Goat Dairy Foods https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods Goat Dairy Foods for DRINC en Dairy Goat Milk Composition https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/dairy-goat-milk-composition <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Dairy Goat Milk Composition</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Goat husbandry has been part of agriculture since almost the first use of domestic animals and presently its popularity is increasing throughout the world, this increase is reflected to a greater degree by the rise in the number of small herds maintained by individuals either as a source of income or as an avocation. Goats are particularly suited to this role because they have minimal land use and attention requirements yet still allow an individual to become actively involved in dairying. The goat&#039;s milk produced by such enterprise is typically sold as whole milk or processed in cheese, evaporated milk or dried milk products. Because of this increased interest, it is valuable to be aware of the factors affecting the composition and nutritional value of caprine milk. Further, it is worthwhile to compare the milk of goats with that of cows and note benefits or limitations which may result from differences found. LIPIDS Goat&#039;s milk derives many of its most distinctive properties from its lipid fraction. The average total fat content in the milk is similar to that found in other ruminant species, (Table 1) despite reports that the percentage of fat in goat&#039;s milk exceeds that of the cow. Such a misconception is most likely derived from the fact that the average percentage of milkfat, as with cow&#039;s milkfat, is a variable component, often ranging between 3.0 and 6.0 percent. There are also district breed differences in fat composition. It should be remembered, however, the quality and quantity of feeds, genetics season, stage of lactation, etc. all influence the average percentage of goat milkfat. In California DHIA goat records indicate that the dairy goats on test produced milk with a 3.9% milkfat. The fatty acids in the milkfat are arranged in the triglycerides in accordance with a pattern that appears to be universal among ruminants. The percent unsaturated fatty acids (ol.eic and linolenic) do not differ from the average found for cow&#039;s milk (Table 2). Because of this, goat&#039;s milk does not appear to offer an advantage over cowls milk in use in diets restricting the intake of saturated fats. A major difference between the milkfat of the goat and the cow is the percentage distribution among specific short chain fatty acids. Goats have an appreciably higher proportion of capric, caprylic and caproic acids. The high amounts of these specific fatty acids are responsible for the characteristic flavor and odor associated with goat&#039;s milk. In terms of cholesterol, goat&#039;s milk appears to offer a specific distinction in comparison to cow&#039;s milk, Cow&#039;s milk typically contains about 14 to 17 mg cholesterol per 100 g milk, while goat&#039;s milk is more usually recorded at 11 to 25 mg per 100 gram of milk. More work, however, needs to be done to establish if there is a real difference. Two misconceptions about goat&#039;s milk are associated with the fat globule size. First, it is often claimed that goat&#039;s milk is naturally homogenized. This statement is derived from the observations that milkfat from the goat does not cream quickly. This slow creaming was attributed to the belief fat globules in goat milkfat are very much smaller than those found milk. However, the size of the fat globules, on an average is only smaller than those found in cow&#039;s milkfat. The apparent reason for creaming is the lack of a protein (agglutenating euglobulins) which individual fat globules to cluster and rise. This protein is found in cow&#039;s milk. Creaming at higher temperatures, where the rate of clustering is not as dependent on the protein, is probably somewhat related to the fat globule size. Secondly, it is often proposed that the apparent &quot;small&quot; globules in goat&#039;s milk render the fats more digestible. No evidence has been presented to substantiate that point of view. PROTEIN The protein fraction of the milk of the goat shows a remarkable similarity to that found in other ruminant species, both in amount and in composition with respect to the specific amino acids. The relative percentage of protein (Table 1) is similar in both the cow and the goat despite past assertions that the protein content of goat&#039;s milk is lower. Such reports are likely the result of the wide range which has existed in reported values. This variation in range is due in part to a lack of standardization of protein testing procedures as well as the wide differences encountered among animals accepted as the same breed and interbreed differences. It is expected that current emphasis on standardization of protein testing procedures and efforts to improve goat breed designation will result in more accurate assessment. A recent report has suggested that the biological value of products processed from caprine milk may be slightly higher than encountered in those made from bovine milk. Structurally, the milk protein casein of the goat&#039;s milk is sufficiently different from that found in cow&#039;s milk to be easily differentiated in the lab. The casein miscelles typically exist either as much larger or much smaller aggregations than are found in bovine milk. Because of this it has been suggested that, although the quantity and distribution of amino acids in the casein fractions of the milks of the two species are similar, the sequency of assembly is almost certainly different. This difference is further substantiated by the fact that goat casein is associated with a lower mobility in an electrophoretic field. A similar difference appears to be found in the lactalbumin portion as well, with perhaps more clinical significance. The lactalbumin of bovine milk elicits an allergic response from many individuals, a serious problem, especially for young children. These individuals are often able to consume the milk of goats without suffering that reaction, an effect attributed to the dissimilarities in structure of the two proteins. LACTOSE Lactose is the major free carbohydrate that has been identified in the milk of the goat, though small amounts of inositol are also found (Table 1). The lactose concentration is usually found to be lower than that found in cow&#039;s milk, but the magnitude of the difference is hard to quantify because of the variation in methods of analysis employed. A consensus has not been developed on whether to analyze for lactose in the non-hydrated form or the mono-hydrated form, and this water of hydration is capable of introducing a five percent variation in the reported concentration of the same actual amount of lactose. Efforts are being taken to reduce this confusion. ASH The total ash (calcium, phosphorous, etc.) content of goat&#039;s milk ranges from 0.78 mg to 0.83 mg per 100 g milk and is considered to be slightly higher than that associated with the cow (Table 1). However, the relative percentages of the ash components appear to be comparable (Table 3). As the nutritional value of milk is often evaluated in terms of the calcium and phosphorous that the milk makes available, it is important to note that the concentrations of these two minerals are similar in the cow and the goat. A significant variation between the milks of the two species should be noted in the chloride concentration, which appears to run higher in the goat. While this elevation may perhaps be physiological in origin, it seems likely that it may also stem from the influence of infectious mastitis which causes the salt (sodium chloride) concentration to increase which is endemic to many small goat herds. Significant amounts of potassium, sodium and magnesium are also reported in caprine milk, their concentrations paralleling those found in bovine samples. While few assays have been completed on the citrate in goat&#039;s milk, indications are that the citrate level is little different than that found in cow&#039;s milk. (Citrate is an important precursor to flavor components in cultured dairy foods.) It must be realized that the concentrations of the various elements of the ash fraction demonstrate a wide variation, not only in response to the various points in the lactation cycle, but on a daily basis as well. Accurate evaluation entails the averaging of values obtained for a single animal over an extended time or using an average determined from samples taken from several different animals in the same herd on the same day. Trace mineral analysis of both goat&#039;s milk and cow&#039;s milk are very similar in profile, only slight differences existing in the concentrations recorded for cobalt and molybdenum, differences associated with vitamin B, and xanthine oxidase levels respectively. The association of both cow&#039;s milk and goat&#039;s milk with infantile anemia appears to stem from low levels of iron and copper in these fluids, and the condition is easily reversed by the addition of those trace minerals to the diet. ENZYMES The enzymes of the milk of the goat are similar to those of the cow, although some specific differences have been described. Of primary interest, it has been shown that the level of alkaline phosphatase is slightly lower than that found in work with dairy cattle, but the enzyme demonstrates the same degree of heat susceptibility and therefore serves equally well as a pasteurization marker. Peroxidase activity in the milk of both species is the same in all respects, while the xanthine oxidase level is lower in the milk of the goat. Higher levels of activity are observed for both ribonuclease and lysozyme. VITAMINS The vitamin contentof goat&#039;s milk has been the subject of considerable study. Goat&#039;s milk differs from cow&#039;s milk in its much lower content of B12. (Table 4). The meaning of this difference is not entirely clear. Differences in B6 are uncertain when the recent USDA data are examined. Despite the fact that the concentrations of B6 and B12 are equal or exceed those concentrations found in human milk, anemia developed by infants and experimental animals is frequently attributed to deficiencies of these vitamins. However, the fact that the addition of copper and iron to the diet acts to eliminate the anemic condition removes much of the suspicion with which these levels are regarded. It has also been suggested that such an anemia could result from low levels of folic acid; however, the concentration of this vitamin does not differ significantly from that found in cow&#039;s milk. It is remarkable that caprine milk derives its vitamin A potency entirely from the vitamin itself and entirely lacks the precursor carotenoid pigments characteristic of bovine milk, which also causes goat&#039;s milk and milkfat to be much whiter in color than the milk of the cow. TABLE 4. Average vitamin content of goat, cow and human milk. Vitamin Cow Goat Human Vitamin A(1)(2) 1560.0 (1380) 2074.0 (1850) 1898.0 (2410) Vitamin D 33 23.7 22.0 Thiamine 0.44 ( .38) 0.40 ( .48) 0.16 (0.14) Riboflavin 1.75 (1.61) 1.84 (1.38) 0.36 ( .36) Nicotinic Acid 0.94 ( .84) 1.87 (2.7) 1.47 (1.77) Vitamin B 6 0.64 ( .42) 0.07 ( .46) 0.10 ( .11) Pantotheine 3.46 (3.13) 3.44 (3.1) 1.84 (2.23) Biotin 0.031 0.039 0.008 Folic Acid 0.0028 ( 0.005) 0.0024 (0.001) 0.0020 (0.005) Vitamin B 12 0.0043 (.0036) 0.0006 (.00065) 0.0003 (,.00045) Ascorbic Acid 21.1 (14.7) 15.0(13,0) 43.0 (50) Choline 121.0 150.0 90.0 Inositol 110.0 210.0 330.0 (1) Vitamin A expressed in International Units/liter; all others as mg/liter. (2) Numbers in ( ) are from the USDA Handbook 8-1 (1976). MILK PRODUCTION Seasonal variations characterize the concentrations of several of the constituents of goat&#039;s milk in a manner analogous to that observed in dairy cattle. Such variations include fluctuations in the amounts of fat, SNF, and minerals (particularly calcium and phosphorous) and follow a pattern in which concentrations are highest in the colostrum and decline to minima in the third or fourth month of lactation and slowly increase therafter. As freshening among goats in temperature zones typically occurs in the winter or early spring, the minima are associated with summer milk production. While the same phenomenon is observed in bovine milk production, the magnitude of the fluctuation in that species does not appear to be as great. In addition to these seasonal variations, the milk of goats is found to have significant daily variation associated with almost every component. These daily fluctuations become especially pronounced after the fourth month of lactation when minimum concentrations have been passed. A factor of prime importance in milk production is the type and adequacy of the feed that goats use. One of the attractions of goats is that they can be maintained on pasture that would be marginal or inaccessible to other dairy animals, but such pastures are seldom sources of optimum diets for any animal and one might expect the quality of the milk to suffer. Surprisingly, the nutritive value of the goat&#039;s milk remains constant over a wide range of feeding conditions and similar concentrations for nutrients should be expected from most feeds. A diet of low quality does not assert itself, however, in causing a decrease in the amount of milk produced. The major controlling element in the diet in this event is the energy content of the feed. GOAT&#039;S MILK PRODUCTS Goat&#039;s milk lends itself to use in the same types of products that are considered for cow&#039;s milk, and perhaps surpasses the cow&#039;s milk in some categories. Major amounts of goat&#039;s milk are processed annually into dried milk, evaporated milk, cheese and yogurt as well as being sold as bottled whole milk. In 1965, 1,300,000 gallons were used in the production of evaporated and canned products. The use of goat&#039;s milk in the production of cheese has become very widespread in France. This use is largely based on the capacity of goat milk curd to be frozen and produce a product not only equal but often considered better in flavor than one in which freezing did not take place. This process is normally accomplished without using salt and the curd can be held for up to six months at 5°F. A major difficulty that must be faced by many small dairymen, and especially common with goat herds, is meeting government standards of sanitation for a commercial product. Many small operators have been forced out of the business because of the expense and time commitment involved in satisfying health standards, and now raise goats only for an avocation or for noncommercial distribution of their products. GOATS IN THE FUTURE As can be seen from the foregoing analysis goat dairying is an enterprise that is capable of producing a product that rivals the more customary fluid, cow&#039;s milk, in most respects, and yet is far less intense in its energy and land use requirements. These characteristics make it an attractive avenue for many individuals who would like to become involved with dairying, but face any of a number of restrictions. A major difficulty faced by the industry has been the lack of a definite compositional profile for goat&#039;s milk, without which it has been difficult to compare the milk with that of the cow and thus demonstrate its nutritive value. What information that has been available has often complicated this problem because of the wide range of reported values. The Dairy Herd Improvement Program which is particularly active in California, is making large studies in eliminating this problem by delineating procedures for participants in the program. It is hoped that the information gathered in this program will not only provide information on the nutritional values typical in goat herds in the Western United States, but will also create more rigid controls on the various breeds of goats and clarify differences among these breeds. The assistance of R. Rodden in preparing this literature review is acknowledged. Dairy Goat Composition Source: John C. Bruhn, FST, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616-8598 "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Goat husbandry has been part of agriculture since almost the first use of domestic animals and presently its popularity is increasing throughout the world, this increase is reflected to a greater degree by the rise in the number of small herds maintained by individuals either as a source of income or as an avocation. Goats are particularly suited to this role because they have minimal land use and attention requirements yet still allow an individual to become actively involved in dairying." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Goat husbandry has been part of agriculture since almost the first use of domestic animals and presently its popularity is increasing throughout the world, this increase is reflected to a greater degree by the rise in the number of small herds maintained by individuals either as a source of income or as an avocation. Goats are particularly suited to this role because they have minimal land use and attention requirements yet still allow an individual to become actively involved in dairying. The goat's milk produced by such enterprise is typically sold as whole milk or processed in cheese, evaporated milk or dried milk products. Because of this increased interest, it is valuable to be aware of the factors affecting the composition and nutritional value of caprine milk. Further, it is worthwhile to compare the milk of goats with that of cows and note benefits or limitations which may result from differences found.</p> <h4>LIPIDS</h4> <p>Goat's milk derives many of its most distinctive properties from its lipid fraction. The average total fat content in the milk is similar to that found in other ruminant species, (Table 1) despite reports that the percentage of fat in goat's milk exceeds that of the cow. Such a misconception is most likely derived from the fact that the average percentage of milkfat, as with cow's milkfat, is a variable component, often ranging between 3.0 and 6.0 percent.</p> <p>There are also district breed differences in fat composition. It should be remembered, however, the quality and quantity of feeds, genetics season, stage of lactation, etc. all influence the average percentage of goat milkfat. In California DHIA goat records indicate that the dairy goats on test produced milk with a 3.9% milkfat.</p> <p>The fatty acids in the milkfat are arranged in the triglycerides in accordance with a pattern that appears to be universal among ruminants. The percent unsaturated fatty acids (ol.eic and linolenic) do not differ from the average found for cow's milk (Table 2). Because of this, goat's milk does not appear to offer an advantage over cowls milk in use in diets restricting the intake of saturated fats. A major difference between the milkfat of the goat and the cow is the percentage distribution among specific short chain fatty acids. Goats have an appreciably higher proportion of capric, caprylic and caproic acids. The high amounts of these specific fatty acids are responsible for the characteristic flavor and odor associated with goat's milk.</p> <p>In terms of cholesterol, goat's milk appears to offer a specific distinction in comparison to cow's milk, Cow's milk typically contains about 14 to 17 mg cholesterol per 100 g milk, while goat's milk is more usually recorded at 11 to 25 mg per 100 gram of milk. More work, however, needs to be done to establish if there is a real difference.</p> <p>Two misconceptions about goat's milk are associated with the fat globule size. First, it is often claimed that goat's milk is naturally homogenized. This statement is derived from the observations that milkfat from the goat does not cream quickly. This slow creaming was attributed to the belief fat globules in goat milkfat are very much smaller than those found milk. However, the size of the fat globules, on an average is only smaller than those found in cow's milkfat. The apparent reason for creaming is the lack of a protein (agglutenating euglobulins) which individual fat globules to cluster and rise. This protein is found in cow's milk. Creaming at higher temperatures, where the rate of clustering is not as dependent on the protein, is probably somewhat related to the fat globule size. Secondly, it is often proposed that the apparent "small" globules in goat's milk render the fats more digestible. No evidence has been presented to substantiate that point of view.</p> <h4>PROTEIN</h4> <p>The protein fraction of the milk of the goat shows a remarkable similarity to that found in other ruminant species, both in amount and in composition with respect to the specific amino acids. The relative percentage of protein (Table 1) is similar in both the cow and the goat despite past assertions that the protein content of goat's milk is lower. Such reports are likely the result of the wide range which has existed in reported values. This variation in range is due in part to a lack of standardization of protein testing procedures as well as the wide differences encountered among animals accepted as the same breed and interbreed differences. It is expected that current emphasis on standardization of protein testing procedures and efforts to improve goat breed designation will result in more accurate assessment.</p> <p>A recent report has suggested that the biological value of products processed from caprine milk may be slightly higher than encountered in those made from bovine milk.</p> <p>Structurally, the milk protein casein of the goat's milk is sufficiently different from that found in cow's milk to be easily differentiated in the lab. The casein miscelles typically exist either as much larger or much smaller aggregations than are found in bovine milk. Because of this it has been suggested that, although the quantity and distribution of amino acids in the casein fractions of the milks of the two species are similar, the sequency of assembly is almost certainly different. This difference is further substantiated by the fact that goat casein is associated with a lower mobility in an electrophoretic field. A similar difference appears to be found in the lactalbumin portion as well, with perhaps more clinical significance. The lactalbumin of bovine milk elicits an allergic response from many individuals, a serious problem, especially for young children. These individuals are often able to consume the milk of goats without suffering that reaction, an effect attributed to the dissimilarities in structure of the two proteins.</p> <h4>LACTOSE</h4> <p>Lactose is the major free carbohydrate that has been identified in the milk of the goat, though small amounts of inositol are also found (Table 1). The lactose concentration is usually found to be lower than that found in cow's milk, but the magnitude of the difference is hard to quantify because of the variation in methods of analysis employed. A consensus has not been developed on whether to analyze for lactose in the non-hydrated form or the mono-hydrated form, and this water of hydration is capable of introducing a five percent variation in the reported concentration of the same actual amount of lactose. Efforts are being taken to reduce this confusion.</p> <h4>ASH</h4> <p>The total ash (calcium, phosphorous, etc.) content of goat's milk ranges from 0.78 mg to 0.83 mg per 100 g milk and is considered to be slightly higher than that associated with the cow (Table 1). However, the relative percentages of the ash components appear to be comparable (Table 3). As the nutritional value of milk is often evaluated in terms of the calcium and phosphorous that the milk makes available, it is important to note that the concentrations of these two minerals are similar in the cow and the goat. A significant variation between the milks of the two species should be noted in the chloride concentration, which appears to run higher in the goat. While this elevation may perhaps be physiological in origin, it seems likely that it may also stem from the influence of infectious mastitis which causes the salt (sodium chloride) concentration to increase which is endemic to many small goat herds. Significant amounts of potassium, sodium and magnesium are also reported in caprine milk, their concentrations paralleling those found in bovine samples. While few assays have been completed on the citrate in goat's milk, indications are that the citrate level is little different than that found in cow's milk. (Citrate is an important precursor to flavor components in cultured dairy foods.)</p> <p>It must be realized that the concentrations of the various elements of the ash fraction demonstrate a wide variation, not only in response to the various points in the lactation cycle, but on a daily basis as well. Accurate evaluation entails the averaging of values obtained for a single animal over an extended time or using an average determined from samples taken from several different animals in the same herd on the same day.</p> <p>Trace mineral analysis of both goat's milk and cow's milk are very similar in profile, only slight differences existing in the concentrations recorded for cobalt and molybdenum, differences associated with vitamin B, and xanthine oxidase levels respectively. The association of both cow's milk and goat's milk with infantile anemia appears to stem from low levels of iron and copper in these fluids, and the condition is easily reversed by the addition of those trace minerals to the diet.</p> <h4>ENZYMES</h4> <p>The enzymes of the milk of the goat are similar to those of the cow, although some specific differences have been described. Of primary interest, it has been shown that the level of alkaline phosphatase is slightly lower than that found in work with dairy cattle, but the enzyme demonstrates the same degree of heat susceptibility and therefore serves equally well as a pasteurization marker. Peroxidase activity in the milk of both species is the same in all respects, while the xanthine oxidase level is lower in the milk of the goat. Higher levels of activity are observed for both ribonuclease and lysozyme.</p> <h4>VITAMINS</h4> <p>The vitamin contentof goat's milk has been the subject of considerable study. Goat's milk differs from cow's milk in its much lower content of B12. (Table 4).</p> <p>The meaning of this difference is not entirely clear. Differences in B6 are uncertain when the recent USDA data are examined. Despite the fact that the concentrations of B6 and B12 are equal or exceed those concentrations found in human milk, anemia developed by infants and experimental animals is frequently attributed to deficiencies of these vitamins. However, the fact that the addition of copper and iron to the diet acts to eliminate the anemic condition removes much of the suspicion with which these levels are regarded. It has also been suggested that such an anemia could result from low levels of folic acid; however, the concentration of this vitamin does not differ significantly from that found in cow's milk.</p> <p>It is remarkable that caprine milk derives its vitamin A potency entirely from the vitamin itself and entirely lacks the precursor carotenoid pigments characteristic of bovine milk, which also causes goat's milk and milkfat to be much whiter in color than the milk of the cow.</p> <p>TABLE 4. Average vitamin content of goat, cow and human milk.</p> <div> <table><tbody><tr><td>Vitamin</td> <td>Cow</td> <td>Goat</td> <td>Human</td> </tr><tr><td>Vitamin A(1)(2)</td> <td>1560.0 (1380)</td> <td>2074.0 (1850)</td> <td>1898.0 (2410)</td> </tr><tr><td>Vitamin D</td> <td>33</td> <td>23.7</td> <td>22.0</td> </tr><tr><td>Thiamine</td> <td>0.44 ( .38)</td> <td>0.40 ( .48)</td> <td>0.16 (0.14)</td> </tr><tr><td>Riboflavin</td> <td>1.75 (1.61)</td> <td>1.84 (1.38)</td> <td>0.36 ( .36)</td> </tr><tr><td>Nicotinic Acid</td> <td>0.94 ( .84)</td> <td>1.87 (2.7)</td> <td>1.47 (1.77)</td> </tr><tr><td>Vitamin B 6</td> <td>0.64 ( .42)</td> <td>0.07 ( .46)</td> <td>0.10 ( .11)</td> </tr><tr><td>Pantotheine</td> <td>3.46 (3.13)</td> <td>3.44 (3.1)</td> <td>1.84 (2.23)</td> </tr><tr><td>Biotin</td> <td>0.031</td> <td>0.039</td> <td>0.008</td> </tr><tr><td>Folic Acid</td> <td>0.0028 ( 0.005)</td> <td>0.0024 (0.001)</td> <td>0.0020 (0.005)</td> </tr><tr><td>Vitamin B 12</td> <td>0.0043 (.0036)</td> <td>0.0006 (.00065)</td> <td>0.0003 (,.00045)</td> </tr><tr><td>Ascorbic Acid</td> <td>21.1 (14.7)</td> <td>15.0(13,0)</td> <td>43.0 (50)</td> </tr><tr><td>Choline</td> <td>121.0</td> <td>150.0</td> <td>90.0</td> </tr><tr><td>Inositol</td> <td>110.0</td> <td>210.0</td> <td>330.0</td> </tr></tbody></table> (1) Vitamin A expressed in International Units/liter; all others as mg/liter. (2) Numbers in ( ) are from the USDA Handbook 8-1 (1976).</div> <h4>MILK PRODUCTION</h4> <p>Seasonal variations characterize the concentrations of several of the constituents of goat's milk in a manner analogous to that observed in dairy cattle. Such variations include fluctuations in the amounts of fat, SNF, and minerals (particularly calcium and phosphorous) and follow a pattern in which concentrations are highest in the colostrum and decline to minima in the third or fourth month of lactation and slowly increase therafter. As freshening among goats in temperature zones typically occurs in the winter or early spring, the minima are associated with summer milk production. While the same phenomenon is observed in bovine milk production, the magnitude of the fluctuation in that species does not appear to be as great. In addition to these seasonal variations, the milk of goats is found to have significant daily variation associated with almost every component. These daily fluctuations become especially pronounced after the fourth month of lactation when minimum concentrations have been passed.</p> <p>A factor of prime importance in milk production is the type and adequacy of the feed that goats use. One of the attractions of goats is that they can be maintained on pasture that would be marginal or inaccessible to other dairy animals, but such pastures are seldom sources of optimum diets for any animal and one might expect the quality of the milk to suffer. Surprisingly, the nutritive value of the goat's milk remains constant over a wide range of feeding conditions and similar concentrations for nutrients should be expected from most feeds. A diet of low quality does not assert itself, however, in causing a decrease in the amount of milk produced. The major controlling element in the diet in this event is the energy content of the feed.</p> <h4>GOAT'S MILK PRODUCTS</h4> <p>Goat's milk lends itself to use in the same types of products that are considered for cow's milk, and perhaps surpasses the cow's milk in some categories. Major amounts of goat's milk are processed annually into dried milk, evaporated milk, cheese and yogurt as well as being sold as bottled whole milk. In 1965, 1,300,000 gallons were used in the production of evaporated and canned products. The use of goat's milk in the production of cheese has become very widespread in France. This use is largely based on the capacity of goat milk curd to be frozen and produce a product not only equal but often considered better in flavor than one in which freezing did not take place. This process is normally accomplished without using salt and the curd can be held for up to six months at 5°F.</p> <p>A major difficulty that must be faced by many small dairymen, and especially common with goat herds, is meeting government standards of sanitation for a commercial product. Many small operators have been forced out of the business because of the expense and time commitment involved in satisfying health standards, and now raise goats only for an avocation or for noncommercial distribution of their products.</p> <h4>GOATS IN THE FUTURE</h4> <p>As can be seen from the foregoing analysis goat dairying is an enterprise that is capable of producing a product that rivals the more customary fluid, cow's milk, in most respects, and yet is far less intense in its energy and land use requirements. These characteristics make it an attractive avenue for many individuals who would like to become involved with dairying, but face any of a number of restrictions. A major difficulty faced by the industry has been the lack of a definite compositional profile for goat's milk, without which it has been difficult to compare the milk with that of the cow and thus demonstrate its nutritive value. What information that has been available has often complicated this problem because of the wide range of reported values. The Dairy Herd Improvement Program which is particularly active in California, is making large studies in eliminating this problem by delineating procedures for participants in the program. It is hoped that the information gathered in this program will not only provide information on the nutritional values typical in goat herds in the Western United States, but will also create more rigid controls on the various breeds of goats and clarify differences among these breeds.</p> <hr /><div>The assistance of R. Rodden in preparing this literature review is acknowledged. Dairy Goat Composition Source: John C. Bruhn, FST, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616-8598</div> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 18:15:05 +0000 Anonymous 481 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu General Characteristics of Goat Cheese https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/general-characteristics-goat-cheese <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">General Characteristics of Goat Cheese</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Making cheese from goat&#039;s milk is nothing new. The news is in the expanded selection of goat cheeses in well-stocked supermarkets as well as cheese shops and health food stores. But with this increased availability comes a problem: how to choose the kind of cheese with the characteristics you want. To add to the confusion, the industry has no set rules for labeling so the name of a cheese may or may not be helpful. The majority of goat cheeses come from France and are called chËvres; chËvre means goat, but in everyday usage it means goat cheese, too. The popularity of the French cheeses has stimulated domestic production; most local cheesemakers also call their products chËvres. These, coupled with imports from Italy and Norway, present many choices. The distinctive, tart, earthy flavor has wonderful subtle (and some not so subtle) variations. Regardless of how they are made, chËvres have a unique tang and aroma right from the start, growing robust and bold in these rapid-aging cheeses. The flavor comes partly from the fatty acids in goat&#039;s milk that differ from cow&#039;s milk; feed also affects the flavor. Both milks have similar fat content that varies by breed. Principal milk production of goats (unlike cows) is seasonal - mid-March through October, with the greatest flow in the warm months. Few cheeses are aged more than four months, and most do not freeze without loss of quality. (This is why you see more cheeses in the summer.) In an attempt to even out production, the French are experimenting with cheese made from frozen goat milk curd; in the West, artificial light is being tested to increase milk production in the winter. Goat cheeses can be classified by standard cheese nomenclature as unripened (fresh) or ripened; the texture of each is defined as soft, semisoft, firm, or hard (indicating moisture content). This may seem misleading. Unripened cheeses can vary in moisture content: some are spoonable, but most you cut with a knife and these can be aged. Ripened cheeses have a culture introduced that gives them their special taste and texture. Another prime reason for confusion is the disparity in names. With one manufacturer, a name may be used as a type, with another as a brand. Or one kind of cheese made by several different makers may have several different names. Most cheeses can be distinguished by age, density (moisture content), size, shape, and coatings. Young cheeses tend to be much whiter, while ripened cheeses develop a cream color. Generally, cheeses with less moisture have a more piquant flavor and stronger aroma. The larger and denser the cheese, the more slowly it dries as it ages, and the more complexities of flavor develop. Thus a small log will taste different from a large log made in the same way. Also the same cheese formed as a cake or a pyramid will have a different flavor. Ash, herbs, and carotene contribute flavor and color and may inhibit bacterial activity on the surface. SOFT, UNRIPENED GOAT CHEESES They represent the bulk of production by domestic cheesemakers. They are ready to sell and eat when they&#039;re anywhere from a few days to two weeks old. The most fragile is the soft, spoonable fromage blanc. Others last longer because of lower moisture content. Imported fresh cheeses are usually shipped by air; if vacuum-packed in plastic, they will keep unopened for several months. Unripened cheeses have a tang (some much more so than others) and usually a moist, fresh curd texture like ricotta cheese. A light, fresh to pronounced goat aroma is appropriate, but if the cheese smells sour (like a moldy wet rag), not tart, it will taste bitter and unpleasant. SOFT, RIPENED CHEESES There are nine examples of soft-ripened goat cheeses. These cheeses usually have a velvety-looking white surface mold (from Penicillium candidium) like cow&#039;s milk Camembert or Brie. ChËvrita, Camembert, and chËvrefeuille will ripen like regular Camembert or Brie; they are ready to eat if they give readily when pressed and the center is creamy. The exterior white mold (or flower) is edible. The others - pyramid and bšcheron - don&#039;t get as soft and may look crumbly but will taste very smooth. As the cheese ages, the white mold turns darker and brownish; you can trim it off, if desired. Crottin is an unripened cheese. It can be eaten soft or allowed to dry until very hard, then crumbled to use. Soft-ripened goat cheeses have a more complex flavor and aroma than unripened cheeses. And while there should be no soured smell, to a chËvre fancier a good whiff of ammonia promises a powerful taste experience. With the larger cheeses, ask for a taste at the market to be sure the cheese is what you want. SEMISOFT OR FIRM, RIPENED Two cheeses from Washington - Swiss style and Cascadian, which are similar and two from California - jack and Cheddar styles - are comparable in texture to their nongoat counterparts and are relatively long lasting. French chËvrotin and Èterlou are also like jack cheese but are not widely available. All are usually aged three to four months before distribution. FIRM, UNRIPENED GOAT CHEESES Most familiar in foil-wrapped rectangles, gjet–st is caramel color, with a very sweet, slightly tangy flavor and a firm, buttery consistency. The Norwegian import is made from goat&#039;s milk or a mixture of whey from goat&#039;s milk and cow&#039;s milk. A similar brown cheese is made in Washington; both have long storage life. HARD, UNRIPENED OR RIPENED These cheeses are firm textured and similar to GruyËre (or harder). The milk may or may not be cooked; the curds are pressed. Aging matures and dries them. Few are available. The cheese from Washington is ripened. Unripened chËvre sec is dry enough for grating and is much like Romano cheese. Crottin, ripened or unripened, can be soft or hard. MISCELLANEOUS CHEESES Examples of further variations of goat cheeses include an imported Italian ricotta made from whey. It looks like regular ricotta and is as perishable (it should smell fresh), but with a mild tang. Various goat cheeses packed in olive oil and herbs are intended to eat on bread; you can make your own. The oil extends the life of the cheese, but be sure the acidity of the cheese is low enough to prevent growth a food-poisoning bacteria capable of growth under the anaerobic conditions in the jar. Mild, tiny mini-chËvres are unripened cheeses, often coated with flavoring, made of equal parts goat&#039;s and cow&#039;s milk. BUYING AND STORING Goat cheeses are about 15 percent more expensive than comparable cheeses made from cow&#039;s milk. When buying cheeses that are cut by weight, you can ask for a taste, but with the smaller, single cheeses you must use your nose to judge quality. In general, store goat cheeses the same way you would similar cheeses. Refrigerate the very perishable fresh and soft-ripened ones wrapped loosely in waxed paper. (You can put them in a larger container or refrigerator compartment so they won&#039;t pick up other odors or share their own.) SERVING Serve goat cheeses as you would the same type of cow&#039;s milk cheese; most taste best at room temperature. GOAT CHEESE INVASION Source: Sunset 1983 "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Making cheese from goat&#039;s milk is nothing new. The news is in the expanded selection of goat cheeses in well-stocked supermarkets as well as cheese shops and health food stores. But with this increased availability comes a problem: how to choose the kind of cheese with the characteristics you want. To add to the confusion, the industry has no set rules for labeling so the name of a cheese may or may not be helpful." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Making cheese from goat's milk is nothing new. The news is in the expanded selection of goat cheeses in well-stocked supermarkets as well as cheese shops and health food stores. But with this increased availability comes a problem: how to choose the kind of cheese with the characteristics you want. To add to the confusion, the industry has no set rules for labeling so the name of a cheese may or may not be helpful.</p> <p>The majority of goat cheeses come from France and are called chËvres; chËvre means goat, but in everyday usage it means goat cheese, too. The popularity of the French cheeses has stimulated domestic production; most local cheesemakers also call their products chËvres. These, coupled with imports from Italy and Norway, present many choices.</p> <p>The distinctive, tart, earthy flavor has wonderful subtle (and some not so subtle) variations. Regardless of how they are made, chËvres have a unique tang and aroma right from the start, growing robust and bold in these rapid-aging cheeses. The flavor comes partly from the fatty acids in goat's milk that differ from cow's milk; feed also affects the flavor. Both milks have similar fat content that varies by breed.</p> <p>Principal milk production of goats (unlike cows) is seasonal - mid-March through October, with the greatest flow in the warm months. Few cheeses are aged more than four months, and most do not freeze without loss of quality. (This is why you see more cheeses in the summer.) In an attempt to even out production, the French are experimenting with cheese made from frozen goat milk curd; in the West, artificial light is being tested to increase milk production in the winter.</p> <p>Goat cheeses can be classified by standard cheese nomenclature as unripened (fresh) or ripened; the texture of each is defined as soft, semisoft, firm, or hard (indicating moisture content).</p> <p>This may seem misleading. Unripened cheeses can vary in moisture content: some are spoonable, but most you cut with a knife and these can be aged. Ripened cheeses have a culture introduced that gives them their special taste and texture. Another prime reason for confusion is the disparity in names. With one manufacturer, a name may be used as a type, with another as a brand. Or one kind of cheese made by several different makers may have several different names. Most cheeses can be distinguished by age, density (moisture content), size, shape, and coatings. Young cheeses tend to be much whiter, while ripened cheeses develop a cream color.</p> <p>Generally, cheeses with less moisture have a more piquant flavor and stronger aroma. The larger and denser the cheese, the more slowly it dries as it ages, and the more complexities of flavor develop. Thus a small log will taste different from a large log made in the same way. Also the same cheese formed as a cake or a pyramid will have a different flavor. Ash, herbs, and carotene contribute flavor and color and may inhibit bacterial activity on the surface.</p> <h4>SOFT, UNRIPENED GOAT CHEESES</h4> <p>They represent the bulk of production by domestic cheesemakers. They are ready to sell and eat when they're anywhere from a few days to two weeks old. The most fragile is the soft, spoonable fromage blanc. Others last longer because of lower moisture content. Imported fresh cheeses are usually shipped by air; if vacuum-packed in plastic, they will keep unopened for several months.</p> <p>Unripened cheeses have a tang (some much more so than others) and usually a moist, fresh curd texture like ricotta cheese. A light, fresh to pronounced goat aroma is appropriate, but if the cheese smells sour (like a moldy wet rag), not tart, it will taste bitter and unpleasant.</p> <h4>SOFT, RIPENED CHEESES</h4> <p>There are nine examples of soft-ripened goat cheeses. These cheeses usually have a velvety-looking white surface mold (from Penicillium candidium) like cow's milk Camembert or Brie. ChËvrita, Camembert, and chËvrefeuille will ripen like regular Camembert or Brie; they are ready to eat if they give readily when pressed and the center is creamy. The exterior white mold (or flower) is edible. The others - pyramid and bšcheron - don't get as soft and may look crumbly but will taste very smooth. As the cheese ages, the white mold turns darker and brownish; you can trim it off, if desired.</p> <p>Crottin is an unripened cheese. It can be eaten soft or allowed to dry until very hard, then crumbled to use. Soft-ripened goat cheeses have a more complex flavor and aroma than unripened cheeses. And while there should be no soured smell, to a chËvre fancier a good whiff of ammonia promises a powerful taste experience. With the larger cheeses, ask for a taste at the market to be sure the cheese is what you want.</p> <h4>SEMISOFT OR FIRM, RIPENED</h4> <p>Two cheeses from Washington - Swiss style and Cascadian, which are similar and two from California - jack and Cheddar styles - are comparable in texture to their nongoat counterparts and are relatively long lasting. French chËvrotin and Èterlou are also like jack cheese but are not widely available. All are usually aged three to four months before distribution.</p> <h4>FIRM, UNRIPENED GOAT CHEESES</h4> <p>Most familiar in foil-wrapped rectangles, gjet–st is caramel color, with a very sweet, slightly tangy flavor and a firm, buttery consistency. The Norwegian import is made from goat's milk or a mixture of whey from goat's milk and cow's milk. A similar brown cheese is made in Washington; both have long storage life.</p> <h4>HARD, UNRIPENED OR RIPENED</h4> <p>These cheeses are firm textured and similar to GruyËre (or harder). The milk may or may not be cooked; the curds are pressed. Aging matures and dries them. Few are available. The cheese from Washington is ripened. Unripened chËvre sec is dry enough for grating and is much like Romano cheese. Crottin, ripened or unripened, can be soft or hard.</p> <h4>MISCELLANEOUS CHEESES</h4> <p>Examples of further variations of goat cheeses include an imported Italian ricotta made from whey. It looks like regular ricotta and is as perishable (it should smell fresh), but with a mild tang.</p> <p>Various goat cheeses packed in olive oil and herbs are intended to eat on bread; you can make your own. The oil extends the life of the cheese, but be sure the acidity of the cheese is low enough to prevent growth a food-poisoning bacteria capable of growth under the anaerobic conditions in the jar. Mild, tiny mini-chËvres are unripened cheeses, often coated with flavoring, made of equal parts goat's and cow's milk.</p> <h4>BUYING AND STORING</h4> <p>Goat cheeses are about 15 percent more expensive than comparable cheeses made from cow's milk. When buying cheeses that are cut by weight, you can ask for a taste, but with the smaller, single cheeses you must use your nose to judge quality.</p> <p>In general, store goat cheeses the same way you would similar cheeses. Refrigerate the very perishable fresh and soft-ripened ones wrapped loosely in waxed paper. (You can put them in a larger container or refrigerator compartment so they won't pick up other odors or share their own.)</p> <h4>SERVING</h4> <p>Serve goat cheeses as you would the same type of cow's milk cheese; most taste best at room temperature.</p> <hr /><div>GOAT CHEESE INVASION<br /> Source: Sunset 1983</div> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 18:13:44 +0000 Anonymous 476 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Goat Cheeses https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/goat-cheeses <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Goat Cheeses</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Cheese is perhaps the first food to be manufactured that is currently consumed by humans. The oldest written records have references to cheese as a food. Today, cheese is available in an almost innumerable variety of kinds, flavors and consistencies. Agriculture Handbook No. 54, Cheese Varieties and Descriptions, published by USDA (out-of-print) describes over 400 varieties and indexes over 800 names. Why? The answer is that it is made by many different races of people under widely varying conditions all over the face of the earth. And the people who eat it like the various flavors and consistencies produced. For a better understanding of the art and sciences of cheese-making one needs to know what kind of product it is and how the manufacturing procedures developed over the years. Even though the varieties differ quite widely in composition, cheese can be characterized as a product made from milk in which the protein is coagulated and concentrated. The collection of protein is accompanied by recovery of most of the fat in the milk by its entrapment in the curd. Other constituents in milk remain in the curd or are removed with the whey depending on their solubility (fat soluble vitamins and minerals associated with protein are retained in the curd; water soluble vitamins and minerals are passed off in the whey). For centuries, cheese making has been a farm or home industry with the individual producer using surplus milk to make small batches of cheese. Goat cheese making in the US still follows this general practice. It was, and still is to a considerable degree, an art; since the middle of the 19th century however, more and more cheese has been made in specially equipped factories with greater application of science in the manufacturing procedure. Milk from all species has been used for cheese making. Because more attention has been given to increasing the productivity of the bovine species, a large proportion of commercial cheese is now made from cow milk; the milk from the buffalo, zebu, sheep and goat is also used extensively. There are rather significant differences in the proportions of major components (fat, protein, lactose and ash) in the milk from these various species and there are also important differences in the chemical nature of each of these components. Thus, it is to be expected that a given manufacturing procedure will produce cheese differing in flavor and consistency when made from the milk of different species. The milk may even respond to the manufacturing procedure in a different way. Much of this difference can be minimized or eliminated by adjusting or standardizing the composition of the milk from the various species to a common level before using it in cheese making. More about that later. Just as the nature of the milk from which it is made causes variations in the characteristics of the cheese, so can modifications of the manufacturing procedure. In spite of the development of the cheese making art over centuries by many individual practitioners, certain basic processes are common to all. Even though many modifications of each may be utilized, the four basic steps in cheese making are: 1. Preparation of the cheese milk 2. Coagulation of the protein 3. Freeing coagulated protein (curd) from whey and collecting it into a defined mass. 4. Aging under controlled conditions to produce desired flavor and consistency. In this discussion of goat cheese making, each step will be treated in some detail. In most of the material, there will be no special methodology required for making cheese from goat milk, when compared with the use of milk from other species; when special techniques are required, they will be discussed at length. For more detailed information on cheese making procedures than can be given here, refer to the book &#039;&#039;Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods&#039;&#039; by Frank V. Kosikowski, The current edition is out of print, but the new one is expected to be out in 1997. PREPARATION OF CHEESE MILK The cheese maker must have high quality milk to make high quality cheese. The production of high quality milk has been discussed before. In summary, milk selected for cheese making must be free of objectionable flavor, free of all foreign materials, including antibiotics, free of pathogenic organisms and contain relatively few nonpathogenic bacteria and somatic cells. Standardization Probably the most important for a commercial cheese manufacturer is preparing milk for cheese making is the standardization for composition, that is, adjusting the fat and protein content to the desired proportion. This is of extreme importance for two major reasons: 1) it is necessary to produce cheese that is legal in composition and 2) to provide uniformity in the cheese made. Agriculture Handbook No. 51, &#039;&#039;Federal and State Standards for the Composition of Milk Products,&#039;&#039; is the most comprehensive source of information on this subject. Those making cheese in the home for personal consumption obviously do not need to be greatly concerned about composition, but if cheese is to be sold in the market, it will have to meet some standard. So, be sure to check with your local regulatory officials before making cheese to sell. Making sellable cheese from goat milk will pose a problem in regarding composition. The problem arises from the fact that goat milk, collected from only a few does, is more variable in fat and protein content than is cow milk. Wide variation in those components results from having most of the milk producing animals at the same stage of lactation at any given time and because mid-lactation, when fat and protein are expected to be low, usually comes in mid-summer when climatic conditions favor production of low fat, low solids milk. Experience has shown that milk may vary from mid-summer and late fall; milk solids- not-fat may vary during the same time span. Cheese made from milk differing so widely in composition will vary in a similar manner. Also, the cheese maker may experience difficulty making cheese with the low fat, low solids milk. How can the goat cheese maker solve this problem? While any one making cheese for only personal consumption can just ignore the situation and follow personal desire, those making cheese for sale cannot. To make cheese that is uniform in composition, which is legal, to be offered for sale, two conditions must be met. Provisions must be made to test the milk (and the cheese if possible) for its fat and total solids content, and a source of concentrated goat cream and goat milk solids-not-fat must be available. The Babcock Test is the traditional analytical tool most widely used to determine fat content of milk and cheese. Although the test is quite simple and can be performed wherever cheese is made, it does require special equipment and supplies that are somewhat expensive. Total solids content is determined by drying a weighed sample to constant weight in an oven at 212 F (100 C) and calculating the percentage of sample found in the moisture free residue. A very accurate scale must be used to weigh the residue. Sweet cream, if needed for standardization of cheese milk, can be obtained from the fluid milk. It probably will be necessary to have a centrifugal separator to produce the needed cream since gravity separation of cream in goat milk is slow and incomplete. Such standardization may be necessary to maintain the quality of cheese when the milk solids-not-fat content of the milk decreases to less than 8 percent. In the manufacture of any specific variety of cheese, it is important to determine the ratio of fat to protein (or milk solids-not-fat) needed to meet legal standards for that cheese, then standardize the cheese milk to that ratio. Bacterial Quality Most cheese making procedures involve controlled growth/activity of bacteria and/or enzymes in either the coagulation stage, the aging stage, or both. The necessary control may not be possible unless the cheese milk is low in bacteria counts achieved by pasteurization. Since it is possible that the milk may contain pathogenic microorganisms, it is necessary (legally required if the cheese is to be sold) that all cheese consumed when &quot;fresh&quot; (aged less than 60 days) be made from pasteurized milk. Some very competent cheesemakers who can be highly selective in the milk used for cheese, use unpasteurized milk for making those varieties of cheese that must undergo prolonged aging --pathogenic organisms are supposedly destroyed in the aging process, but these is still some question if the &quot;kill&quot; is sufficient and complete for some of the new pathogens encountered today. Because heating milk causes some physical changes in its fat and protein components, pasteurization usually involves the least heat treatment permitted. In the cheese factory equipped with a continuous HTST pasteurizer, treatment at 161 F (71.6C) for 16 seconds is usual; in the home or small factory, pasteurization is best accomplished with a treatment of 145 F (62.7C) for 30 minutes. If volume justifies the cost, this may be done in a pasteurizer vat, but can be accomplished easily by placing the milk containing vessel (preferably a stainless steel, flat bottomed, rectangularity shaped container not exceeding 12 inches in height) in a shallow pan containing 1-2 inches of water over the heating unit. An accurate thermometer should be used. Heating and holding should be followed immediately by cooling the cheese milk to the setting temperature (the best temperature for obtaining coagulation). For most cheese varieties, utilizing the production of lactic acid by rapidly multiplying bacteria to cause or aid in protein coagulation, the setting temperature should be in the range of 72-90 F (22-32 C). COAGULATION OF THE PROTEIN Setting the Cheese This term is associated with practice and procedures followed in coagulating the milk protein. The three processes most often involved are: 1) culturing the cheese milk with substantial numbers of desirable bacteria (predominantly lactic acid forming) and controlling incubation conditions, the milk protein is coagulated when sufficient lactic acid is produced - giving a titratable acidity (TA) of 0.50 - 0.55, pH of 4.6 - 4.9; (2) culturing the cheese milk with protease enzyme (rennet), incubating at favorable temperature until protein is coagulated - with very little change in TA or pH; the third procedure is a combination of one and two. In a modification of the first procedure, no bacterial culture is used; instead of producing protein coagulation by the more time consuming lactic acid formation by bacterial growth, the acid may be added directly to the milk to produce almost instantaneous coagulation. Each of the preceding setting procedures is recommended for the manufacture of some specific variety of cheese. Most of the cheese varieties that are consumed fresh are set by an acid coagulation process; cheese varieties consumed after aging are generally made by the enzyme setting process. Specific examples of the application of these methods of setting follow. Cottage and pot cheese made from skim milk, Neufchatel made from whole milk, or cream cheese made from cream. If only bacterial culturing is used, the setting temperature suggested is 72-80 F (22-27 C) and 8 to 16 hours is generally required to form the coagulated curd. If a combination of bacterial culturing and enzyme coagulation is used, the range in setting temperature should be 80-90F; the bacterial culture should be added and incubated for about an hour then the enzyme added. Coagulation should be completed in 4-6 hours. Several varieties of cheese may also be made by adding an acid directly to the milk to cause almost instantaneous coagulation. Acid materials that can be used include hydrochloric acid, lactic acid (purchased as a pure concentrate or in the form of very sour whey from cultured cheese making), vinegar (acetic acid), or citrus fruit (lemon, lime) juice. If these acidulates are added to warm milk, the coagulated protein will tend to be granular or grainy and is difficult to process into a smooth, creamy cheese. If the acidulate is added to very cold milk that is then slowly warmed without stirring to setting temperature, a smoother, less grainy coagulum will usually result. Cheeses that are aged 60 days or more, such as Cheddar, Brick, mold-ripened cheeses and most Italian varieties, are generally set by the enzyme-only method, or by adding a very limited amount of bacterial culture followed by immediate addition of the enzyme material. All of these varieties of cheese, normally made in the US from cow milk, can be made from goat milk. CURD RECOVERY AND TREATMENT Determining just the proper time to terminate the incubation phase and begin the curd recovery phase of cheese making is probably the most difficult decision required in cheese making. While there is an optimum for each cheese variety, the desired qualities or characteristics are quite similar for all. For acid coagulated cheese, tests for titratable acidity or pH can be used to determine when coagulation has occurred. For enzyme coagulated cheese, or if the acid degree tests (TA or pH) cannot be made, other less objective tests can be made. Many experienced cheesemakers use the following test. Insert the thermometer into the coagulated milk at a 45 angle then lift the tip up through the curd and observe the way the coagulum breaks. The hole left when the thermometer is removed should fill with clear whey in a short time. It will break cleanly in a fairly straight line when the proper firmness has developed - experience is needed to determine the proper &#039;&#039;curd break&#039;&#039; for each cheese variety. When the coagulum has attained the proper characteristics it is ready to be cut. This may be done at home with a long thin spatula or knife; commercial cheesemakers will use metal frames, sized and shaped to fit their cheese vat, having parallel fine wires spaced at regular intervals. Pairs of frames are generally used with one having the wires attached in a vertical pattern and the other in a horizontal pattern. By passing the frame with the vertical wires through the curd in the container first lengthwise then crosswise, and following that with the frame having the horizontal wires, the curd is cut into uniformly sized cubes. The size of the cubes is determined by the spacing of the wires. Uniformity in particle size is conducive to regular expulsion of whey and uniformity of cheese. Large curd particles tend to retain more moisture (whey) than small particles. The cut curd is allowed to remain undisturbed for a short time to undergo some firming due to whey expulsion. Up to this stage, the manufacture of all cheese has been quite similar but from this point on the process is different and specific for each variety. Space does not permit a detailed description of each; a number of books, bulletins and other publications are available describing specific manufacturing procedures in detail. Those who wish to enter into the business of making and selling cheese should refer to such publications as well as confer with the proper regulatory officials. Others who desire to make cheese for personal consumption may wish to recover the coagulated protein by any simple method. Most such methods involve the application of mild heat (cooking) to help firm the curd particles and expedite whey expulsion. Heating may vary from only a few degrees above setting temperature to as high as 130 F with times varying from a few minutes to one hour or longer. Heating should be accompanied by mild stirring - sufficient to prevent the curd particles from remaining on the bottom or fusing. When the curd particles have reached the desired firmness and whey retention, the excess whey should be removed and the curd drained. The simplest way to accomplish this is to dip, siphon or drain off (through a valve in the cheese making vessel) the free whey using some form of strainer to retain the curd particles as the liquid whey flows. In some cheese making procedures, when cooking is minimal, very little free whey can be removed, so that most of the coagulum is transferred to the curd collecting device. In all cheese making processes, final expulsion of whey and curd collection is accomplished by some special technique. These may vary from a cloth filter bag into which the high moisture curd may be ladled, to lined molds of many sizes and shapes, to allowing the curd particles to settle to the bottom of the cheese making vessel where further drainage and matting together occurs. In this process, weight or pressure may be applied to fuse the curds into a solid mass and to reduce further the moisture retained in the curd. Variations from simple cooking, draining, and curd collecting can be used in this stage of cheese manufacture. Salt is frequently added to the curd during the final stages of draining, or the newly formed cheese block is floated in a salt brine. The addition of salt improves the flavor, texture, and keeping quality of the cheese. Cheese frequently contains one or more percentage salt. In several procedures, after the free whey is removed, the curd is held at incubation temperature for 1/2 to 1-1/2 hours with frequent stirring, or compact in masses matted together, to promote bacterial and enzyme activity and speed up the aging process. In some instances, bacterial or enzyme concentrates may be added during this stage to produce more rapid and more controlled flavor and texture development during aging. At the completion of this stage of processing, the whey-free curd is either ready for consumption, or has been formed into regularly shaped masses suitable for storing and aging. AGING While each of the foregoing processes makes some contribution to the particular flavor, body and texture qualities of each variety of cheese, the manner and time of aging probably influences those qualities more than all other phases of manufacture. Those cheeses eaten while fresh obviously owe their flavor, body and texture qualities to the manner in which manufactured -including the incorporation of flavor inducing ingredients. Cottage cheese may be consumed as just the curd, but usually is found to be more palatable if a milk or cream dressing is added. Many variations of cottage cheese can be derived by the addition of fruit, vegetables, nuts and other condiments. Baker&#039;s or pot cheese is similar to cottage but is usually softer and of higher moisture content and is generally used without any added flavoring material as an ingredient in other foods such as cheesecake. Neufchatel and cream cheese, being higher in fat content, are richer tasting than cottage or Baker&#039;s, but can be flavored in the same way and are practically interchangeable as to usage. Those varieties of cheese that are consumed after 60 or more days of aging present special problems. The purpose of aging is to develop specific flavor, body and texture qualities; these result from the growth and activity of microorganisms and enzymes. For such development to take place, the cheese must be maintained under conditions favorable to the growth and activity desired. These aging conditions can also result in objectionable changes if the original milk was contaminated with undesirable microorganisms, or if improper manufacturing procedures were used. Aging large quantities of cheese requires special physical facilities. Sufficient space must be provided to contain more than the amount of cheese produced in a time span equal to the expected age of the cheese when ready to consume. Such space must be under strict control as to temperature and humidity. If the cheese is to be sold when 90 days old, sufficient cubic footage of space, climate controlled with shelving, for storage of the amount of cheese that is to be manufactured in 90 days must be provided. Obviously, the space will have to be reused several times annually if cheese production is continuous. There are numerous variations in the way in which the compressed masses of cheese curd may be treated in preparation for aging. In aging cheese, those microorganisms and enzymes that were active in coagulating the protein are retained in the cheese and contribute to physical and chemical changes throughout the aging. Whether they predominate depends on what other ripening agents (bacteria, yeast, molds and/or enzymes) are added during curd collection and pressing or in the early stages of aging. Most cheese contains added salt; it may be incorporated in any phase of manufacture (several varieties of cheese are made from milk containing high levels of added salt) by adding to the curd during pressing, by soaking the formed masses of curd in brine, or by surface application of dry salt. Numerous varieties of cheese owe their characteristic flavor, body and texture qualities to the predominating activity of a single kind of agent throughout the aging period (several examples are Blue cheese) inoculated early in the aging process with Penicillium roquefortii and Brick or Limburger that gain their distinctive taste and aromas from the bacteria Brevibacterium linens. Directions for Making Goat Cheese in the Home Up to this point this discussion has dealt with cheese making procedures in general and their application to goat cheese. It warrants reiteration that most varieties of cheese can be made from goat milk - some adjustment of milk composition might be necessary, and aged cheeses made from goat milk would not be identical to those made from cow milk with flavor, body and texture. It is the purpose of this final section to give specific directions for making several varieties of cheese from goat milk only for home consumption with equipment and supplies usually found in the home. It is hardly worth the time to make cheese unless at least one gallon of milk is available. All cheeses should be made form pasteurized milk, unless one is aging the cheese for more than 60 days. However, aging may not always eliminate the pathogenic bacteria, so it is highly recommended to use pasteurized milk for aged cheese as well. Cottage or Baker&#039;s Cheese Collect surplus milk, selecting that which is free of objectionable odors; cool to and hold at 40F until used. Skim off cream; use the skim or low fat milk for cheese and the cream as cheese dressing. Better quality cheese can be made from pasteurized milk; collect all the milk to be processed in a flat bottomed straight sided vessel (rectangular shape is best) and heat to just 145F using low heat or by placing vessel in a slightly larger one containing water. Try not to exceed 145 F by too much; hold at that temperature 30 minutes, then cool at 72-80 F by circulating cold water around milk containing vessel. Use a dairy thermometer. Inoculate cheese milk with desirable lactic acid fermenting bacterial culture. Initial source may be purchased commercial buttermilk, sour whey saved from previous cheese making (if not more than 4 days old and held at 40 F) may be used if it has clean acid taste and no gas formation has occurred. Add about 5 Inoculum (6-1/2 to 7 oz. to 1 gallon or 8 oz. to 10 lb. of milk), stir well, and set undisturbed where temperature will remain at 72-80F until firm curd is formed in 10-16 hours. If raw milk is used for making cheese that will be aged for more than 60 days, it must be of the best possible quality and as fresh as possible. Follow the procedure outlined previously; it will be best to buy a fresh source of inoculum for each batch of cheese. When the curd has attained the proper degree of firmness, as determined by the way it breaks when the thermometer is lifted through it, do the best possible to cut curd into uniform cubes not more than 1/2 inch in size, using a knife, spatula, or wire cutter. Allow the curd to remain undisturbed for a few minutes, then begin to warm it very slowly, with frequent but delicate stirring. Cooking temperature should not exceed 135 F and should continue till curd has desired firmness and freedom from whey. When the curd has the desired firmness, discontinue heating and stirring. Dip, siphon, or decant the excess whey from the top of the cheese making vessel. The curd should settle to the bottom of the container; if it floats, gas producing bacteria have been active and a new source of culture must be used for subsequent batch. When excess whey has been removed, replace it with cold water, wash curd, and remove wash water. Wash a second time with ice water to chill curd so it will keep its fresh flavor longer. Final drainage of the curd, using draining board or a cloth lined form with perforated sides and bottom, completes the manufacturing procedure. BAKER&#039;S CHEESE The procedure is like the cottage cheese process excepting that rennet is added to hasten coagulation (see discussion of Domiati cheese making for sources and usage of rennet in cheese setting). The cooking process will be greatly shortened, and the whey separation is accomplished by transferring the curd, together with the minimum whey necessary, to a coarse mesh bag. From 4 to 16 hours may be needed to drain completely the excess whey; this should be done at refrigeration temperature if possible. NEUFCHATEL AND CREAM CHEESE Both are made by the procedure described for cottage cheese, excepting that richer milk or cream is used as the starting material, and whey drainage must be done in a cloth bag as little free whey is separated. COTTAGE CHEESE When consumed, should have the curd as separate and distinct particles and is usually dressed with a milk or cream mixture containing salt and/or other condiments. All of these fresh cheeses may be served in a large variety of forms through the incorporation of chopped fruits, vegetables, nuts, olives, etc. Condiments should be added to give the desired flavor. All equipment used in making cheese should be washed especially carefully to remove all milk residues; all items should be sterilized by heat or chemical (chlorine such as bleach) application before using. DOMIATI CHEESE This is a variety of cheese made extensively in the area around the Mediterranean Sea. It can be eaten fresh or aged for 60-90 days before consumption. Goat milk is well suited for making this variety of cheese. Domiati cheese can be made from milk that is free of objectionable flavor, should be collected as previously described. Cool the milk to 105 F and to each gallon of milk add 8 ounces of salt. This must be stirred till completely dissolved. This cheese can be made from raw milk, but pasteurization by the method previously described is recommended. Coagulation of this cheese milk is accomplished by the addition of a protease enzyme (rennet). The enzyme may be purchased in liquid or tablet form from supply houses advertising in goat magazines, or locally from some drug stores, health food stores, or a cheese maker if available in area. If purchased in the original container, directions should be given for usage. Dilute and dissolve concentrate in water, add to cheese milk and stir for several minutes. Liquid rennet preparations are usually standardized to 1:10,000, that is 1 part rennet coagulates 10,000 parts of milk. If no directions are available, use 1 milliliter (mL) of rennet liquid diluted with 40 mL water, to each 20 lb. or 2-1/2 gallons of cheese milk. Rate of usage should be adjusted on subsequent batches to smallest amount needed to produce coagulation in no more than 30 minutes. Setting should be at 102-105 F. When enzyme is completely dispersed, allow cheese milk to remain undisturbed till firm curd is formed. Curd firmness should be measured by lifting thermometer upward through curd mass. When desired curd firmness is attained, cut the curd into as uniformly small cubes as possible. Allow a few minutes for whey separation--this may be enhanced by very slow heating and very gentle stirring. Within 10 to 20 minutes the clear, free whey should be separated; allow the curd to settle and remove and retain about 1/3 the volume of cheese milk set as clear salted whey. Additional free whey that can be removed can be discarded. Transfer curd and retained whey to previously prepared cloth lined molds. These may be columnar or rectangular in shape, made of stainless steel (or wood) having perforated sides and bottom; a cover which fits inside the mold body should be used. Molds should be 7 to 10 inches in height so that a drained, compacted curd block, 3-4 inches thick, is formed when draining and pressing is completed. Fill molds with fresh curd, fold cloth liner over the top, and allow whey drainage to continue. After curd is firm enough to permit it, weight or pressure should be applied to tops of molds. Pressing and drainage should continue for 10 to 18 hours until desired moisture content of cheese is attained. It probably will be necessary to release the pressure and rearrange cloth around cheese during the operation. When pressing is completed and cheese is formed into a compact block of desired moisture content, remove from molds, and if necessary cut into blocks 2 to 4 inches thick. Place these blocks in plastic containers for which tight fitting lids are available. Fill the cheese container with the salted whey retained from earlier separation. The cheese should be covered with an inch of whey, and the container should be so filled that when the lid is firmly attached, almost complete exclusion of air is accomplished. The cheese filled containers should be placed where a relatively constant temperature can be attained. The best curing temperature is 60 to 65 F; a desirable flavor, body and texture should develop in about 60 days at that temperature. Aging at higher or lower temperatures should shorten or lengthen aging times, and may encourage the development of undesirable flavors. FETA CHEESE Another variety made from goat milk - it is made in a manner very similar to Domiati excepting that no salt is added to the milk before coagulation and aging is accomplished in 14% salt brine after the cheese cubes have been salted by holding in 23% salt brine for 24 hours. Variations in flavor, body and texture qualities of goat cheese can be produced by following the setting and curd gathering procedures described, but modifying the aging process. Modifications might include adding enzymes or flavorings to the curd or applying enzyme, bacteria or mold cultures to the cheese surface as aging starts. SOURCES OF SUPPLIES New England Cheese making Supply Co. P.O. Box 85, Ashfield, MA 01330 American Supply House Box 1114, Columbia, MO 65201 Dairyland Food Laboratories, Inc. 620 Progress Ave., Waukesha, WI 53186 Marschall Dairy Ingredients Division 32 S. Proudfit St., Madison, WI 53701 Chr. Hansens Lab., Inc. 9015 W. Maple St., Milwaukee, WI 53214 Adapted from: M. Loewenstein J. F. Frank S. J. Speck; U. of Georgia, Athens "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Cheese is perhaps the first food to be manufactured that is currently consumed by humans. The oldest written records have references to cheese as a food. Today, cheese is available in an almost innumerable variety of kinds, flavors and consistencies. Agriculture Handbook No. 54, Cheese Varieties and Descriptions, published by USDA (out-of-print) describes over 400 varieties and indexes over 800 names. Why? The answer is that it is made by many different races of people under widely varying conditions all over the face of the earth." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Cheese is perhaps the first food to be manufactured that is currently consumed by humans. The oldest written records have references to cheese as a food. Today, cheese is available in an almost innumerable variety of kinds, flavors and consistencies. Agriculture Handbook No. 54, Cheese Varieties and Descriptions, published by USDA (out-of-print) describes over 400 varieties and indexes over 800 names. Why? The answer is that it is made by many different races of people under widely varying conditions all over the face of the earth. And the people who eat it like the various flavors and consistencies produced.</p> <p>For a better understanding of the art and sciences of cheese-making one needs to know what kind of product it is and how the manufacturing procedures developed over the years. Even though the varieties differ quite widely in composition, cheese can be characterized as a product made from milk in which the protein is coagulated and concentrated. The collection of protein is accompanied by recovery of most of the fat in the milk by its entrapment in the curd. Other constituents in milk remain in the curd or are removed with the whey depending on their solubility (fat soluble vitamins and minerals associated with protein are retained in the curd; water soluble vitamins and minerals are passed off in the whey).</p> <p>For centuries, cheese making has been a farm or home industry with the individual producer using surplus milk to make small batches of cheese. Goat cheese making in the US still follows this general practice. It was, and still is to a considerable degree, an art; since the middle of the 19th century however, more and more cheese has been made in specially equipped factories with greater application of science in the manufacturing procedure. Milk from all species has been used for cheese making. Because more attention has been given to increasing the productivity of the bovine species, a large proportion of commercial cheese is now made from cow milk; the milk from the buffalo, zebu, sheep and goat is also used extensively.</p> <p>There are rather significant differences in the proportions of major components (fat, protein, lactose and ash) in the milk from these various species and there are also important differences in the chemical nature of each of these components. Thus, it is to be expected that a given manufacturing procedure will produce cheese differing in flavor and consistency when made from the milk of different species. The milk may even respond to the manufacturing procedure in a different way. Much of this difference can be minimized or eliminated by adjusting or standardizing the composition of the milk from the various species to a common level before using it in cheese making. More about that later.</p> <p>Just as the nature of the milk from which it is made causes variations in the characteristics of the cheese, so can modifications of the manufacturing procedure. In spite of the development of the cheese making art over centuries by many individual practitioners, certain basic processes are common to all. Even though many modifications of each may be utilized, the four basic steps in cheese making are:</p> <p>1. Preparation of the cheese milk 2. Coagulation of the protein 3. Freeing coagulated protein (curd) from whey and collecting it into a defined mass. 4. Aging under controlled conditions to produce desired flavor and consistency.</p> <p>In this discussion of goat cheese making, each step will be treated in some detail. In most of the material, there will be no special methodology required for making cheese from goat milk, when compared with the use of milk from other species; when special techniques are required, they will be discussed at length. For more detailed information on cheese making procedures than can be given here, refer to the book ''Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods'' by Frank V. Kosikowski, The current edition is out of print, but the new one is expected to be out in 1997.</p> <h3>PREPARATION OF CHEESE MILK</h3> <p>The cheese maker must have high quality milk to make high quality cheese. The production of high quality milk has been discussed before. In summary, milk selected for cheese making must be free of objectionable flavor, free of all foreign materials, including antibiotics, free of pathogenic organisms and contain relatively few nonpathogenic bacteria and somatic cells.</p> <h4>Standardization</h4> <p>Probably the most important for a commercial cheese manufacturer is preparing milk for cheese making is the standardization for composition, that is, adjusting the fat and protein content to the desired proportion. This is of extreme importance for two major reasons: 1) it is necessary to produce cheese that is legal in composition and 2) to provide uniformity in the cheese made. Agriculture Handbook No. 51, ''Federal and State Standards for the Composition of Milk Products,'' is the most comprehensive source of information on this subject.</p> <p>Those making cheese in the home for personal consumption obviously do not need to be greatly concerned about composition, but if cheese is to be sold in the market, it will have to meet some standard. So, be sure to check with your local regulatory officials before making cheese to sell.</p> <p>Making sellable cheese from goat milk will pose a problem in regarding composition. The problem arises from the fact that goat milk, collected from only a few does, is more variable in fat and protein content than is cow milk. Wide variation in those components results from having most of the milk producing animals at the same stage of lactation at any given time and because mid-lactation, when fat and protein are expected to be low, usually comes in mid-summer when climatic conditions favor production of low fat, low solids milk. Experience has shown that milk may vary from mid-summer and late fall; milk solids- not-fat may vary during the same time span. Cheese made from milk differing so widely in composition will vary in a similar manner. Also, the cheese maker may experience difficulty making cheese with the low fat, low solids milk.</p> <p>How can the goat cheese maker solve this problem? While any one making cheese for only personal consumption can just ignore the situation and follow personal desire, those making cheese for sale cannot. To make cheese that is uniform in composition, which is legal, to be offered for sale, two conditions must be met. Provisions must be made to test the milk (and the cheese if possible) for its fat and total solids content, and a source of concentrated goat cream and goat milk solids-not-fat must be available. The Babcock Test is the traditional analytical tool most widely used to determine fat content of milk and cheese.</p> <p>Although the test is quite simple and can be performed wherever cheese is made, it does require special equipment and supplies that are somewhat expensive. Total solids content is determined by drying a weighed sample to constant weight in an oven at 212 F (100 C) and calculating the percentage of sample found in the moisture free residue. A very accurate scale must be used to weigh the residue. Sweet cream, if needed for standardization of cheese milk, can be obtained from the fluid milk. It probably will be necessary to have a centrifugal separator to produce the needed cream since gravity separation of cream in goat milk is slow and incomplete.</p> <p>Such standardization may be necessary to maintain the quality of cheese when the milk solids-not-fat content of the milk decreases to less than 8 percent. In the manufacture of any specific variety of cheese, it is important to determine the ratio of fat to protein (or milk solids-not-fat) needed to meet legal standards for that cheese, then standardize the cheese milk to that ratio.</p> <h4>Bacterial Quality</h4> <p>Most cheese making procedures involve controlled growth/activity of bacteria and/or enzymes in either the coagulation stage, the aging stage, or both. The necessary control may not be possible unless the cheese milk is low in bacteria counts achieved by pasteurization. Since it is possible that the milk may contain pathogenic microorganisms, it is necessary (legally required if the cheese is to be sold) that all cheese consumed when "fresh" (aged less than 60 days) be made from pasteurized milk.</p> <p>Some very competent cheesemakers who can be highly selective in the milk used for cheese, use unpasteurized milk for making those varieties of cheese that must undergo prolonged aging --pathogenic organisms are supposedly destroyed in the aging process, but these is still some question if the "kill" is sufficient and complete for some of the new pathogens encountered today. Because heating milk causes some physical changes in its fat and protein components, pasteurization usually involves the least heat treatment permitted. In the cheese factory equipped with a continuous HTST pasteurizer, treatment at 161 F (71.6C) for 16 seconds is usual; in the home or small factory, pasteurization is best accomplished with a treatment of 145 F (62.7C) for 30 minutes. If volume justifies the cost, this may be done in a pasteurizer vat, but can be accomplished easily by placing the milk containing vessel (preferably a stainless steel, flat bottomed, rectangularity shaped container not exceeding 12 inches in height) in a shallow pan containing 1-2 inches of water over the heating unit. An accurate thermometer should be used. Heating and holding should be followed immediately by cooling the cheese milk to the setting temperature (the best temperature for obtaining coagulation). For most cheese varieties, utilizing the production of lactic acid by rapidly multiplying bacteria to cause or aid in protein coagulation, the setting temperature should be in the range of 72-90 F (22-32 C).</p> <h3>COAGULATION OF THE PROTEIN</h3> <h4>Setting the Cheese</h4> <p>This term is associated with practice and procedures followed in coagulating the milk protein. The three processes most often involved are: 1) culturing the cheese milk with substantial numbers of desirable bacteria (predominantly lactic acid forming) and controlling incubation conditions, the milk protein is coagulated when sufficient lactic acid is produced - giving a titratable acidity (TA) of 0.50 - 0.55, pH of 4.6 - 4.9; (2) culturing the cheese milk with protease enzyme (rennet), incubating at favorable temperature until protein is coagulated - with very little change in TA or pH; the third procedure is a combination of one and two. In a modification of the first procedure, no bacterial culture is used; instead of producing protein coagulation by the more time consuming lactic acid formation by bacterial growth, the acid may be added directly to the milk to produce almost instantaneous coagulation.</p> <p>Each of the preceding setting procedures is recommended for the manufacture of some specific variety of cheese. Most of the cheese varieties that are consumed fresh are set by an acid coagulation process; cheese varieties consumed after aging are generally made by the enzyme setting process. Specific examples of the application of these methods of setting follow. Cottage and pot cheese made from skim milk, Neufchatel made from whole milk, or cream cheese made from cream.</p> <p>If only bacterial culturing is used, the setting temperature suggested is 72-80 F (22-27 C) and 8 to 16 hours is generally required to form the coagulated curd. If a combination of bacterial culturing and enzyme coagulation is used, the range in setting temperature should be 80-90F; the bacterial culture should be added and incubated for about an hour then the enzyme added. Coagulation should be completed in 4-6 hours.</p> <p>Several varieties of cheese may also be made by adding an acid directly to the milk to cause almost instantaneous coagulation. Acid materials that can be used include hydrochloric acid, lactic acid (purchased as a pure concentrate or in the form of very sour whey from cultured cheese making), vinegar (acetic acid), or citrus fruit (lemon, lime) juice. If these acidulates are added to warm milk, the coagulated protein will tend to be granular or grainy and is difficult to process into a smooth, creamy cheese. If the acidulate is added to very cold milk that is then slowly warmed without stirring to setting temperature, a smoother, less grainy coagulum will usually result. Cheeses that are aged 60 days or more, such as Cheddar, Brick, mold-ripened cheeses and most Italian varieties, are generally set by the enzyme-only method, or by adding a very limited amount of bacterial culture followed by immediate addition of the enzyme material. All of these varieties of cheese, normally made in the US from cow milk, can be made from goat milk.</p> <h3>CURD RECOVERY AND TREATMENT</h3> <p>Determining just the proper time to terminate the incubation phase and begin the curd recovery phase of cheese making is probably the most difficult decision required in cheese making. While there is an optimum for each cheese variety, the desired qualities or characteristics are quite similar for all. For acid coagulated cheese, tests for titratable acidity or pH can be used to determine when coagulation has occurred. For enzyme coagulated cheese, or if the acid degree tests (TA or pH) cannot be made, other less objective tests can be made. Many experienced cheesemakers use the following test. Insert the thermometer into the coagulated milk at a 45 angle then lift the tip up through the curd and observe the way the coagulum breaks. The hole left when the thermometer is removed should fill with clear whey in a short time. It will break cleanly in a fairly straight line when the proper firmness has developed - experience is needed to determine the proper ''curd break'' for each cheese variety.</p> <p>When the coagulum has attained the proper characteristics it is ready to be cut. This may be done at home with a long thin spatula or knife; commercial cheesemakers will use metal frames, sized and shaped to fit their cheese vat, having parallel fine wires spaced at regular intervals. Pairs of frames are generally used with one having the wires attached in a vertical pattern and the other in a horizontal pattern. By passing the frame with the vertical wires through the curd in the container first lengthwise then crosswise, and following that with the frame having the horizontal wires, the curd is cut into uniformly sized cubes. The size of the cubes is determined by the spacing of the wires. Uniformity in particle size is conducive to regular expulsion of whey and uniformity of cheese. Large curd particles tend to retain more moisture (whey) than small particles. The cut curd is allowed to remain undisturbed for a short time to undergo some firming due to whey expulsion.</p> <p>Up to this stage, the manufacture of all cheese has been quite similar but from this point on the process is different and specific for each variety. Space does not permit a detailed description of each; a number of books, bulletins and other publications are available describing specific manufacturing procedures in detail. Those who wish to enter into the business of making and selling cheese should refer to such publications as well as confer with the proper regulatory officials. Others who desire to make cheese for personal consumption may wish to recover the coagulated protein by any simple method. Most such methods involve the application of mild heat (cooking) to help firm the curd particles and expedite whey expulsion. Heating may vary from only a few degrees above setting temperature to as high as 130 F with times varying from a few minutes to one hour or longer. Heating should be accompanied by mild stirring - sufficient to prevent the curd particles from remaining on the bottom or fusing.</p> <p>When the curd particles have reached the desired firmness and whey retention, the excess whey should be removed and the curd drained. The simplest way to accomplish this is to dip, siphon or drain off (through a valve in the cheese making vessel) the free whey using some form of strainer to retain the curd particles as the liquid whey flows. In some cheese making procedures, when cooking is minimal, very little free whey can be removed, so that most of the coagulum is transferred to the curd collecting device. In all cheese making processes, final expulsion of whey and curd collection is accomplished by some special technique. These may vary from a cloth filter bag into which the high moisture curd may be ladled, to lined molds of many sizes and shapes, to allowing the curd particles to settle to the bottom of the cheese making vessel where further drainage and matting together occurs. In this process, weight or pressure may be applied to fuse the curds into a solid mass and to reduce further the moisture retained in the curd.</p> <p>Variations from simple cooking, draining, and curd collecting can be used in this stage of cheese manufacture. Salt is frequently added to the curd during the final stages of draining, or the newly formed cheese block is floated in a salt brine. The addition of salt improves the flavor, texture, and keeping quality of the cheese. Cheese frequently contains one or more percentage salt.</p> <p>In several procedures, after the free whey is removed, the curd is held at incubation temperature for 1/2 to 1-1/2 hours with frequent stirring, or compact in masses matted together, to promote bacterial and enzyme activity and speed up the aging process. In some instances, bacterial or enzyme concentrates may be added during this stage to produce more rapid and more controlled flavor and texture development during aging. At the completion of this stage of processing, the whey-free curd is either ready for consumption, or has been formed into regularly shaped masses suitable for storing and aging.</p> <h3>AGING</h3> <p>While each of the foregoing processes makes some contribution to the particular flavor, body and texture qualities of each variety of cheese, the manner and time of aging probably influences those qualities more than all other phases of manufacture. Those cheeses eaten while fresh obviously owe their flavor, body and texture qualities to the manner in which manufactured -including the incorporation of flavor inducing ingredients. Cottage cheese may be consumed as just the curd, but usually is found to be more palatable if a milk or cream dressing is added. Many variations of cottage cheese can be derived by the addition of fruit, vegetables, nuts and other condiments. Baker's or pot cheese is similar to cottage but is usually softer and of higher moisture content and is generally used without any added flavoring material as an ingredient in other foods such as cheesecake. Neufchatel and cream cheese, being higher in fat content, are richer tasting than cottage or Baker's, but can be flavored in the same way and are practically interchangeable as to usage.</p> <p>Those varieties of cheese that are consumed after 60 or more days of aging present special problems. The purpose of aging is to develop specific flavor, body and texture qualities; these result from the growth and activity of microorganisms and enzymes. For such development to take place, the cheese must be maintained under conditions favorable to the growth and activity desired. These aging conditions can also result in objectionable changes if the original milk was contaminated with undesirable microorganisms, or if improper manufacturing procedures were used.</p> <p>Aging large quantities of cheese requires special physical facilities. Sufficient space must be provided to contain more than the amount of cheese produced in a time span equal to the expected age of the cheese when ready to consume. Such space must be under strict control as to temperature and humidity. If the cheese is to be sold when 90 days old, sufficient cubic footage of space, climate controlled with shelving, for storage of the amount of cheese that is to be manufactured in 90 days must be provided. Obviously, the space will have to be reused several times annually if cheese production is continuous.</p> <p>There are numerous variations in the way in which the compressed masses of cheese curd may be treated in preparation for aging. In aging cheese, those microorganisms and enzymes that were active in coagulating the protein are retained in the cheese and contribute to physical and chemical changes throughout the aging. Whether they predominate depends on what other ripening agents (bacteria, yeast, molds and/or enzymes) are added during curd collection and pressing or in the early stages of aging. Most cheese contains added salt; it may be incorporated in any phase of manufacture (several varieties of cheese are made from milk containing high levels of added salt) by adding to the curd during pressing, by soaking the formed masses of curd in brine, or by surface application of dry salt. Numerous varieties of cheese owe their characteristic flavor, body and texture qualities to the predominating activity of a single kind of agent throughout the aging period (several examples are Blue cheese) inoculated early in the aging process with Penicillium roquefortii and Brick or Limburger that gain their distinctive taste and aromas from the bacteria Brevibacterium linens.</p> <h4>Directions for Making Goat Cheese in the Home</h4> <p>Up to this point this discussion has dealt with cheese making procedures in general and their application to goat cheese. It warrants reiteration that most varieties of cheese can be made from goat milk - some adjustment of milk composition might be necessary, and aged cheeses made from goat milk would not be identical to those made from cow milk with flavor, body and texture. It is the purpose of this final section to give specific directions for making several varieties of cheese from goat milk only for home consumption with equipment and supplies usually found in the home. It is hardly worth the time to make cheese unless at least one gallon of milk is available. All cheeses should be made form pasteurized milk, unless one is aging the cheese for more than 60 days. However, aging may not always eliminate the pathogenic bacteria, so it is highly recommended to use pasteurized milk for aged cheese as well.</p> <h4>Cottage or Baker's Cheese</h4> <p>Collect surplus milk, selecting that which is free of objectionable odors; cool to and hold at 40F until used. Skim off cream; use the skim or low fat milk for cheese and the cream as cheese dressing. Better quality cheese can be made from pasteurized milk; collect all the milk to be processed in a flat bottomed straight sided vessel (rectangular shape is best) and heat to just 145F using low heat or by placing vessel in a slightly larger one containing water. Try not to exceed 145 F by too much; hold at that temperature 30 minutes, then cool at 72-80 F by circulating cold water around milk containing vessel. Use a dairy thermometer.</p> <p>Inoculate cheese milk with desirable lactic acid fermenting bacterial culture. Initial source may be purchased commercial buttermilk, sour whey saved from previous cheese making (if not more than 4 days old and held at 40 F) may be used if it has clean acid taste and no gas formation has occurred. Add about 5 Inoculum (6-1/2 to 7 oz. to 1 gallon or 8 oz. to 10 lb. of milk), stir well, and set undisturbed where temperature will remain at 72-80F until firm curd is formed in 10-16 hours.</p> <p>If raw milk is used for making cheese that will be aged for more than 60 days, it must be of the best possible quality and as fresh as possible. Follow the procedure outlined previously; it will be best to buy a fresh source of inoculum for each batch of cheese.</p> <p>When the curd has attained the proper degree of firmness, as determined by the way it breaks when the thermometer is lifted through it, do the best possible to cut curd into uniform cubes not more than 1/2 inch in size, using a knife, spatula, or wire cutter.</p> <p>Allow the curd to remain undisturbed for a few minutes, then begin to warm it very slowly, with frequent but delicate stirring. Cooking temperature should not exceed 135 F and should continue till curd has desired firmness and freedom from whey.</p> <p>When the curd has the desired firmness, discontinue heating and stirring. Dip, siphon, or decant the excess whey from the top of the cheese making vessel. The curd should settle to the bottom of the container; if it floats, gas producing bacteria have been active and a new source of culture must be used for subsequent batch.</p> <p>When excess whey has been removed, replace it with cold water, wash curd, and remove wash water. Wash a second time with ice water to chill curd so it will keep its fresh flavor longer.</p> <p>Final drainage of the curd, using draining board or a cloth lined form with perforated sides and bottom, completes the manufacturing procedure.</p> <h3>BAKER'S CHEESE</h3> <p>The procedure is like the cottage cheese process excepting that rennet is added to hasten coagulation (see discussion of Domiati cheese making for sources and usage of rennet in cheese setting). The cooking process will be greatly shortened, and the whey separation is accomplished by transferring the curd, together with the minimum whey necessary, to a coarse mesh bag. From 4 to 16 hours may be needed to drain completely the excess whey; this should be done at refrigeration temperature if possible.</p> <h3>NEUFCHATEL AND CREAM CHEESE</h3> <p>Both are made by the procedure described for cottage cheese, excepting that richer milk or cream is used as the starting material, and whey drainage must be done in a cloth bag as little free whey is separated.</p> <h3>COTTAGE CHEESE</h3> <p>When consumed, should have the curd as separate and distinct particles and is usually dressed with a milk or cream mixture containing salt and/or other condiments.</p> <p>All of these fresh cheeses may be served in a large variety of forms through the incorporation of chopped fruits, vegetables, nuts, olives, etc. Condiments should be added to give the desired flavor.</p> <p>All equipment used in making cheese should be washed especially carefully to remove all milk residues; all items should be sterilized by heat or chemical (chlorine such as bleach) application before using.</p> <h3>DOMIATI CHEESE</h3> <p>This is a variety of cheese made extensively in the area around the Mediterranean Sea. It can be eaten fresh or aged for 60-90 days before consumption. Goat milk is well suited for making this variety of cheese. Domiati cheese can be made from milk that is free of objectionable flavor, should be collected as previously described. Cool the milk to 105 F and to each gallon of milk add 8 ounces of salt. This must be stirred till completely dissolved. This cheese can be made from raw milk, but pasteurization by the method previously described is recommended.</p> <p>Coagulation of this cheese milk is accomplished by the addition of a protease enzyme (rennet). The enzyme may be purchased in liquid or tablet form from supply houses advertising in goat magazines, or locally from some drug stores, health food stores, or a cheese maker if available in area. If purchased in the original container, directions should be given for usage. Dilute and dissolve concentrate in water, add to cheese milk and stir for several minutes. Liquid rennet preparations are usually standardized to 1:10,000, that is 1 part rennet coagulates 10,000 parts of milk. If no directions are available, use 1 milliliter (mL) of rennet liquid diluted with 40 mL water, to each 20 lb. or 2-1/2 gallons of cheese milk. Rate of usage should be adjusted on subsequent batches to smallest amount needed to produce coagulation in no more than 30 minutes. Setting should be at 102-105 F.</p> <p>When enzyme is completely dispersed, allow cheese milk to remain undisturbed till firm curd is formed. Curd firmness should be measured by lifting thermometer upward through curd mass. When desired curd firmness is attained, cut the curd into as uniformly small cubes as possible. Allow a few minutes for whey separation--this may be enhanced by very slow heating and very gentle stirring.</p> <p>Within 10 to 20 minutes the clear, free whey should be separated; allow the curd to settle and remove and retain about 1/3 the volume of cheese milk set as clear salted whey. Additional free whey that can be removed can be discarded.</p> <p>Transfer curd and retained whey to previously prepared cloth lined molds. These may be columnar or rectangular in shape, made of stainless steel (or wood) having perforated sides and bottom; a cover which fits inside the mold body should be used. Molds should be 7 to 10 inches in height so that a drained, compacted curd block, 3-4 inches thick, is formed when draining and pressing is completed.</p> <p>Fill molds with fresh curd, fold cloth liner over the top, and allow whey drainage to continue. After curd is firm enough to permit it, weight or pressure should be applied to tops of molds. Pressing and drainage should continue for 10 to 18 hours until desired moisture content of cheese is attained. It probably will be necessary to release the pressure and rearrange cloth around cheese during the operation.</p> <p>When pressing is completed and cheese is formed into a compact block of desired moisture content, remove from molds, and if necessary cut into blocks 2 to 4 inches thick. Place these blocks in plastic containers for which tight fitting lids are available. Fill the cheese container with the salted whey retained from earlier separation. The cheese should be covered with an inch of whey, and the container should be so filled that when the lid is firmly attached, almost complete exclusion of air is accomplished.</p> <p>The cheese filled containers should be placed where a relatively constant temperature can be attained. The best curing temperature is 60 to 65 F; a desirable flavor, body and texture should develop in about 60 days at that temperature. Aging at higher or lower temperatures should shorten or lengthen aging times, and may encourage the development of undesirable flavors.</p> <h3>FETA CHEESE</h3> <p>Another variety made from goat milk - it is made in a manner very similar to Domiati excepting that no salt is added to the milk before coagulation and aging is accomplished in 14% salt brine after the cheese cubes have been salted by holding in 23% salt brine for 24 hours.</p> <p>Variations in flavor, body and texture qualities of goat cheese can be produced by following the setting and curd gathering procedures described, but modifying the aging process. Modifications might include adding enzymes or flavorings to the curd or applying enzyme, bacteria or mold cultures to the cheese surface as aging starts.</p> <h3>SOURCES OF SUPPLIES</h3> <p>New England Cheese making Supply Co. P.O. Box 85, Ashfield, MA 01330</p> <p>American Supply House Box 1114, Columbia, MO 65201</p> <p>Dairyland Food Laboratories, Inc. 620 Progress Ave., Waukesha, WI 53186 Marschall Dairy Ingredients Division 32 S. Proudfit St., Madison, WI 53701</p> <p>Chr. Hansens Lab., Inc. 9015 W. Maple St., Milwaukee, WI 53214</p> <p>Adapted from: M. Loewenstein J. F. Frank S. J. Speck; U. of Georgia, Athens</p> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 18:10:28 +0000 Anonymous 471 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Manufacture of Goat Milk Products https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/manufacture-goat-milk-products <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Manufacture of Goat Milk Products</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Goat&#039;s Milk Hard Cheese Heat sweet, whole goat&#039;s milk in a pan to 86 -88 F. Add one percent starter or good quality buttermilk and stir for two to three minutes. Then add rennet at the rate of twenty-five drops to each gallon of milk. The rennet must be diluted in one-half cupful of clean tap water. Stir the rennet into the milk and allow the milk to set at 86 - 88 F, until a firm curd forms, usually about thirty minutes. The curd is ready to cut when it breaks clean over a finger inserted into the curd at an angle and lifted slowly. Cut the curd into squares vertically about one inch on a side with a long blade knife. The curd is then cut into cubes, cutting horizontally with stiff bent wire. When cutting is completed, the curd particles should be uniformly cube-shaped about one inch in size. Slowly raise the temperature of the curd to about 98-100 F within one hour. Stir the curd very slowly at the beginning with a spatula so as not to break up the curd. During the entire heating period, stir the curd frequently enough to maintain an even temperature and to prevent the pieces of curd from sticking together. Cut, with a knife, any pieces of curd that are very large. The curd particles should be kept as uniform in size as possible in order to maintain even heating. When the curd is firm enough, it has a tendency to stick together. At this time, pour the curd into muslin cloth or bag and form it into a ball. Allow the ball to hang until all free whey has dripped away - about two to three hours. After draining, remove the cloth from the curd ball, and place the ball on a cheese cloth folded over three or four times. Fold a long cloth, about the size of a dish towel, into a bandage about three inches wide and wrap it tightly around the ball of curd. Pin the bandacle in place. Work the cheese at the top of the ball with your hands until it is perfectly smooth with no cracks extending into the center of the cheese. Lay a piece of wet cloth over the top of the cheese; place a flat plate over the cloth and weight the plate with a flat iron or a brick. you may find that the weight is likely to fall to one side, causing an uneven cheese. If this is so, make a simple cheese press by sandwiching the cheese between two pieces of clean board. The round wheels of cheese should not be more than six inches across, otherwise there will be a tendency for the cheese to become dry. At night turn the cheese over and replace the weight. Allow the cheese to remain in the press undisturbed until the following morning. The next day, remove the cloths from the cheese and place in a cool place. Turn twice each day for about three days or until such time as a rind forms. After this time rub a tablespoon of salt each day for two successive days. Following salting, rub the cheeses with a small amount of clear mineral oil for two days, then rub the cheese daily until the rind is very firm. After this, it should be necessary to rub the cheese only about twice a week to prevent drying and restrict mold growth. The cheese should be ready to eat in about eight weeks time. Goat&#039;s Milk Soft Cheese Heat one gallon of fresh sweet goat&#039;s milk to 72 F. To this, add two tablespoons of fresh clean flavored buttermilk and two drops of one to two minutes, then allow it to set at 72 F for eighteen to twenty hours. After eighteen to twenty hours setting time, the curd is poured into a muslin bag. The bag is hung up to allow drainage of whey in a cool place. It will require about twelve to twenty-four hours for the whey to drain sufficiently, generally the lower the temperature of the cheese during draining, the shorter is the drainage time. When the weight of the cheese has been reduced to slightly less than one half the original weight of milk, drainage is considered to be complete. At this time the cheese is salted to taste. usually about two teaspoons of salt per pound of cheese is used. The salt is worked into the cheese and the cheese is then held under refrigeration. This is a fresh milk cheese and should be eaten or used within two weeks after making. Furthermore, it must be kept under refrigeration. Neufchatel Cream Cheese Probably the most delectable cheese made from goat&#039;s milk is known as Neufchatel cream cheese. It is always eaten fresh. This cheese is best made by adding a tablespoonful of sour milk to a gallon of goat&#039;s milk at 72 F. One-half of a junket tablet is dissolved in 1/4 cupful of cold water and stirred thoroughly into the milk. The tablet must always be dissolved in cold water. It is convenient to set this cheese at night. The following day, after 18 hours, the curd is pured into a bag of muslin or unbleached cotton. For draining, the curd should remain in a cool place for 24 hours. When the curd is firm, salt is added at the rate of 11/2 teaspoonfuls for each pound of cheese. The cheese is then packaged and made ready for distribution. F. M. Coulommier F. M. Coulommier is a semi-soft cheese made by setting a gallon of milk at 88 F with 1/2 of a junket tablet dissolved in 1 cupful of cold water. It is desirable to add 1 cupful of sour milk before adding the cup of water containing the dissolved junket tablet. One hour after setting, the curd is dipped with a large spoon into a regular brick cheese mold obtained from any dairy-supply house. After draining for 1 hour, a follower is placed on the cheese with a two pound weight upon it (a quart Mason jar from 1/2 to 3/4 full of water is suitable). The brick cheese mild should be placed on a piece of high-grade window screen, placed on the table. This gives a desirable print on the under surface of the cheese. After 24 hours the cheese is removed from the mold and salted by rubbing. It is rubbed again with salt the following day. The cheeses are suitable for eating after being stored for one week at a temperature below 55 F. If yeasts develop on the cheese surface, these may be prevented or removed by washing the cheese with a weak brine. Butter Making The chief drawback to the use of goat&#039;s cream for butter is that it practically colorless and therefore the butter is not attractive. This may be overcome by the use of artificial coloring matter; several kinds are on the market. The milk should be drawn and kept under the same conditions of cleanliness that have been described for the production of cow&#039;s milk. Great care should be taken to use only clean utensils and to keep standing milk and cream protected from dust and the possibility of absorbing odors. If a separator is not available to separate the cream from the milk, the shallow-pan method may be employed. To get the best results from the pan system, the milk should be heated to 130 F directly after it is drawn from the goat and the pan set in a room with a temperature well under 60 F, or creaming may be stimulated by keeping the milk in a deep container in a dish of cold water. The cream which has risen may be skimmed off at the end of from 24 to 36 hours. Cream for churning should be kept cold by refrigerating at 40 F churning each day, the milk should be pasteurized. This prevents bacterial growth and the development of a rancid flavor. Immediate re-cooling is essential. Rancidity is a bitter flavor which can be prevented only by heat treatment. It is an occasional problem with goat&#039;s milk because volumes are not sufficient to churn or make other products on a daily basis. If starter is used, it is advantageous to pasteurize the cream before the starter is added. This may be done by bringing it to a temperature of 150 F for 30 minutes by standing the container in heated water and stirring often to maintain a uniform temperature. The cream should then be quickly cooled, and the starter added subsequently. From 1 to 3 tablespoons of starter should be enough for each quart of cream. The soured cream is strained into a churn through cheesecloth to remove curdy particles. If butter color is used, this should be added according to the direction of the manufacturer. Enough should be added to the cream to give the butter the degree of color desired in the market served. Churning should be done at a cream temperature of about 60 F, though this may be varied to balance other conditions. A low temperature means long churning and lumpy butter, together with considerable wastage of fat in the buttermilk. Churning should start slowly and be gradually speeded up to about 40 to 50 revolutions a minute. This should be continued until the cream breaks. At this stage it is advisable to add cold water, about a quarter the volume of the cream used, as the temperature rises during churning. This produces a better grain and texture and reduces the danger of lumping. Churning should be continued slowly until the grain has been formed and rounded off. The grain should be even and about the size of wheat grains. The churning should now be stopped and the buttermilk drained off. Wash water of about the same volume and temperature as the buttermilk (or slightly colder) is added and the churning is repeated for a few revolutions. The wash water is drained away and the washing repeated. The butter should be removed to a clean bowl, from 1/2 to 1 ounce of salt should be added for each pound of butter, and the whole should be well worked with butter ladles or with paddles. The butter should be stored in a cool place until it is wanted for use. Goat Milk Ice Cream (4 qt. Hand or Electric Freezer) Vanilla Flavor Scald 4 cups goat milk in double boiler. Combine: 4 beaten eggs 11/2 cups sugar 2 tablespoons flour * 1/2 teaspoon salt Add 6 tablespoons scalded milk to mixture and stir. Then pour mixture into the double boiler with the scalded milk. Stir constantly until slightly thickened. Cool mixture. Add 4 cups goat&#039;s milk (or half and half) (or light cream). The richer the mix the smoother the ice cream. Add 4 teaspoons vanilla and stir in. Freeze in hand or electric freezer. If chocolate flavor is desired, add 3 squares baking chocolate (melted) during step number 3. * Ice cream sold to the public cannot contain flour. When making ice cream for sale, use gelatin instead of flour. Goat Milk Fudge 2 cups sugar 2/3 cup Goat Milk 1/3 cup cocoa 2 tablespoons white Karo Syrup 2 tablespoons butter 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon vanilla 1/3 cup nuts Cook sugar, cocoa, syrup, butter and milk to soft ball stage - 238 F. Cool slightly, heat until creamy and add vanilla and nuts. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Goat&#039;s Milk Hard Cheese Heat sweet, whole goat&#039;s milk in a pan to 86 -88 F. Add one percent starter or good quality buttermilk and stir for two to three minutes. Then add rennet at the rate of twenty-five drops to each gallon of milk. The rennet must be diluted in one-half cupful of clean tap water. Stir the rennet into the milk and allow the milk to set at 86 - 88 F, until a firm curd forms, usually about thirty minutes." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h3>Goat's Milk Hard Cheese</h3> <div>Heat sweet, whole goat's milk in a pan to 86 -88 F. Add one percent starter or good quality buttermilk and stir for two to three minutes. Then add rennet at the rate of twenty-five drops to each gallon of milk. The rennet must be diluted in one-half cupful of clean tap water. Stir the rennet into the milk and allow the milk to set at 86 - 88 F, until a firm curd forms, usually about thirty minutes. The curd is ready to cut when it breaks clean over a finger inserted into the curd at an angle and lifted slowly.</div> <p>Cut the curd into squares vertically about one inch on a side with a long blade knife. The curd is then cut into cubes, cutting horizontally with stiff bent wire. When cutting is completed, the curd particles should be uniformly cube-shaped about one inch in size.</p> <p>Slowly raise the temperature of the curd to about 98-100 F within one hour. Stir the curd very slowly at the beginning with a spatula so as not to break up the curd. During the entire heating period, stir the curd frequently enough to maintain an even temperature and to prevent the pieces of curd from sticking together. Cut, with a knife, any pieces of curd that are very large. The curd particles should be kept as uniform in size as possible in order to maintain even heating.</p> <p>When the curd is firm enough, it has a tendency to stick together. At this time, pour the curd into muslin cloth or bag and form it into a ball. Allow the ball to hang until all free whey has dripped away - about two to three hours. After draining, remove the cloth from the curd ball, and place the ball on a cheese cloth folded over three or four times. Fold a long cloth, about the size of a dish towel, into a bandage about three inches wide and wrap it tightly around the ball of curd. Pin the bandacle in place. Work the cheese at the top of the ball with your hands until it is perfectly smooth with no cracks extending into the center of the cheese.</p> <p>Lay a piece of wet cloth over the top of the cheese; place a flat plate over the cloth and weight the plate with a flat iron or a brick. you may find that the weight is likely to fall to one side, causing an uneven cheese. If this is so, make a simple cheese press by sandwiching the cheese between two pieces of clean board. The round wheels of cheese should not be more than six inches across, otherwise there will be a tendency for the cheese to become dry. At night turn the cheese over and replace the weight. Allow the cheese to remain in the press undisturbed until the following morning.</p> <p>The next day, remove the cloths from the cheese and place in a cool place. Turn twice each day for about three days or until such time as a rind forms. After this time rub a tablespoon of salt each day for two successive days. Following salting, rub the cheeses with a small amount of clear mineral oil for two days, then rub the cheese daily until the rind is very firm. After this, it should be necessary to rub the cheese only about twice a week to prevent drying and restrict mold growth. The cheese should be ready to eat in about eight weeks time.</p> <h3>Goat's Milk Soft Cheese</h3> <p>Heat one gallon of fresh sweet goat's milk to 72 F. To this, add two tablespoons of fresh clean flavored buttermilk and two drops of one to two minutes, then allow it to set at 72 F for eighteen to twenty hours. After eighteen to twenty hours setting time, the curd is poured into a muslin bag. The bag is hung up to allow drainage of whey in a cool place. It will require about twelve to twenty-four hours for the whey to drain sufficiently, generally the lower the temperature of the cheese during draining, the shorter is the drainage time. When the weight of the cheese has been reduced to slightly less than one half the original weight of milk, drainage is considered to be complete. At this time the cheese is salted to taste. usually about two teaspoons of salt per pound of cheese is used. The salt is worked into the cheese and the cheese is then held under refrigeration.</p> <p>This is a fresh milk cheese and should be eaten or used within two weeks after making. Furthermore, it must be kept under refrigeration.</p> <h3>Neufchatel Cream Cheese</h3> <p>Probably the most delectable cheese made from goat's milk is known as Neufchatel cream cheese. It is always eaten fresh. This cheese is best made by adding a tablespoonful of sour milk to a gallon of goat's milk at 72 F. One-half of a junket tablet is dissolved in 1/4 cupful of cold water and stirred thoroughly into the milk. The tablet must always be dissolved in cold water.</p> <p>It is convenient to set this cheese at night. The following day, after 18 hours, the curd is pured into a bag of muslin or unbleached cotton. For draining, the curd should remain in a cool place for 24 hours. When the curd is firm, salt is added at the rate of 11/2 teaspoonfuls for each pound of cheese. The cheese is then packaged and made ready for distribution.</p> <h3>F. M. Coulommier</h3> <p>F. M. Coulommier is a semi-soft cheese made by setting a gallon of milk at 88 F with 1/2 of a junket tablet dissolved in 1 cupful of cold water. It is desirable to add 1 cupful of sour milk before adding the cup of water containing the dissolved junket tablet.</p> <p>One hour after setting, the curd is dipped with a large spoon into a regular brick cheese mold obtained from any dairy-supply house. After draining for 1 hour, a follower is placed on the cheese with a two pound weight upon it (a quart Mason jar from 1/2 to 3/4 full of water is suitable). The brick cheese mild should be placed on a piece of high-grade window screen, placed on the table. This gives a desirable print on the under surface of the cheese.</p> <p>After 24 hours the cheese is removed from the mold and salted by rubbing. It is rubbed again with salt the following day.</p> <p>The cheeses are suitable for eating after being stored for one week at a temperature below 55 F. If yeasts develop on the cheese surface, these may be prevented or removed by washing the cheese with a weak brine.</p> <h3>Butter Making</h3> <p>The chief drawback to the use of goat's cream for butter is that it practically colorless and therefore the butter is not attractive. This may be overcome by the use of artificial coloring matter; several kinds are on the market. The milk should be drawn and kept under the same conditions of cleanliness that have been described for the production of cow's milk. Great care should be taken to use only clean utensils and to keep standing milk and cream protected from dust and the possibility of absorbing odors.</p> <p>If a separator is not available to separate the cream from the milk, the shallow-pan method may be employed. To get the best results from the pan system, the milk should be heated to 130 F directly after it is drawn from the goat and the pan set in a room with a temperature well under 60 F, or creaming may be stimulated by keeping the milk in a deep container in a dish of cold water. The cream which has risen may be skimmed off at the end of from 24 to 36 hours.</p> <p>Cream for churning should be kept cold by refrigerating at 40 F churning each day, the milk should be pasteurized. This prevents bacterial growth and the development of a rancid flavor. Immediate re-cooling is essential.</p> <p>Rancidity is a bitter flavor which can be prevented only by heat treatment. It is an occasional problem with goat's milk because volumes are not sufficient to churn or make other products on a daily basis.</p> <p>If starter is used, it is advantageous to pasteurize the cream before the starter is added. This may be done by bringing it to a temperature of 150 F for 30 minutes by standing the container in heated water and stirring often to maintain a uniform temperature. The cream should then be quickly cooled, and the starter added subsequently. From 1 to 3 tablespoons of starter should be enough for each quart of cream.</p> <p>The soured cream is strained into a churn through cheesecloth to remove curdy particles. If butter color is used, this should be added according to the direction of the manufacturer. Enough should be added to the cream to give the butter the degree of color desired in the market served. Churning should be done at a cream temperature of about 60 F, though this may be varied to balance other conditions. A low temperature means long churning and lumpy butter, together with considerable wastage of fat in the buttermilk. Churning should start slowly and be gradually speeded up to about 40 to 50 revolutions a minute. This should be continued until the cream breaks. At this stage it is advisable to add cold water, about a quarter the volume of the cream used, as the temperature rises during churning. This produces a better grain and texture and reduces the danger of lumping. Churning should be continued slowly until the grain has been formed and rounded off. The grain should be even and about the size of wheat grains.</p> <p>The churning should now be stopped and the buttermilk drained off. Wash water of about the same volume and temperature as the buttermilk (or slightly colder) is added and the churning is repeated for a few revolutions. The wash water is drained away and the washing repeated. The butter should be removed to a clean bowl, from 1/2 to 1 ounce of salt should be added for each pound of butter, and the whole should be well worked with butter ladles or with paddles. The butter should be stored in a cool place until it is wanted for use.</p> <h3>Goat Milk Ice Cream</h3> <p><span>(4 qt. Hand or Electric Freezer) Vanilla Flavor</span></p> <div> <ol><li> <p>Scald 4 cups goat milk in double boiler.</p> </li> <li>Combine: 4 beaten eggs<br /> 11/2 cups sugar<br /> 2 tablespoons flour<span> </span>*<br /> 1/2 teaspoon salt</li> <li>Add 6 tablespoons scalded milk to mixture and stir. Then pour mixture into the double boiler with the scalded milk. Stir constantly until slightly thickened.</li> <li>Cool mixture.</li> <li>Add 4 cups goat's milk (or half and half) (or light cream). The richer the mix the smoother the ice cream.</li> <li>Add 4 teaspoons vanilla and stir in.</li> <li>Freeze in hand or electric freezer.</li> </ol> If chocolate flavor is desired, add 3 squares baking chocolate (melted) during step number 3.</div> <p>*<span> </span>Ice cream sold to the public cannot contain flour. When making ice cream for sale, use gelatin instead of flour.</p> <h3>Goat Milk Fudge</h3> <p>2 cups sugar<br /> 2/3 cup Goat Milk<br /> 1/3 cup cocoa<br /> 2 tablespoons white Karo Syrup<br /> 2 tablespoons butter<br /> 1/4 teaspoon salt<br /> 1 teaspoon vanilla<br /> 1/3 cup nuts</p> <p>Cook sugar, cocoa, syrup, butter and milk to soft ball stage - 238 F. Cool slightly, heat until creamy and add vanilla and nuts.</p> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 18:07:03 +0000 Anonymous 466 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Butter from Goat Milk Utensils https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/butter-goat-milk-utensils <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Butter from Goat Milk Utensils</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description=" Cream Separator churn butter paddle or large spoon bowl molds parchment paper salt dairy thermometer Separate milk to get cream. Cool cream immediately to below 45 F by placing immediately in ice water, refrigerate at 45 F or less. Do not mix separatings of cream until they are chilled. Allow cream to &quot;age&quot; for one day in refrigerator. Churning is best when churn is no more than 1/2 full. Cream churns best when its temperature is 52 to 60 F in summer, 58 to 66 F in winter. (Very cold cream takes longer to churn; if too warm, it will churn but it will be too soft to work). Add liquid butter color, if desired, approximately 20-35 drops per gal. Goat butter is white without it. Coloring does not cause change in flavor, but we eat with our eyes. Churning time varies but takes approximately 30 minutes. As soon as chunks of butter show, stop churn and pour off milk. Add cold water 2 to 3 times to wash out the milk. This is important because the residue of milk left in butter may cause it to turn rancid. The butter, which is still in a granular condition, is removed from the churn and placed in a bowl. The bowl and butter paddle or spoon have been rinsed in hot water to prevent sticking. Salt is added to the butter, 3/4 oz. to 1 lb. butter. Either popcorn salt or regular salt can be used. Work in the salt thoroughly as improper working results in streaks in the butter, and allows the product to spoil more quickly. Rinse the mold in hot water. Pack in butter. Push out onto wet parchment paper. Fold up and freeze at 0°. Goat Milk Butter SOURCE: Ethel Erdman, as edited by J. C. Bruhn "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Separate milk to get cream. Cool cream immediately to below 45 F by placing immediately in ice water, refrigerate at 45 F or less. Do not mix separatings of cream until they are chilled. Allow cream to &quot;age&quot; for one day in refrigerator. " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><ul><li> <div>Cream Separator</div> </li> <li> <div>churn</div> </li> <li> <div>butter paddle or large spoon</div> </li> <li> <div>bowl</div> </li> <li> <div>molds</div> </li> <li> <div>parchment paper</div> </li> <li> <div>salt</div> </li> <li> <div>dairy thermometer</div> </li> </ul><p>Separate milk to get cream. Cool cream immediately to below 45 F by placing immediately in ice water, refrigerate at 45 F or less. Do not mix separatings of cream until they are chilled. Allow cream to "age" for one day in refrigerator.</p> <p>Churning is best when churn is no more than 1/2 full. Cream churns best when its temperature is 52 to 60 F in summer, 58 to 66 F in winter. (Very cold cream takes longer to churn; if too warm, it will churn but it will be too soft to work). Add liquid butter color, if desired, approximately 20-35 drops per gal. Goat butter is white without it. Coloring does not cause change in flavor, but we eat with our eyes.</p> <p>Churning time varies but takes approximately 30 minutes. As soon as chunks of butter show, stop churn and pour off milk. Add cold water 2 to 3 times to wash out the milk. This is important because the residue of milk left in butter may cause it to turn rancid. The butter, which is still in a granular condition, is removed from the churn and placed in a bowl. The bowl and butter paddle or spoon have been rinsed in hot water to prevent sticking. Salt is added to the butter, 3/4 oz. to 1 lb. butter. Either popcorn salt or regular salt can be used. Work in the salt thoroughly as improper working results in streaks in the butter, and allows the product to spoil more quickly.</p> <p>Rinse the mold in hot water. Pack in butter. Push out onto wet parchment paper. Fold up and freeze at 0°.</p> <hr /><div>Goat Milk Butter SOURCE: Ethel Erdman, as edited by J. C. Bruhn</div> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 18:02:07 +0000 Anonymous 461 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Making Goat Milk Butter at Home https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/making-goat-milk-butter-home <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Making Goat Milk Butter at Home</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Good butter can be made from goat&#039;s milk, but ordinarily very little is produced because the fat globules are so small that they are difficult to separate from the milk. Unless artificially colored, the butter is very white and resembles lard in appearance. If colored, it resembles cow&#039;s butter although it does not have the same texture. It can be used for the table or for cooking. PROCEDURE Pasteurization Pasteurize the milk by holding at 145 F for 30 minutes, and cool rapidly to 40-45 F. Separation Due to the smallness. of the fat globules, separation will normally be incomplete unless a cream separator is used. A cream separator, if available, will recover practically all the butterfat. If a separator is not available, the milk can be set in a shallow pan and brought to the scalding point by slow gentle heating. The milk is then set aside in a cool place, and in ten or twelve hours the cream may be removed in thick layer. Churning Churning uses mechanical means to pound, dash, or beat the cream until the minute globules of butterfat in the cream stick together and form butter granules. Probably the best kind of churn for making small quantities of butter is a gallon glass churn equipped with wooden paddles. Fill the churn only one-third to one-half full, never more than one-half full. Churning incorporates air into the cream end causes it to increase in volume. Butter granules form best when the cream is churned at a temperature of 54 to 58 F in summer and 58 to 64 F in winter. Stop churning when the butter granules are about the size of kernels of corn, about 30-40 minutes of churning is a medium rate of speed. Remove the granules of butter from the buttermilk and wash them with a equal amount of water about the temperature of the buttermilk or a little cooler. Drain the water off, and repeat the washing process until the water comes off clear. Add salt at the rate of 1 tablespoon to each pound of butter. The salt will dissolve more quickly if moistened before it is added to the butter. Work the butter with the paddle until the salt is evenly distributed and all the buttermilk is extracted. Add coloring if desired. COMMON BUTTER MAKING PROBLEMS Problem Cause Sour, curdy or cheese flavor Churning over-ripe to sour cream Over churning High buttermilk content Greasy or weak body Churning or wash water temperature too high Overworking of butter Leaky body Poor salting and working Improper cooling of cream Spongy or puffy Churning temperature too high Mottled or two-colored Uneven salt distribution Butter wash water too cold "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Good butter can be made from goat&#039;s milk, but ordinarily very little is produced because the fat globules are so small that they are difficult to separate from the milk. Unless artificially colored, the butter is very white and resembles lard in appearance. If colored, it resembles cow&#039;s butter although it does not have the same texture. It can be used for the table or for cooking. PROCEDURE Pasteurization Pasteurize the milk by holding at 145 F for 30 minutes, and cool rapidly to 40-45 F." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Good butter can be made from goat's milk, but ordinarily very little is produced because the fat globules are so small that they are difficult to separate from the milk. Unless artificially colored, the butter is very white and resembles lard in appearance. If colored, it resembles cow's butter although it does not have the same texture. It can be used for the table or for cooking.</p> <h3>PROCEDURE</h3> <h4>Pasteurization</h4> <p>Pasteurize the milk by holding at 145 F for 30 minutes, and cool rapidly to 40-45 F.</p> <h4>Separation</h4> <p>Due to the smallness. of the fat globules, separation will normally be incomplete unless a cream separator is used. A cream separator, if available, will recover practically all the butterfat. If a separator is not available, the milk can be set in a shallow pan and brought to the scalding point by slow gentle heating. The milk is then set aside in a cool place, and in ten or twelve hours the cream may be removed in thick layer.</p> <h4>Churning</h4> <p>Churning uses mechanical means to pound, dash, or beat the cream until the minute globules of butterfat in the cream stick together and form butter granules. Probably the best kind of churn for making small quantities of butter is a gallon glass churn equipped with wooden paddles. Fill the churn only one-third to one-half full, never more than one-half full. Churning incorporates air into the cream end causes it to increase in volume. Butter granules form best when the cream is churned at a temperature of 54 to 58 F in summer and 58 to 64 F in winter.</p> <p>Stop churning when the butter granules are about the size of kernels of corn, about 30-40 minutes of churning is a medium rate of speed. Remove the granules of butter from the buttermilk and wash them with a equal amount of water about the temperature of the buttermilk or a little cooler. Drain the water off, and repeat the washing process until the water comes off clear. Add salt at the rate of 1 tablespoon to each pound of butter. The salt will dissolve more quickly if moistened before it is added to the butter. Work the butter with the paddle until the salt is evenly distributed and all the buttermilk is extracted. Add coloring if desired.</p> <h3>COMMON BUTTER MAKING PROBLEMS</h3> <div> <table><tbody><tr><td>Problem</td> <td>Cause</td> </tr><tr><td>Sour, curdy or cheese flavor</td> <td> <ul><li>Churning over-ripe to sour cream</li> <li>Over churning</li> <li>High buttermilk content</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td>Greasy or weak body</td> <td> <ul><li>Churning or wash water temperature too high</li> <li>Overworking of butter</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td>Leaky body</td> <td> <ul><li>Poor salting and working</li> <li>Improper cooling of cream</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td>Spongy or puffy</td> <td> <ul><li>Churning temperature too high</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td>Mottled or two-colored</td> <td> <ul><li>Uneven salt distribution</li> <li>Butter wash water too cold</li> </ul></td> </tr></tbody></table></div> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 17:59:30 +0000 Anonymous 456 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Cottage Cheese made from Goat Milk https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/cottage-cheese-made-goat-milk <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Cottage Cheese made from Goat Milk</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Use 2 quarts of evening&#039;s milk and 2 quarts of morning&#039;s milk. This will give a better cheese than if you use all one milking&#039;s milk. However, milk must taste sweet. Warm the milk to 86 F in a pail. It is easiest to use a dairy thermometer to keep it at a constant temperature, and an easy way to maintain temperature is to immerse your pail in a sink of water which you know is slightly above 86 degrees. Dissolve 1/8 of a cheese rennet tablet in a glass of cold water. To help tablet dissolve, break and crush with a spoon in water; stir until completely dissolved. Put the pail of milk in a warm place, protected from draft. Add the rennet solution, stir milk thoroughly for a minute after rennet is added. Let stand undisturbed until a firm curd forms, 30-45 minutes. Test the firmness of curd with your finger; put finger into the curd at an angle, and lift. If the curd breaks clean over your finger, it is ready to cut. To cut the curd into smell cubes, use a long butcher knife or spatula, long enough so that the blade will go clear to the bottom. Cut 1 inch apart in one direction, then in the opposite direction, so that you have formed squares on the surface. Then make cuts at an angle with the surfaces and then change direction of this angular cut. This is just to break the curd up into smaller pieces. Stir the curd gently for 15 minutes with your hands. Bring up all pieces from the bottom and gently break apart the larger pieces. Warm the curd at about 100ƒ F for about an hour, stirring, frequently to keep the curd from sticking together. Then maintain the heat for another hour, stirring, occasionally. Wash the curd in cold water to let it firm up by running water into the pan slowly for about fifteen minutes, stirring by hand occasionally. Then put the curd into large cheesecloth and run it back and forth under a faucet of cold water. When it is well washed, you can salt it to your own taste. Then put it into a container to refrigerate for a few hours. This will make It more or less glob together into one piece. Then grate it back and forth on a lettuce basket and your curds will break off in clean, nice-sized pieces. You can add sweet cream to improve appearance and consistency, and add fruit like pineapple if you wish (well drained). "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Use 2 quarts of evening&#039;s milk and 2 quarts of morning&#039;s milk. This will give a better cheese than if you use all one milking&#039;s milk. However, milk must taste sweet. Warm the milk to 86 F in a pail. It is easiest to use a dairy thermometer to keep it at a constant temperature, and an easy way to maintain temperature is to immerse your pail in a sink of water which you know is slightly above 86 degrees." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Use 2 quarts of evening's milk and 2 quarts of morning's milk. This will give a better cheese than if you use all one milking's milk. However, milk must taste sweet.</p> <p>Warm the milk to 86 F in a pail. It is easiest to use a dairy thermometer to keep it at a constant temperature, and an easy way to maintain temperature is to immerse your pail in a sink of water which you know is slightly above 86 degrees.</p> <p>Dissolve 1/8 of a cheese rennet tablet in a glass of cold water. To help tablet dissolve, break and crush with a spoon in water; stir until completely dissolved. Put the pail of milk in a warm place, protected from draft. Add the rennet solution, stir milk thoroughly for a minute after rennet is added.</p> <p>Let stand undisturbed until a firm curd forms, 30-45 minutes. Test the firmness of curd with your finger; put finger into the curd at an angle, and lift. If the curd breaks clean over your finger, it is ready to cut.</p> <p>To cut the curd into smell cubes, use a long butcher knife or spatula, long enough so that the blade will go clear to the bottom. Cut 1 inch apart in one direction, then in the opposite direction, so that you have formed squares on the surface. Then make cuts at an angle with the surfaces and then change direction of this angular cut. This is just to break the curd up into smaller pieces.</p> <p>Stir the curd gently for 15 minutes with your hands. Bring up all pieces from the bottom and gently break apart the larger pieces.</p> <p>Warm the curd at about 100ƒ F for about an hour, stirring, frequently to keep the curd from sticking together. Then maintain the heat for another hour, stirring, occasionally.</p> <p>Wash the curd in cold water to let it firm up by running water into the pan slowly for about fifteen minutes, stirring by hand occasionally. Then put the curd into large cheesecloth and run it back and forth under a faucet of cold water. When it is well washed, you can salt it to your own taste. Then put it into a container to refrigerate for a few hours. This will make It more or less glob together into one piece. Then grate it back and forth on a lettuce basket and your curds will break off in clean, nice-sized pieces. You can add sweet cream to improve appearance and consistency, and add fruit like pineapple if you wish (well drained).</p> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 17:58:44 +0000 Anonymous 451 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Yogurt from Goat Milk https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/yogurt-goat-milk <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Yogurt from Goat Milk</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Supplies Needed Culture or starter Use either starter made from a package of dry culture or start from a carton of fresh, plain yogurt from a good dairy. Milk Add milk according the amount of yogurt you wish to make. Pans  Use pans for heating and pasteurizing milk, large pan for water-bath during incubation. Containers  The containers for incubating yogurt can be glass cups, 1 pint and 1 quart jars, wide mouth thermos ( if it has an easy to clean liner and can be used only for yogurt - yeast can not be washed out and can interfere with yogurt or cheese making). Dairy Thermometer  Use a Dairy Thermometer which can be purchased at a dairy supply or hardware store. If no thermometer is available one has to learn to tell pasteurization by watching as milk just comes to a boil. A skin starts to form and tiny bubbles appear. The water bath temperature for incubation is hotter than you can hold in your hand comfortably very long, but not hot enough to burn. Towels Use towels to cover pan and hold in heat if using hot water bath method. Methods Yogurt, thicker Heat to pasteurization (140°) 1 quart whole milk plus 4 tablespoons powered milk to 4 tablespoons condensed milk. Cool to 115°. Add 1/4 cup starter. Stir well. Pour into containers and incubate 4 hours or until desired thickness in 115° water bath. Keep the dairy thermometer in the water bath. Water should come to the top of jars for even heat. Bottom heat should not be excessive. A rack might be useful. An electric warming tray sometimes holds water bath at an even temperature. An oven can used to maintain hot water temperature. Otherwise, add hot water, as necessary. A thermos bottle or yogurt maker can be used in place of the hot water bath. Do not stir or shake incubating yogurt; it will not &quot;set&quot; well (jell). Refrigerate. Yogurt, regular Heat to pasteurization 1 quart milk. Cool to 115°. Add 1/4 cup starter and stir well. Pour in containers and incubate 4 hours or more at 115°. See procedure #1 above. Unpasturized Yogurt This yogurt must be made as soon as possible after milking to control bacteria. Use 1 quart fresh, clean, strained milk warm from the animal or strained, cooled and quickly warmed to 115° in jar in water bath. Add 1/4 starter, stir well and pour into containers and incubate at 115° 4 hours or more. Thermos bottles work very well for this unpasturized yogurt. Thermos should be preheated; incubate at room temperature for 12 hours then refrigerate. This yogurt may not be so successful as a starter for more yogurt making. Yogurt Cheese When incubation period is completed, drain thickened yogurt through cheese cloth or muslin until it is the consistency of cream cheese. Hang cloth or drain in colander 18-20 hours, turning and agitating some to get whey to drain out of center. When done, store in glass or suitable container and use as cream cheese. Yogurt cheese may be preserved longer than a week by making into small balls and packing in a wide-mouth jar and covering with olive or other good oil. Seal with a tight lid and refrigerate. Experiment with seasonings for use as a spread on bread or crackers. If cheese is to soft, roll balls in dry powdered milk, then put in jar and cover with oil. To make yogurt cheese, one needs to have at least 1 or 2 quarts to get quantity enough. The whey can be saved for adding to salad dressings and baking or soups where some sour addition adds flavor. May be added to blender health food drinks. Hints In Yogurt Making Use clean sterilized utensils. Lots of rinsing after cleaning agent is used as traces of detergents can destroy yogurt culture. Boil all jars and cheesecloth. Always keep 1/4 cup of your freshest and best plain yogurt for the next batch. Some flavorings can be added when making yogurt at the same time the culture or starter is added to milk. Increase starter by 2 tablespoons per pint of milk. The addition of fruits should be experimented with. Mild or tart flavor depends on time of incubation to refrigeration. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Supplies Needed Culture or starter Use either starter made from a package of dry culture or start from a carton of fresh, plain yogurt from a good dairy. Milk Add milk according the amount of yogurt you wish to make. Pans  Use pans for heating and pasteurizing milk, large pan for water-bath during incubation." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h3>Supplies Needed</h3> <h4>Culture or starter</h4> <p>Use either starter made from a package of dry culture or start from a carton of fresh, plain yogurt from a good dairy.</p> <h4>Milk</h4> <p>Add milk according the amount of yogurt you wish to make.</p> <h4>Pans<span> </span></h4> <p>Use pans for heating and pasteurizing milk, large pan for water-bath during incubation.</p> <h4>Containers<span> </span></h4> <p>The containers for incubating yogurt can be glass cups, 1 pint and 1 quart jars, wide mouth thermos ( if it has an easy to clean liner and can be used only for yogurt - yeast can not be washed out and can interfere with yogurt or cheese making).</p> <h4>Dairy Thermometer<span> </span></h4> <p>Use a Dairy Thermometer which can be purchased at a dairy supply or hardware store. If no thermometer is available one has to learn to tell pasteurization by watching as milk just comes to a boil. A skin starts to form and tiny bubbles appear. The water bath temperature for incubation is hotter than you can hold in your hand comfortably very long, but not hot enough to burn.</p> <h4>Towels</h4> <p>Use towels to cover pan and hold in heat if using hot water bath method.</p> <h3>Methods</h3> <h4>Yogurt, thicker</h4> <p>Heat to pasteurization (140°) 1 quart whole milk plus 4 tablespoons powered milk to 4 tablespoons condensed milk. Cool to 115°. Add 1/4 cup starter. Stir well. Pour into containers and incubate 4 hours or until desired thickness in 115° water bath. Keep the dairy thermometer in the water bath. Water should come to the top of jars for even heat. Bottom heat should not be excessive. A rack might be useful. An electric warming tray sometimes holds water bath at an even temperature. An oven can used to maintain hot water temperature. Otherwise, add hot water, as necessary. A thermos bottle or yogurt maker can be used in place of the hot water bath. Do not stir or shake incubating yogurt; it will not "set" well (jell). Refrigerate.</p> <h4>Yogurt, regular</h4> <p>Heat to pasteurization 1 quart milk. Cool to 115°. Add 1/4 cup starter and stir well. Pour in containers and incubate 4 hours or more at 115°. See procedure #1 above.</p> <h4>Unpasturized Yogurt</h4> <p>This yogurt must be made as soon as possible after milking to control bacteria. Use 1 quart fresh, clean, strained milk warm from the animal or strained, cooled and quickly warmed to 115° in jar in water bath. Add 1/4 starter, stir well and pour into containers and incubate at 115° 4 hours or more. Thermos bottles work very well for this unpasturized yogurt. Thermos should be preheated; incubate at room temperature for 12 hours then refrigerate. This yogurt may not be so successful as a starter for more yogurt making.</p> <h4>Yogurt Cheese</h4> <p>When incubation period is completed, drain thickened yogurt through cheese cloth or muslin until it is the consistency of cream cheese. Hang cloth or drain in colander 18-20 hours, turning and agitating some to get whey to drain out of center. When done, store in glass or suitable container and use as cream cheese. Yogurt cheese may be preserved longer than a week by making into small balls and packing in a wide-mouth jar and covering with olive or other good oil. Seal with a tight lid and refrigerate. Experiment with seasonings for use as a spread on bread or crackers. If cheese is to soft, roll balls in dry powdered milk, then put in jar and cover with oil. To make yogurt cheese, one needs to have at least 1 or 2 quarts to get quantity enough. The whey can be saved for adding to salad dressings and baking or soups where some sour addition adds flavor. May be added to blender health food drinks.</p> <h4>Hints In Yogurt Making</h4> <p>Use clean sterilized utensils. Lots of rinsing after cleaning agent is used as traces of detergents can destroy yogurt culture. Boil all jars and cheesecloth. Always keep 1/4 cup of your freshest and best plain yogurt for the next batch. Some flavorings can be added when making yogurt at the same time the culture or starter is added to milk. Increase starter by 2 tablespoons per pint of milk. The addition of fruits should be experimented with. Mild or tart flavor depends on time of incubation to refrigeration.</p> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 17:54:47 +0000 Anonymous 446 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Goat Care Practices https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods/goat-care-practices <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Goat Care Practices</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/goat-dairy-foods.rss" addthis:title="Goat Dairy Foods" addthis:description="Goat Care Practices "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Goat Care Practices " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><a href="http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/INF-GO.html">Goat Care Practices</a></p> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 17:53:43 +0000 Anonymous 441 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu