Home Manufacturing https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/home-manufacturing Home Manufacturing for DRINC en How to Make Kefir https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/home-manufacturing/how-make-kefir <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How to Make Kefir</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/home-manufacturing.rss" addthis:title="Home Manufacturing" addthis:description="Making Kefir is a simple procedure, requiring only a few minutes of your time. Writing a recipe, however, is a problem. It is easier to start in the middle with the daily routine of making Kefir and then go back to explain how to buy your first Kefir grains. Assuming that there is a quart jar of 2 or 3-day old Kefir standing on the counter top in the kitchen, this is the procedure: Taste the Kefir to see that it is finished to your taste. Pour the Kefir through a strainer into a bowl. With the back of a spoon, gently press some of the remaining liquid from the Kefir grains. Wash the Kefir grains that are in the strainer under the faucet or with a spray. Move the grains around in the strainer once or twice to be sure that the grains at the bottom are also being washed. The grains should be thoroughly clean. Put the washed grains of Kefir into a quart of fresh milk. (Do not have the jar of milk completely full. Allow room for the addition of the Kefir grains.) A tea cupful of grains to a quart of fresh goats milk is just about right for a slightly thick Kefir drink. As your Kefir grains grow past this amount, you can start a second jar of milk. Stir with a clean spoon, place a saucer on top of the jar to keep out the dust, and set the jar back out of the way on the counter top. Pour the strained Kefir that is in the bowl back into the jar that it was made in, put on a top, and refrigerate. Allow the new Kefir to stand for two or three days, stirring once or twice a day as you think of it. Taste the Kefir milk occasionally after the second day in order to determine when it is done to your taste. Repeat this process from No. 2 through No. 9 to start a new jar of Kefir. Beatrice Trum Hunter has an excellent section on Kefir on pages 75-83 in her book, Yogurt &amp; Other Milk Cultures. She gives the history of Kefir, its unusual health values, and a few excellent recipes. If her directions for freezing Kefir grains (middle of page 79) are followed carefully, it is a simple matter to store your Kefir grains during the winter when your goats are dry. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Making Kefir is a simple procedure, requiring only a few minutes of your time. Writing a recipe, however, is a problem. It is easier to start in the middle with the daily routine of making Kefir and then go back to explain how to buy your first Kefir grains. " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Making Kefir is a simple procedure, requiring only a few minutes of your time. Writing a recipe, however, is a problem. It is easier to start in the middle with the daily routine of making Kefir and then go back to explain how to buy your first Kefir grains.</p> <p>Assuming that there is a quart jar of 2 or 3-day old Kefir standing on the counter top in the kitchen, this is the procedure:</p> <ol><li>Taste the Kefir to see that it is finished to your taste.</li> <li>Pour the Kefir through a strainer into a bowl.</li> <li>With the back of a spoon, gently press some of the remaining liquid from the Kefir grains.</li> <li>Wash the Kefir grains that are in the strainer under the faucet or with a spray. Move the grains around in the strainer once or twice to be sure that the grains at the bottom are also being washed. The grains should be thoroughly clean.</li> <li>Put the washed grains of Kefir into a quart of fresh milk. (Do not have the jar of milk completely full. Allow room for the addition of the Kefir grains.)<br /> A tea cupful of grains to a quart of fresh goats milk is just about right for a slightly thick Kefir drink. As your Kefir grains grow past this amount, you can start a second jar of milk.</li> <li>Stir with a clean spoon, place a saucer on top of the jar to keep out the dust, and set the jar back out of the way on the counter top.</li> <li>Pour the strained Kefir that is in the bowl back into the jar that it was made in, put on a top, and refrigerate.</li> <li>Allow the new Kefir to stand for two or three days, stirring once or twice a day as you think of it.</li> <li>Taste the Kefir milk occasionally after the second day in order to determine when it is done to your taste.</li> <li>Repeat this process from No. 2 through No. 9 to start a new jar of Kefir.</li> </ol><p>Beatrice Trum Hunter has an excellent section on Kefir on pages 75-83 in her book,<span> </span><em>Yogurt &amp; Other Milk Cultures</em>. She gives the history of Kefir, its unusual health values, and a few excellent recipes. If her directions for freezing Kefir grains (middle of page 79) are followed carefully, it is a simple matter to store your Kefir grains during the winter when your goats are dry.</p> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 18:25:49 +0000 Anonymous 496 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Clotted Cream Recipe https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/home-manufacturing/clotted-cream-recipe <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Clotted Cream Recipe</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/home-manufacturing.rss" addthis:title="Home Manufacturing" addthis:description="This specialty of Devonshire, England (which is why it&#039;s also known as Devonshireor Devon cream) is made by gently heating rich, unpasteurized milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface. After cooling, the thickened cream is removed. Clotted cream can be spread on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. The traditional English &quot;cream tea&quot; consists of clotted cream and jam served with scones and tea. Clotted cream can be refrigerated, tightly covered, for up to 4 days. Clotted Cream  20 fl Heavy whipping cream  2 qt Milk (or more) *Preferably extra-rich milk, if you can get it in your area. Choose a wide-mouthed bowl or stainless steel bowl with sloping sides. Fill it with milk, leaving a deep enough rim free to avoid spillage. Add 20 fl double cream. Leave in the refrigerator for at least several hours, and preferably overnight.  Set the bowl over a pan of water kept at 82 degrees C (180 F) and leave until the top of the milk is crusted with a nubbly yellowish-cream surface. This will take at least 1 1/2 hours, but it is prudent to allow much longer. Take the bowl from the pan and cool it rapidly in a bowl of ice water, then store in the refrigerator until very cold.  Take the crust off with a skimmer, and put it into another bowl with a certain amount of the creamy liquid underneath; it is surprising how much the clotted part firms up -- it needs the liquid. You can now put the milk back over the heat for a second crust to form, and add that in its turn to the first one.  The milk left over makes the most delicious rice pudding, or can be used in baking, especially of yeast buns. Mock Devonshire Clotted Cream  1 pk (3 oz) cream cheese  1 c Heavy or whipping cream  1 ts Powdered sugar  1/2 ts Vanilla Blend all ingredients in a blender or food processor, until thick (food processor works best).  Serve with preserves on warm scones. Keep refrigerated. Second Recipe  1 cup Heavy cream room temperature  1/3 cup Sour cream room temperature  1 Tablespoon Confectioner&#039;s sugar One hour before serving, pour the heavy cream into a bowl and whip until soft peaks form. Whisk in the sour cream and sugar; continuing to beat until the mixture is very thick. Place in refrigerator and chill until it is time to serve. NOTES : If you want to make this ahead of time, it should last 4-6 hours in the refrigerator.     "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "This specialty of Devonshire, England (which is why it&#039;s also known as Devonshireor Devon cream) is made by gently heating rich, unpasteurized milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface. After cooling, the thickened cream is removed. Clotted cream can be spread on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. The traditional English &quot;cream tea&quot; consists of clotted cream and jam served with scones and tea. Clotted cream can be refrigerated, tightly covered, for up to 4 days." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>This specialty of Devonshire, England (which is why it's also known as Devonshireor Devon cream) is made by gently heating rich, unpasteurized milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface. After cooling, the thickened cream is removed. Clotted cream can be spread on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. The traditional English "cream tea" consists of clotted cream and jam served with scones and tea. Clotted cream can be refrigerated, tightly covered, for up to 4 days.</p> <h4>Clotted Cream </h4> <p>20 fl Heavy whipping cream <br /> 2 qt Milk (or more) *Preferably extra-rich milk, if you can get it in your area.</p> <p>Choose a wide-mouthed bowl or stainless steel bowl with sloping sides. Fill it with milk, leaving a deep enough rim free to avoid spillage. Add 20 fl double cream. Leave in the refrigerator for at least several hours, and preferably overnight. <br /> Set the bowl over a pan of water kept at 82 degrees C (180 F) and leave until the top of the milk is crusted with a nubbly yellowish-cream surface. This will take at least 1 1/2 hours, but it is prudent to allow much longer. Take the bowl from the pan and cool it rapidly in a bowl of ice water, then store in the refrigerator until very cold. <br /> Take the crust off with a skimmer, and put it into another bowl with a certain amount of the creamy liquid underneath; it is surprising how much the clotted part firms up -- it needs the liquid. You can now put the milk back over the heat for a second crust to form, and add that in its turn to the first one. <br /> The milk left over makes the most delicious rice pudding, or can be used in baking, especially of yeast buns.</p> <h4>Mock Devonshire Clotted Cream </h4> <p>1 pk (3 oz) cream cheese <br /> 1 c Heavy or whipping cream <br /> 1 ts Powdered sugar <br /> 1/2 ts Vanilla</p> <p>Blend all ingredients in a blender or food processor, until thick (food processor works best). <br /> Serve with preserves on warm scones. Keep refrigerated.</p> <h4>Second Recipe </h4> <p>1 cup Heavy cream room temperature <br /> 1/3 cup Sour cream room temperature <br /> 1 Tablespoon Confectioner's sugar</p> <p>One hour before serving, pour the heavy cream into a bowl and whip until soft peaks form. Whisk in the sour cream and sugar; continuing to beat until the mixture is very thick. Place in refrigerator and chill until it is time to serve.</p> <p><strong>NOTES </strong>: If you want to make this ahead of time, it should last 4-6 hours in the refrigerator.    </p> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 18:24:21 +0000 Anonymous 491 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu Making Yogurt at Home https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/home-manufacturing/making-yogurt-home <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Making Yogurt at Home</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 23, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://drinc.ucdavis.edu/home-manufacturing.rss" addthis:title="Home Manufacturing" addthis:description=" Yogurt is a coagulated, sour dairy food. Human beings have probably consumed fermented milks, such as yogurt, since they first milked cows and other animals. Before modern times, however, people did not know of the need for sanitation, adequate refridgeration, and heat treatment of milk to prevent spoilage. Milk fermented naturally (or spoiled) if it was left unconsumed. The quality of the product depended on the microorganisms present in the original milk. Since the discovery, about 100 years ago, of the microscopic organisms that cause fermentation and spoilage of milk and other foods, we have learned how to control fermentation to produce uniform, high-quality products. Fermentation  Milk quickly spoils if it is not handled under strict sanitary conditions and is not properly refridgerated. The type of fermentation that occurs under such conditions may differ widely from one time to the next. Cultured dairy foods, however, are produced by controlled fermentation, using known types of harmless, active bacteria to create the desired flavor and body. The fermentation in most cultured dairy foods are: Lactic acid fermentation. Some bacteria break down the milk sugar (lactose) to produce lactic acid, a sour-tasting compound. When enough acid has developed, it coagulates (clabbers) the milk protein. Citric-acid fermentation. Some bacteria produce armoa and flavor compounds from the small amounts of citric acid in milk. These compounds contribute to the distinctive flavor of many cultured dairy foods. Controlled Fermentation  Pure cultures of bacteria are necessary to develop the desired flavor, armoa, and body in cultured dairy foods. Dairy-food processing plants maintain these pure cultures under strict sanitary conditions. The cultures are added to milk or cream as starters to make commercially processed buttermilk, sour cream, yogurt, cottage cheese, and cheeses. Because commercial cultured dairy foods contain pure cultures of the right kind of bacteria, they are ideal starters for homemade products. Purchase the freshest products to use as starters, because bacteria become less active with age. Before adding the starter, it is essential to heat-treat (pasteurize) the raw milk or cream to destroy harmful bacteria and other microorganisms that may intefere with a proper fermentation and the development of a good-flavored, wholesome product. To pasteurize the milk or cream, heat it to 145 F (62.8 C) for 30 minutes. Making Yogurt at Home  Yogurt is a cultured dairy product that can be made from whole, lowfat, or nonfat (skim) milk, with added milk solids from either nonfat dry milk or evaporated milk. Any type of milk can be used; cow&#039;s milk is traditionally used in the United states, but other countries have been known to make yogurt from milk of water buffalo, yak, goat, horses, and sheep. The bacterial culture used in making yogurt differs from those used in other cultured dairy foods. Yogurt bacteria grow best between 100 F and 105 F (37.8 C and 40.6 C). Yogurt may be served: as is; as a custard with berries, peaches, or apple pie; seasoned with salt and chives or chopped green onions; as a topping for fruits; or with sweets, such as honey, maple syrup, jelly, or molasses. Anyone who likes buttermilk should like yogurt. The nutritive value of yogurt is about the same as the milk from which it is made. The protein and calcium content may be slightly higher than that of whole milk because of the added nonfat dry milk solids. Equipment Add nonfat dry milk or evaporated milk to the quart of fresh milk. Optional If you prefer a firmer yogurt, dissolve the unflavored gelatin in the cold milk. You could also heat the milk mixture to 180 F (82.2 C) in the double boiler and hold the milk at that temperature for up to 45 minutes. The longer the time, the firmer the finished yogurt will be. Keep the double boiler covered during the heat treatment. Cool the milk to 120 F (48.9 C). Double boiler that holds 5 cups Food thermometer with a range of at least 100 to 200 F (37.8 to 93.3 C) Sterilized container that holds at least 5 cups (glass jar, crockery, or stainless steel bowl) Pan Yogurt Recipe Yields 4 to 5 cups 1 quart pasteurized milk (whole, lowfat, or nonfat) 1/3 cup nonfat dry milk or 13-ounce can evaporated milk 1/3 to 1/2 cup commercial, unflavored yogurt Optional: 1/2 package unflavored gelatin   Heat the milk to 120 F (48.9 C). If you add gelatin be sure it is completely dissolved. Pour it into the sterilized container. Cool it to 110 F (43.3 C). Remove 1/2 cup of the warm milk (110 F or 43.3 C) and throughly blend it into the commercial, unflavored yogurt. Blend this mixture into the remaining warm milk. You can leave the milk in the large container and cover it. Or put the milk in clean 1/4 pint bottles or other small containers and cover with loose fitting caps. (Clean custard cups or jelly glasses are satisfactory for home use, because the yogurt can be eaten directly from the container in which it is made.) Place the container(s) in a pan of water at 110 F (43.3 C). Let the milk ripen at that temperature until it has thickened and has a tart, acid flavor. The ripening period usually takes 3 to 6 hours. If you prefer a sharper flavor, lengthen the incubation time. Remove the ripened yogurt from the water bath and chill it in the refridgerator. Refridgerate the yogurt until it is used. Yogurt should keep for a week or longer if held at 45 F (7.2 C), or lower (normal refridgerator temperature). Written by John C. Bruhn "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: " Yogurt is a coagulated, sour dairy food. Human beings have probably consumed fermented milks, such as yogurt, since they first milked cows and other animals. Before modern times, however, people did not know of the need for sanitation, adequate refridgeration, and heat treatment of milk to prevent spoilage. Milk fermented naturally (or spoiled) if it was left unconsumed. The quality of the product depended on the microorganisms present in the original milk." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_google_plusone_share"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div> <p>Yogurt is a coagulated, sour dairy food. Human beings have probably consumed fermented milks, such as yogurt, since they first milked cows and other animals. Before modern times, however, people did not know of the need for sanitation, adequate refridgeration, and heat treatment of milk to prevent spoilage. Milk fermented naturally (or spoiled) if it was left unconsumed. The quality of the product depended on the microorganisms present in the original milk. Since the discovery, about 100 years ago, of the microscopic organisms that cause fermentation and spoilage of milk and other foods, we have learned how to control fermentation to produce uniform, high-quality products.</p> </div> <h4>Fermentation<span> </span></h4> <p>Milk quickly spoils if it is not handled under strict sanitary conditions and is not properly refridgerated. The type of fermentation that occurs under such conditions may differ widely from one time to the next. Cultured dairy foods, however, are produced by controlled fermentation, using known types of harmless, active bacteria to create the desired flavor and body. The fermentation in most cultured dairy foods are:</p> <div> <ul><li>Lactic acid fermentation. Some bacteria break down the milk sugar (lactose) to produce lactic acid, a sour-tasting compound. When enough acid has developed, it coagulates (clabbers) the milk protein.</li> </ul></div> <ul><li> <div>Citric-acid fermentation. Some bacteria produce armoa and flavor compounds from the small amounts of citric acid in milk. These compounds contribute to the distinctive flavor of many cultured dairy foods.</div> </li> </ul><h4>Controlled Fermentation<span> </span></h4> <p>Pure cultures of bacteria are necessary to develop the desired flavor, armoa, and body in cultured dairy foods. Dairy-food processing plants maintain these pure cultures under strict sanitary conditions. The cultures are added to milk or cream as starters to make commercially processed buttermilk, sour cream, yogurt, cottage cheese, and cheeses. Because commercial cultured dairy foods contain pure cultures of the right kind of bacteria, they are ideal starters for homemade products. Purchase the freshest products to use as starters, because bacteria become less active with age. Before adding the starter, it is essential to heat-treat (pasteurize) the raw milk or cream to destroy harmful bacteria and other microorganisms that may intefere with a proper fermentation and the development of a good-flavored, wholesome product. To pasteurize the milk or cream, heat it to 145 F (62.8 C) for 30 minutes.</p> <h4>Making Yogurt at Home<span> </span></h4> <p>Yogurt is a cultured dairy product that can be made from whole, lowfat, or nonfat (skim) milk, with added milk solids from either nonfat dry milk or evaporated milk. Any type of milk can be used; cow's milk is traditionally used in the United states, but other countries have been known to make yogurt from milk of water buffalo, yak, goat, horses, and sheep.</p> <p>The bacterial culture used in making yogurt differs from those used in other cultured dairy foods. Yogurt bacteria grow best between 100 F and 105 F (37.8 C and 40.6 C).</p> <p>Yogurt may be served: as is; as a custard with berries, peaches, or apple pie; seasoned with salt and chives or chopped green onions; as a topping for fruits; or with sweets, such as honey, maple syrup, jelly, or molasses. Anyone who likes buttermilk should like yogurt.</p> <p>The nutritive value of yogurt is about the same as the milk from which it is made. The protein and calcium content may be slightly higher than that of whole milk because of the added nonfat dry milk solids.</p> <h4>Equipment</h4> <p>Add nonfat dry milk or evaporated milk to the quart of fresh milk.<span> </span><br /><em>Optional</em><span> </span>If you prefer a firmer yogurt, dissolve the unflavored gelatin in the cold milk. You could also heat the milk mixture to 180 F (82.2 C) in the double boiler and hold the milk at that temperature for up to 45 minutes. The longer the time, the firmer the finished yogurt will be. Keep the double boiler covered during the heat treatment. Cool the milk to 120 F (48.9 C).</p> <ul><li> <div>Double boiler that holds 5 cups</div> </li> <li> <div>Food thermometer with a range of at least 100 to 200 F (37.8 to 93.3 C)</div> </li> <li> <div>Sterilized container that holds at least 5 cups (glass jar, crockery, or stainless steel bowl)</div> </li> <li> <div>Pan</div> <p>Yogurt Recipe</p> <p><strong>Yields 4 to 5 cups</strong></p> </li> <li> <div>1 quart pasteurized milk (whole, lowfat, or nonfat)</div> </li> <li> <div>1/3 cup nonfat dry milk or 13-ounce can evaporated milk</div> </li> <li> <div>1/3 to 1/2 cup commercial, unflavored yogurt</div> </li> <li> <div><em>Optional:</em><span> </span>1/2 package unflavored gelatin</div> </li> </ul><p> </p> <ol><li>Heat the milk to 120 F (48.9 C). If you add gelatin be sure it is completely dissolved. Pour it into the sterilized container. Cool it to 110 F (43.3 C).</li> <li>Remove 1/2 cup of the warm milk (110 F or 43.3 C) and throughly blend it into the commercial, unflavored yogurt. Blend this mixture into the remaining warm milk. You can leave the milk in the large container and cover it. Or put the milk in clean 1/4 pint bottles or other small containers and cover with loose fitting caps. (Clean custard cups or jelly glasses are satisfactory for home use, because the yogurt can be eaten directly from the container in which it is made.)</li> <li>Place the container(s) in a pan of water at 110 F (43.3 C). Let the milk ripen at that temperature until it has thickened and has a tart, acid flavor. The ripening period usually takes 3 to 6 hours. If you prefer a sharper flavor, lengthen the incubation time.</li> <li>Remove the ripened yogurt from the water bath and chill it in the refridgerator. Refridgerate the yogurt until it is used. Yogurt should keep for a week or longer if held at 45 F (7.2 C), or lower (normal refridgerator temperature).</li> </ol><div><em>Written by John C. Bruhn</em></div> </div> Fri, 23 Jun 2017 18:20:28 +0000 Anonymous 486 at https://drinc.ucdavis.edu