubtedly, many reasons--nutritional, economic, and aesthetic--can be cited for this decrease.</p> <p>A 1986 survey conducted by the United Dairy Industry Association among approximately 4,000 U.S. consumers aged thirteen years and older revealed that most consumers prefer butter to margarine, claiming that they can taste the difference. Also, most of the respondents agreed that butter is a healthful food, despite media reports to the contrary. Almost 60% believed that butter has more nutritional value than margarine, while 61% believed that margarine is not as fattening as butter.</p> <p>When groups advertize butter, the advertizing campaign stress the taste, aroma, freshness, and natural ingredients of butter and remind viewers hat butter is superior to its competition at enhancing the taste of food. No mention is made of the textural aspect of butter which is also an important attribute of the overall unique butter characteristics.</p> <p>Butter is one of several dairy products that may be subjected to the inspection and grading services of the Dairy Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Butter manufactures must request these services, qualify for them, and pay a fee based on the cost of providing the services. Participation in this program leads to improvement of quality, wholesomeness, manufacture, and distribution of butter.</p> <h3>Butter Characteristics</h3> <p>The U.S. grade of butter is determined by first the flavor characteristics and then the characteristics of body, color, and salt content.</p> <p>The following comment is made in the above reference about the body of butter.</p> <p>Butter with a firm waxy body has an attractive appearance, has granules that are close knit, cuts clean when sliced, and has good spreadability. The trier sample from such butter will show this clean cut smooth, waxy appearance. The temperature of the butter at the time of grading is important in determining the true characteristics of body and should be between 45oF and 50oF.</p> <p>USDA graders evaluate body in butter for its characteristics or defects. There are eight major defects considered in this evaluation: (1) crumbly (lacks cohesion); (2) gummy (sticky mouthfeel); (3) leaky (free moisture on the butter surface); (4) mealy or grainy (a grainy feel on the tongue similar to cornmeal); (5) ragged boring (unable to draw a smooth full trier of butter); (6) short (lacks plasticity and tends toward brittleness); (7) sticky (butter sticks to trier as a smear); and (8) weak (lacks firmness).</p> <p>Most of the above defects in body can be associated with the spreadability characteristics of butter. USDA has made the following general statement about body characteristics:</p> <p>Butterfat in butter is a mixture of various triglycerides of different melting points and appears as fat globule and free fat. In both forms, part of the fat is crystalline and part liquid. Some fats are solid at temperatures up to 100oF or even higher. Others are still liquid at temperatures far below the freezing point. Butter, at the temperature at which it is usually handled, is always a mixture of crystallized and liquid fat. The variations in the composition of milk fat thus have great influence upon the body and spreadability of butter. In the summer when milk fat contains more liquid or soft fat, butter tends to be weak and leaky. In the winter when the milk fat contains more solid fat, butter tends to be hard and brittle, resulting in unsatisfactory spreadability. The ratio between the crystalline and liquid fat particles depends upon the composition of the milk fat (varying with the season of the year), manufacturing methods, and the temperature of the butter. Close attention needs to be given to tempering the cream, temperature of churning, washing and working of the butter as the seasons of the year change. This is important in maintaining a uniform firm, waxy body possessing good spreadability.</p> <p>Thus, many factors evidently play a role in determining the body and spreadabilty characteristics of butter. Unfortunately, when butter is removed from the refrigerator (40-45oF), the spreadability is limited. One must allow the butter to temper at room temperature to obtain optimum spreadability. Much research has been conducted which is directed toward improving the spreadability of butter. The remainder of this article will consider the various aspects of manufacturing butter with improved spreadability.</p> <h3>Manufacture of Butter</h3> <p>The theory of churning proposed by King is still considered plausible today:</p> <p>The normal churning process is confined to a comparatively narrow temperature range with an optimum value for the ratio of crystalline to solid to liquid fat. When cream foams, fat globules come to the air--a serum interface of air bubbles. Liquid fat from the globules spreads at the interface along with material of fat globule membranes. The film of liquid fat cements globules into clumps. On repeated formation and destruction of foam bubbles, clumps grow to butter granules that contain modified serum (buttermilk) in the interstices between the fat globules. During working of the mass, some fat globules are crushed, and their contents are added to liquid fat. Also, moisture droplets are subdivided and air is entrapped.</p> <p>Most butter in the U.S. today is manufactured in a continuous churn. However, some butter is still manufactured by the conventional batch method that was prevalent for many years before the introduction the continuous churn. In either case, the butter is manufactured under rigid sanitary requirements. The cream must be pasteurized before churning at a temperature equal to or greater than 74oC for a minimum of thirty minutes or else at a temperature equal to or greater than 85oC for a minimum of fifteen second; most cream is pasteurized by the latter method today.</p> <h4>Batch Method</h4> <p>A huge metal cylinder that turns around a horizontal axis is most often used for churning butter by the conventional batch method. As the churn rotates, the cream is agitated, and several thousand pounds (8,000) of butter can be manufactured in one churning.</p> <p>The following steps are usually followed in batch churning: "(1) prepare the churn by cleaning and sanitizing, (2) pump cream of 30-33% fat at 9oC in summer or 13oC in winter into a churn, (3) add coloring, (4) rotate the churn until butter granules are formed (breaking point) and become the size of peas or popcorn, (5) drain buttermilk, (6) rinse buttermilk from interior surfaces of the churn with clean, cold water, (7) wash butter with sufficient water to bring total volume to that of original cream (water colder than butter firms, where as water warmer than butter softens), (8) drain wash water, (9) add salt, (10) work butter sufficiently to bring granules and water into compact mass, (11) sample and test for moisture, (12) add water if insufficient (below about 16%) or permit to escape from the churn if the test shows high moisture, (13) work butter until it has a firm, waxy body, (14) sample and test for moisture, salt and curd, and (15) remove butter from the churn."</p> <p>Butter is then packaged in automated printer-wrapper machines, being cut into one-quarter or 1-lb prints (sticks), wrapped in foil or parchment, and then stored at -18o to -29oC.</p> <h4>Continuous Method</h4> <p>Manufacture of butter by the continuous method did not become applicable until the late 1940s, although methods were introduced at the end of the 19th century. Continuous manufacture of butter is based on one of two principles: (1) accelerated churning and working and (2) reseparation with phase inversion.</p> <p>In most butter-producing nations today, the first principle is employed in continuous butter manufacture, the Fritz method being the best-known process. In this process, which employs the same principles as conventional batch churning, crystallization of milk fat takes place in the cream, with phase inversion and concentration of milk fat occurring in the churn.</p> <p>The steps in manufacture of butter by the Fritz process are as follows. Cream (40-42% milk fat) is fed into the double-cooled churning cylinder fitted with beaters driven by a variable-speed motor. Phase inversion takes place very rapidly, with the butter grains and buttermilk passing on to the separation section, where the butter is separated from the buttermilk. Butter grains are washed with recirculated buttermilk en route to the separation section (first working section). Butter working begins in this section while the butter is being conveyed by the screw conveyor to the squeeze-drying section.</p> <p>In the squeeze-drying section, the butter passes through a conical channel and perforated plate to remove any remaining buttermilk. The butter grains continue to the second working section, which operates at the speed of the screw in the first working section to achieve optimum working of the butter. Upon reaching the injection section, a high-pressure injector may add salt. The vacuum working section is attached to a vacuum pump, allowing air to be removed from the butter to improve physical properties and keeping quality.</p> <p>The final working stage consists of four small sections separated from each other by a perforated plate. The perforations are of varying diameters so that the butter receives satisfactory treatment as it is being worked. The first section contains a water injector for final adjustment of moisture content, which deviates by less that 0,1% if the cream characteristics remain constant.</p> <p>The most modern continuous butter churn manufactured by Westfalia, Oelde, Germany (Type BUD) is also a Fritz system. Cream of 40% milk fat content is tempered and fed to the first churning cylinder, forming the basic butter granules. The prechurned mixture of granules and buttermilk then enters a second churning cylinder, which is a rotating drum (two-thirds screened). There, granules are compacted, and the buttermilk is discharged through the screen into a buttermilk a collecting vessel. This vessel contains a rotating screen basket that recovers residual butter granules.</p> <p>Butter granules from the second churning cylinder then enter the texturizer, where remaining buttermilk is squeezed from the butter granules and necessary adjustment is made for moisture control and salt addition. The butter then passes to a second texturizer system via a vacuum chamber where gas and air can be drawn off. Thorough intermixing and texturizing are accomplished in the second texturizer, and the finished butter is then discharged from the churn.</p> <p>Moisture control is the most serious problem in this process. The treatment of the cream (fat content and temperature crystallization conditions) and the churning process must be controlled for uniform moisture content. The most common moisture control unit is based on the dielectric properties, but infrared methods are also available. Most Fritz-type continuous churns have a capacity of 1,800-11,000 lb. of butter/hour. However, a computer-operated machine is now available with a capacity of 22,000 lb/hour.</p> <h3>Factors affecting Spreadability</h3> <p>Since milk fat is the major constituent of butter, it obviously plays a major role in determining its textural properties. The major fatty acids found in milk fat and their melting points are listed in Table 1. The fatty acid composition, distribution of fatty acids in the triglycerides, and the polymorphic forms of the fat crystals influence the melting properties of the milk fat. Melting takes place between 30 and 41oC.</p> <p>Other factors also affect spreadability:</p> <h4>Seasonal Diet</h4> <p>The cow’s diet and stage of lactation influence the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Thus, cyclic changes which can be monitored influence the melting properties of milk fat. In the northern U. S., butter tends to become firmer during the fall and winter because of dietary intake changes, i.e., an increased consumption of high-molecular-weight saturated fatty acids.</p> <p>Studies have been conducted with the objective of altering the composition of milk fat by feeding. For example, introduction of soybean oil into the diet resulted in a higher oleic acid content and a butter with a lower melting point and reasonable spreadability at refrigeration temperature. However, because of economic factors and physiological effects on the cow, this procedure has gained only limited use.</p> <h4>Pretreatment of Cream</h4> <p>Much research has been conducted over the past forty years to improve the consistency of butter through temperature pretreatment of the cream before churning. Such treatment results in controlled crystallization of the milk fat. The Swedish or Alnarp: 6-21-12" method has gained wide acceptance in many countries.</p> <p>In this process, after pasteurization, the fat in fat globules is in the liquid form, but the fat begins to crystallize when the cream is cooled to below 40o C. Quick cooling of the cream to a low temperature results in the rapid formation of many small fat crystals. However, the ratio of liquid to solid fat would be low and would result in a hard butter. Heating such cooled cream to a higher temperature melts the higher-melting -point triglycerides from the crystals. Recrystallization of the melted fat at a lower temperature results in a higher liquid/solids ratio, yielding a softer butter.</p> <h4>Treatment of Butter</h4> <p>Although treatment of cream before churning is considered the most feasible means of improving the spreadability of butter, attempts have been make to work butter after churning to improve it. One of the most interesting properties of butter is its tendency to soften during working. The greater part of softening occurs instantaneously, and the properties of the butter determine the amount of the breakdown rather than the intensity of working.</p> <p>Ivarson showed that holding freshly churned butter at 5oC for a few hours, then working it in a compact mixer will result in improved spreadability at refrigeration temperature. However, the present practice of manufacturing butter continuously usually precludes the opportunity for such treatment since the butter is packaged almost directly after churning. The mixing process apparently results in deformation of the crystalline structure of the butter, yielding improved spreadability and slow recovery of firmness.</p> <h3>Other Approaches</h3> <p>Other approaches have been taken to improve the spreadability of butter.</p> <h4>Whipping</h4> <p>Whipping a gas into it can improve the spreadabililty of butter, nitrogen now being commonly used. While such butter possesses improved spreadability, it tends to be crumbly and does not possess as much butter aroma as unwhipped butter. Nevertheless, there may be an increase in consumption of whipped butter in the U.S.</p> <h4>Blending</h4> <p>As butter must contain no fat other than milk fat, manufacturing a blend is not possible and still call the resultant product butter. However, in the U.S. in recent years manufacturers have introduced margarines that are blends of vegetable fat and milk fat (60:40). These products possess improved spreadability but lack the fine flavor quality of butter.</p> <h4>Fractionation</h4> <p>The process of fractionation has given considerable interest to the possibility of improving the texture of butter. For example, short-path distillation has been used to obtain butter enriched in short- and medium-chain triglycerides. However, this process requires the use of high temperature, with the possibility of decomposition or polymerizaton occurring. Reducing the time of exposure by use of a wiped-film evaporator or centrifugal still reduces this possibility.</p> <p>Boudreau and Arul have investigated the use of supercritical. For example, in one experiment, anhydrous milk fat was separated into tow fractions, the liquid one being enriched in short- and medium-chain triglycerides and fatty acids, and the solid fraction enriched in both saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. While this process provides high-quality milk-fat fractions, it is costly from both energy and capital cost standpoints.</p> <p>Fractionation of milk fat by crystallization from the melt (dry fractionation) has been thoroughly studied. The liquid fraction becomes enriched in the short-chain triglyceride and both short-chain and unsaturated fatty acids. However, the efficiency of this process is low, and flavor compounds, pigment, vitamin A, and cholesterol are concentrated in the liquid fraction. There is one active industrial process, the Tiriaux system, which uses dry fractionation.</p> <p>It is possible to fractionate milk fat by crystallization in organic solvents such as acetone. However, the loss of flavor compounds, pigment alteration, and presence of solvent residues in the milk-fat fractions has prevented industrial application.</p> <h4>Interesterification</h4> <p>A chemical approach to improving the texture of milk fat is the process of Interesterification, which alters the distribution of fatty acids. In this process, the triglyceride composition and the physical properties of the fat are changed, while the original total fatty acid composition is retained. While this process can improve the spreadability of butter, it has not yet been applied because it results in loss of the fine flavor of butter. Also, interesterification via enzyme catalysis is considered too costly presently to be feasible.</p> <p>Measurement of Textural Properties</p> <p>Many techniques have measured textural properties of butter, the penetrometer being the most widely reported. Sectility testing, in which a cutting wire is loaded until it cuts through a sample of butter at a constant rate, has also been studied. Compression testing using a basic rheometer to produce load/deformation curves, has yielded information on the viscosity and moduli of elasticity for butter. Extrusion of a plug of butter through an orifice has been used as an index of spreadability. Finally, attempts have been made to determine the spreadability of butter by using a blade that scrapes along the surface to simulate the spreading action.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/butter" hreflang="en">Butter</a></div> </div> Mon, 19 Jun 2017 18:04:49 +0000 Anonymous 21 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu General Butter Information https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods/general-butter-information <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">General Butter Information</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 18, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Dairy Foods" addthis:description="History of Butter Although butter is viewed as a food by today&#039;s standards, it has been used for many things, from a cosmetic to a medicine. Historically, those who used butter were seen as wealthy and successful. The first documented mention of butter making was in the sacred songs of the dwellers of Asiatic India, dating back to 1,500-2,000 years before Christ. The ancient Hebrews referred to butter in the Old Testament, and as a result, they have been credited as the first developers of the art of butter making. Butter&#039;s unique history has led to creameries all around the world producing large quantities of butter every day. Let&#039;s see how butter is made today. How Butter is Made Today The art of making butter is a very detailed and intense process that takes place under highly controlled and sanitary conditions in today&#039;s creameries. The process begins with an inspection of fresh, sweet milk for quality, milkfat content and weight. The cream is then separated and prepared for pasteurization. In order to pasteurize the cream, it is heated to at least 161 degrees Fahrenheit for 15 seconds. Ultra-pasteurized milk and ultra-high temperature processed milk are heated to 280 degrees Fahrenheit for at least two seconds. The extreme heat further reduces levels of bacteria that can cause cream to spoil and in turn increases the refrigerated shelf life of butter. When pasteurization is completed, the cream is churned. Two types of churning, batch-method and continuous, are currently used by creameries. In batch-method churning, up to 8,000 pounds of butter can be churned per batch. In continuous churning, 1,800 to 11,000 pounds of butter can be produced in an hour. Butter Grading Grades of butter are established and awarded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). All butter sold in the United States must contain at least 80 percent milkfat. Grades, ranging from the best grade AA to grade B, are based on flavor, body, color and salt content. U.S. Grade AA butter has a smooth, creamy texture and is easy to spread. It contains a light, fresh flavor and a small amount of salt. Grade AA butter is made from sweet cream and is available at most grocery stores and supermarkets. U.S. Grade A butter is made from fresh cream, has a slightly stronger flavor and possesses a fairly smooth texture. Grade A butter is also widely available. U.S. Grade B butter can be used by consumers for table use. It is usually made from sour cream and is more coarse in texture. Butter &amp; Salt Most butter is available in a lightly salted form. The salt is a preservative and also adds to the flavor. Although some butter made from sweat cream is not salted, lightly salted butter is sometimes called &quot;sweet cream butter.&quot; Unsalted butter may be referred to as &quot;sweet butter.&quot; Butter &amp; a Healthy Body A healthful diet includes foods from the four food groups and eating in moderation. People who learn not to over consume certain foods maintain a healthy body and are able to enjoy most foods on a regular basis. Butter should be viewed as just another food that should be budgeted into our diets. Butter is 100 percent natural and contains no preservatives, artificial flavorings or additives. For healthy people, butter can be a part of your overall fat intake on a daily basis. Fat is necessary to carry fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and help the body assimilate these vitamins. Butter provides more than eight percent of the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance for vitamin A in one teaspoon. Fats also slow digestion. A person who eats a pat of butter on toast in the morning will feel satisfied for a longer period of time than a person who eats the toast without butter. A moderate amount of butter in the diet can be crucial in staving off premature hunger and possibly avoiding overeating. As for calories, one tablespoon of butter contains only 101 calories which is equal to or less than most butter substitutes that don&#039;t compare in taste. In addition, a pat of butter (slightly more than one teaspoon) has only 11 milligrams of cholesterol, and the American Heart Association recommends a limit of 300 milligrams of cholesterol daily. The rich flavor of butter in sauces, on vegetables or on bread has no equal. Just remember, the key to enjoying butter&#039;s incomparable taste and leading a healthy life is moderation. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "History of Butter Although butter is viewed as a food by today&#039;s standards, it has been used for many things, from a cosmetic to a medicine. Historically, those who used butter were seen as wealthy and successful." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><img alt="Cow and butter" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="82af2281-5dc9-42e3-ba70-c022605ae9b0" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/bdish.gif" class="align-right" />History of Butter</h3> <p>Although butter is viewed as a food by today's standards, it has been used for many things, from a cosmetic to a medicine. Historically, those who used butter were seen as wealthy and successful.<br /> The first documented mention of butter making was in the sacred songs of the dwellers of Asiatic India, dating back to 1,500-2,000 years before Christ. The ancient Hebrews referred to butter in the Old Testament, and as a result, they have been credited as the first developers of the art of butter making.</p> <p>Butter's unique history has led to creameries all around the world producing large quantities of butter every day. Let's see how butter is made today.</p> <h3>How Butter is Made Today</h3> <p>The art of making butter is a very detailed and intense process that takes place under highly controlled and sanitary conditions in today's creameries.<br /> The process begins with an inspection of fresh, sweet milk for quality, milkfat content and weight. The cream is then separated and prepared for pasteurization. In order to pasteurize the cream, it is heated to at least 161 degrees Fahrenheit for 15 seconds. Ultra-pasteurized milk and ultra-high temperature processed milk are heated to 280 degrees Fahrenheit for at least two seconds. The extreme heat further reduces levels of bacteria that can cause cream to spoil and in turn increases the refrigerated shelf life of butter.</p> <p>When pasteurization is completed, the cream is churned. Two types of churning, batch-method and continuous, are currently used by creameries. In batch-method churning, up to 8,000 pounds of butter can be churned per batch. In continuous churning, 1,800 to 11,000 pounds of butter can be produced in an hour.</p> <h3>Butter Grading</h3> <p>Grades of butter are established and awarded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). All butter sold in the United States must contain at least 80 percent milkfat. Grades, ranging from the best grade AA to grade B, are based on flavor, body, color and salt content.<br /> U.S. Grade AA butter has a smooth, creamy texture and is easy to spread. It contains a light, fresh flavor and a small amount of salt. Grade AA butter is made from sweet cream and is available at most grocery stores and supermarkets.</p> <p>U.S. Grade A butter is made from fresh cream, has a slightly stronger flavor and possesses a fairly smooth texture. Grade A butter is also widely available.</p> <p>U.S. Grade B butter can be used by consumers for table use. It is usually made from sour cream and is more coarse in texture.</p> <h3>Butter &amp; Salt</h3> <p>Most butter is available in a lightly salted form. The salt is a preservative and also adds to the flavor. Although some butter made from sweat cream is not salted, lightly salted butter is sometimes called "sweet cream butter." Unsalted butter may be referred to as "sweet butter."</p> <h3>Butter &amp; a Healthy Body</h3> <p>A healthful diet includes foods from the four food groups and eating in moderation. People who learn not to over consume certain foods maintain a healthy body and are able to enjoy most foods on a regular basis. Butter should be viewed as just another food that should be budgeted into our diets.<br /> Butter is 100 percent natural and contains no preservatives, artificial flavorings or additives. For healthy people, butter can be a part of your overall fat intake on a daily basis. Fat is necessary to carry fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and help the body assimilate these vitamins. Butter provides more than eight percent of the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance for vitamin A in one teaspoon.</p> <p>Fats also slow digestion. A person who eats a pat of butter on toast in the morning will feel satisfied for a longer period of time than a person who eats the toast without butter. A moderate amount of butter in the diet can be crucial in staving off premature hunger and possibly avoiding overeating.</p> <p>As for calories, one tablespoon of butter contains only 101 calories which is equal to or less than most butter substitutes that don't compare in taste. In addition, a pat of butter (slightly more than one teaspoon) has only 11 milligrams of cholesterol, and the American Heart Association recommends a limit of 300 milligrams of cholesterol daily.</p> <p><img alt="Butter" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a802ae95-b6a7-40a6-bf27-0b088dbc5feb" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1036/files/inline-images/butter.jpg" class="align-right" />The rich flavor of butter in sauces, on vegetables or on bread has no equal. Just remember, the key to enjoying butter's incomparable taste and leading a healthy life is moderation.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/dairy-foods/butter" hreflang="en">Butter</a></div> </div> Sun, 18 Jun 2017 18:41:33 +0000 Anonymous 26 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu